Comparative Efficiency Of Urea Molasses Mineral Blocks And Urea Treated Wheat Straw In Fattening
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Publisher: 1994 Dissertation note: There has been a gradual decline in the per capita availability of proteinous food particularly of animals origin for human consumption in our country. The feasible solution of the problem of meat shortage is to increase the production of meat by fattening the male buffalo calves. These calves could be fattened by using the cheaper sources of agriculture by-products available in our country. Wheat straw is being fed to ruminants with supplemental green fodder. It is also fed as a sole roughage during the lean periodof the year. It is however deficient in fermentable nitrogen and has poor digestibility due to more lignification. Urea impregnation of straws has been shown to improve the intake as well as digestibility. It has been concluded that urea treatment with 4% urea solution at 40 to 50 percent moisture level could be advantageous to improve crude protein content of straw and its digestibility. Molasses, a by-product of sugar industry, is an excellent and a cheap source of digestible energy as compared to all other similar energy feeds. Urea provides nitrogen needed for adequate development of animal flora and thus enhances the utilization of fibrous feed.Preparation of urea molasses blocks appears to be an appropriate technology to fulfill the requirements of animals. A fattening trial was conducted on two groups of buffalo calves with 8 calves per group, to study the comparative efficiency of urea molasses mineral block and urea treated wheat straw. The experiment was conducted for 90 days. Feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency, concentration of urea in serum, concentration of total protein in serum and digestibility of different nutrients in the animals were recorded. Economics of fattening rations was also determined. The results of the study revealed non significant differences in weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, concentration of urea in serum and concentration of total protein in serum of buffalo calves. Digestibility trial revealed that there was non significant difference in digestibility of dry matter, ether extract but significant difference in digestibility of crude fibre and crude protein. The findings of this study revealed the benefits of utilizing urea ammonia treated wheat straw in the fattening ration upto 38% level. It was also ascertained that urea molasses blocks are equally effective in enhancing the growth rate of buffalo calves. Moreover, urea molasses blocks are a useful tool of supplementation of forage diet because of ease of transportation and balance nutrient profile.
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Effect Of Mating Ratio And Age On Fertility And Hatchability In Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: The present project was planed to study the effect of mating ratio and age on fertility and hatchability in Japanese quails.
The production of fertile eggs was found to relate to the number of males present in a flock. Fertility and hatchability of eggs was directly influenced by sex ratio and age of birds. However, very little information in this regard is available.
One hundred and seventy four males and four hundred twenty six females quails of 4 weeks age were purchased from the local market. They were divided into five equal mating groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E comprising 120 quails in each group. Each group was further divided into 2 sub groups i.e. Al, A2, Bi, B2, Cl, C2, Dl, D2 and El, E2. The mating ratio of males and females in the respective groups was 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. Birds were reared for a period of two weeks i.e. 5-6 weeks of age under similar environments on floor, then they were transferred to battery cages and were kept there upto the age of 16 weeks.
To assess the ideal parental age for optimal fertility and hatchability, hatching eggs from a single hatch breeding flock between 7 and 16 weeks of age were set twice in a week The mean hatching performance of the eggs set during 7 to 8, 9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14 and 15 to 16 weeks of age were recorded separately.
The unhatched eggs were opened on the day 18 and examined
macroscopically to identify the infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs set were calculated.
Identical environmental and managemental conditions were provided to all the experimental birds. They were fed on commerca1 ration -libitum. Clean and fresh water was made available at all times. Light was provided 24 h during rearing time and 16 h during breeding period. Standard rearing, breeding and hatching management procedures were followed throughout the study period.
The following data was recorded:
Weight of birds at the start of experiment, Feed consumption, Average body weightlbirds on weekly basis, Feed conversion ratio, Mortality if any, Fertility percentage and Hatchability percentage.
The data collected was statistically analysed using 5 x 5
The quail chicks at 4 weeks age weighed on an average 98 gm/bird and within a period of two weeks rearing gained on an average a body weight of 134.1 gm/bird. The weight gradually increased with age. The final body weight at the age week 16, under ratio 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 was 130.5, 186.5, 188.0, 189.5, 191.5 and 193.5 gm respectively, the overall mean value being 189.8 gm/bird.
The difference in average weight/bird in various groups has been due to the difference in the number of females. The females weighed heavier than the males consequently the groups having smaller number of females were lighter in weight than the groups having higher number of females.
The percentage weekly increase in body weight was 37.6, 12.76 and 8.27% at age weeks 7, 8 and 9 respectively. Further increase in body weight from age week 10 to 16, ranged between 0.9 and 4.7. The rearing of Japanese quail beyond age weeks 8 or 9 for meat purposes will not be economical. The egg fertility was the highest at age weeks 13-14 (80.73%) followed by 15-16 (72.34%) 11-12 (7 1.12%), 9-10 (63.57%) and 7-8 weeks (56-20%), all being statistically different from one another. The mating ratio (1:1 to 1:5) showed statistically significant effect on egg fertility, which ranged between 58.16 to
8 1.12%, the maximum being at mating ratio of 1:2 and the minimum at 1:5.
The mating ratio and age have been found to have significant effect on egg hatchability, it was maximum at age weeks 13-14 (67.46%) and the minimum at age weeks 7-8 (41-23%). Similarly mating ratio 1:2 resulted in the maximum (66.08) and mating ratio 1:5 showed the minimum (48.73%) egg hatchability.
The results of present study have led to the conclusion that egg fertility and hatchability were highest at age week 13-14 and at mating ratio 1:2.
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Influence Of Various Treatments Of Rice Polishings On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: Increasing cost of feed ingredients and use of cereal grains in poultry feed which are also used for the human feeding, makes it imperative to look for alternative sources for feeding poultry to save grains for human consumption and reduce the cost of feed as well. Ingredients which are cheap, not utilized for human feeding and are readily available, merits consideration for poultry feeding. Rice polishing is one of such ingredient.
Rice polishings is an important by-product of rice milling industry. It is a finely powdered material obtained in polishing the rice kernels after removal of hulls and bran. It furnishes almost equivalent energy as other cereal grains and is a good source of protein and water soluble vitamins specially thiamin and niacin. It however contains certain antinutritional factors which, could be eliminated by various treatments yielding it into a useful feed ingredient for poultry feed.
Present experiment was conducted to observe the influence of rice polishings on the performance of broiler chicks after subjecting it to various treatments. Full fat rice polishings was subjected to extrusion cooking and then divided into 4 equal parts. One part was used in ration as such, second treated with 1 percent acetic acid, third treated with 1 percent calcium hydroxide and fourth treated first with acetic aid and then with calcium hydroxide. Five starter and finisher experimental rations designated as A, B, C, D, and E respectively were prepared. Ration A contained no rice polishings and was kept as control. In rations B, C, D and B treated rice polishings at 15 percent level was used substituting wheat. Starter rations were fed for 35 days and Finisher rations for 21 days to 150 Hubbard broiler chicks divided into 15 experimental units of 10 chicks each reared on floor on deep litter system. Each experimental ration was randomly allotted to 3 experimental units of chicks. Results indicated that maximum weight gain was recorded in birds fed on ration C which contained extrusion cooked rice polishings treated with 1 percent acetic acid. Lowest weight gain was recorded in birds fed on ration A (control). Second best result in weight gain was observed in birds fed on ration D which contained extrusion cooked rice polishings treated with 1 percent calcium hydroxide.
Best feed utilization per unit of gain was observed in birds fed on ration C where as poor feed conversion ratio was noted in birds fed on ration E which contained rice polishings first treated with acetic acid and then with calcium hydroxide.
Results indicated that different treatments improved the nutritional quality of rice polishings and resulted into better weight gain. Use of treated rice polishings did not show any detrimental effect on the performance of birds. Difference in feed consumed and conversion ratio towards higher side might have been due to some managemental errors or weather conditions. Extrusion cooked rice polishings treated with 1 percent acetic acid showed significantly improved growth rate and feed utilization in birds per unit of gain as compared to control and other rations containing rice polishings given other treatments.
It was concluded that various treatments improved the nutritional quality of rice polishings and it proved to be a beneficial feed ingredient for poultry feeding substituting wheat without any deleterious effect. Treatment with 1 percent acetic acid or 1 percent calcium hydroxide were equally good and potent methods to overcome the problem of antinutritional factors present in rice polishings.
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Effects Of Phytase On The Performance Of Broilers Fed On Sorghum Based Diets
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Publisher: 2001 Dissertation note: In Pakistan, sorghum (jawar) occupies 4th place with a production of 218.6 thousand tons (Economic survey of Pakistan 2000-200 1) after wheat, maize and rice. Its use is limited in poultry feed because it contains antinutritional factor i.e. tannin, phytic acid (68% of Total phosphorus). The low tannin sorghum varieties can replace maize up to 50%, and sorghum high in tannin can replace maize up to 25% in poultry diet.
While considering different nutrients for broiler feed formulation minerals are also very important. Among minerals phosphorus plays an important role for poultry production. Balancing the phosphorus in compound feed is difficult task because less than one third of the phosphorus in the feedstuffs of plant origin is biologically available to monogastric animals (NRC, 1994). The organic phosphorus exists in the bran of grain, consisting mainly of phytic phosphorus,
Phytase is an enzyme that liberates P from vegetable materials, destroys the antinutritional properties of phytate. Phytase was one of the first enzyme to be described in the literature. As early as 1907 the release of phosphorus from an organic phosphorus containing substrate was described by Suzuki and others (Maga 1982). The enzyme "phytase" is now known to cause the release of phosphate from phytic acid by catalyzing a series of hydrolysis reactions.
Keeping in view the above facts an experiment was conducted to study the effects of phytase on the performance of broiler fed on sorghum- based diets.
Two hundred broiler chicks were purchased from Big Bird Poultry Breeders and divided in to five groups. These groups were further subdivided in four replicates, having ten chicks in each. The chicks were kept in starter batteries for the first four weeks and then shifted to grower batteries till the end of experiment (six week). Five starter and five finisher rations (sorghum based) A, B, C, D, and E were prepared. "A" was control having 0.45 and 0.35% AP in starter and finisher rations respectively. While B, C, D and E supplemented with phytase enzyme (600 FTU/kg of feed) having 0.40, 0.35, 0.30 and 0.25% AP in starter and 0.30, 0.25, 0.20 and 0.15% AP in finisher rations respectively. Light, feed and fresh clean water was provided round the clock.
The parameters studied were weight gain, feed consumed, feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage, mortality, phosphorus availability and economic. The data thus collected was subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that the weight gain of chicks fed on rations B and C were comparable to ration A (control). The chicks fed on rations D & E significantly (P<O.05) showed poor perfonnance as compared to those fed on rations A, B and C. Significantly (P<O.05) more feed was consumed by chicks fed on ration B as compared to those fed on D and E. However, nonsignificant difference was observed between feed consumption of chicks fed on rations A, B and C. Non-significant differences were observed in feed conversion ratio of chicks fed on different experimental rations (Starter & Finisher). However, the feed conversion ratio of chicks fed on ration "C" was comparable to the chicks fed on ration "A"(Control). The dressing percentage of the chicks showed improvement with supplementation of phytase enzyme but the difference were non-significant between chicks fed on different experimental rations. Phytase supplementation significantly (P<O.05) improved the availability of P in chicks fed on rations B, C, D, & E as compare to those fed on ration A (control). The total cost incurred on one kg live weight for chicks fed on rations A, B, C, D and E were Rs. 31.98, 30.58, 31.86, 33.18 and 33.76, respectively. While net profits per one-kg live weights were Rs. 16.02, 17.41, 16.14, 14.82 and 14.24 respectively. Maximum profit was observed in birds fed on ration "B" supplemented with phytase enzyme. Overall it was found that by using phytase enzyme in broiler ration more profit could be earned.
1. By the use of phytase in poultry feed phosphorus availability could be increased.
2. Use of phytase enzyme is economical.
3. By the use of phytase enzyme 0.1% available phosphorus can be decreased in the broiler ration.
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Passive Immunization Against Canine Distermper Virus In Dogs
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Publisher: 2005 Dissertation note: Canine distemper is an important, highly contagious disease of dogs, caused by morbillivirus of family paramyxoviridae. The disease occurs worldwide in variety of hosts. In the present study, data relative to breed, sex and age susceptibility in clinically suspected cases of canine distemper was collected and analyzed. The disease is mostly seen in young nonvaccinated dogs of 4 to 6 months of age when maternal anti-CDV antibodies are decreased. Immune serum was raised in experimental dogs with commercially available measles live virus vaccine. The level of antibodies in the immune serum was determined by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and an ELISA based assay. Immune serum containing 128 AGPT units of anti-CDV antibodies was effective to control the disease in infected dogs after natural exposure to canine distemper virus. Finally the effective time for passive immunization against canine distemper was determined in experimental dogs. It was noted that immune serum offered protection to canine distemper immediately after infection, during the incubation period of the disease , 48 hours after infection and early phase of the disease(at the appearance of clinical signs). Passive immunization is not rewarding in the terminal phase of the disease (when infected dogs show nervous signs of the disease).Thus it is very useful for the prevention of disease in dogs kept with infected dogs in kennels and pet shops.
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Standardization Of Indirect Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay For Detection Of Foot And Mouth Disease
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Publisher: 2005 Dissertation note: Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is one of the most troublesome and infectious diseases of livestock, caused by the FMD virus. In this study Indirect Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (IS-ELISA) was standardized to characterize the FMD serotype "0" virus. Oil based FMD serotype "0" vaccine was prepared and injected at the neck region of guinea pigs and rabbits. The vaccine induced anti-FMD serotype "0" virus antibodies in the vaccinated animals after 21 days post boosting. The serum thus separated was purified through ammonium sulfate salt (NH4)2S04 and ion exchange column chromatography. Total protein content in the guinea pig serum (whole serum), Ammonium Sulfate Precipitated Guinea Pig Serum (ASPGPS) protein and Ion Exchange based purified Guinea Pig Serum (IEGPS) protein when analyzed through spectrophotometer at 280 nm and 260 nm was found to be 52 ug/mi, 24 ug/ml and 10 ug/mi respectively. Virus Neutralization (VN) test was performed to monitor the neutralizing antibody titer. The whole serum of guinea pigs and rabbits showed the 1:32 and 1:64 anti-FMD serotype "0" virus neutralizing antibody titers. While anti-FMD serotype "0" virus neutralizing antibody titer was 1:128 in the IEGPS proteins. IEGPS protein with 1:128 neutralizing antibody titer were used as capture/trapping antibody in the standardization of the assay. The IEGPS protein 1:1000 diluted with 10 ug/ml of protein content was found to be optimum as capture/trapping antibody. To cover residual blank spaces, different available blocking buffers were evaluated and Skimmed Milk Solution 5 % in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBSSKIVI-5%) proved best amongst blocking buffers. Coating of 1:1000 diluted IEGPS at 37 °C for 1 hour followed by storage at 4 °C for overnight was best incubation time in the study. FMD serotype "0" virus 1:100 diluted was optimum in IS-ELISA. Similarly rabbit anti-FMD serotype "0" virus specific immune serum 1:10,000 diluted and goat anti-rabbit IgG horseradish peroxidase conjugate 1:4000 diluted were found to be optimum during the standardization of the assay. Lastly ELISA plates were proved to be best amongst the available plates for assay. In each experiment, plateau region, test background and plate background were recorded. Results of the study helped for establishment of an economical, sensitive, reliable, robust IS-ELISA technique in research and diagnostic laboratories in the country.
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Seroprevalence Of Ftoxoplasma Gondii Infection In Sheep And Goats
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Publisher: 2005 Dissertation note: Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of Toxoplasmosis the present study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats using commercially available kit "Toxopalasmosis Latex" based on the principal of Latex agglutination. . For this purpose 100 blood samples (50 sheep & 50 goats) were collected randomly from slaughter house of Lahore and local sheep & goat forms, the serum was separated and analyzed for anti Toxoplasma antibodies. The animals were divided in three groups, Group I included animals below one year, Group II 1-4 years and Group III included animals aged 4 years and above. The overall 8% and 6% seroprevalence were recorded in sheep and goats respectively. Age titer relationship in sheep showed that Group III had (12.5%), Group 11(7.6 %) and Group I had no positive cases in sheep examined. In goats Group III had (10 %), Group II (5.7%) and no seropositive cases in Group I could be recorded. These results indicate that the infection was higher in older animal than young ones, Breed wise seroprevalence indicated that, Kchhi sheep 14.28%, Desi (non descript) 8.33% and no seropositive case in Lohi and Thali breeds was recorded. In goats Teddy breed had 11.11%, Desi (non descript) 5.55% while no seropositive case in Beetal goats could be recorded.
From the data analyzed it is concluded that although the seroprevalence of T gondii infection in sheep and goats is relatively low in this area as compared to the other parts of the world. Yet adequate management might be useful and essential to further minimize the infection in sheep and goats herds. Consequently, preventive measures could further reduce the exposure of toxoplasmosis in the human population.
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Standardization Of An Indirecto Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Elisa For Measuring Antibodies Of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus
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Publisher: 2005 Dissertation note: This project was conducted to make an attempt to develop an in-house ELISA to measure antibodies against IBDV. ELISA is the most commonly used serological test for evaluation of IBDV antibodies, but the cost of imported ELISA kit is usually very high and not affordable by the average farmer. The present study was designed with an aim to develop a cost effective ELISA kit under local conditions.
Various steps involved in the development of ELISA were standardized. Two types of antigens i.e. "A" and "B" were used. Antigen "A" was prepared by propagating the live IBD virus (D-78, Intervet) in CEF cells and further concentrated by dialysis against PEG-6000. Antigen "B" was the reconstituted live IBDV vaccine. Both the antigens produced acceptable and comparable results but antigen "B" is conventional due to ease of preparation and to avoid a time consuming and costly procedure of cell culture. The optimum dilution for antigens "A" and "B" were found to be 1:300 and 1:600 respectively. The optimum dilution of conjugate was selected as 1:2000 and incubation time was standardized as 30 minutes at room temperature (25-30°C) after addition of ABTS as substrate. Standard curve (two fold dilution of the positive sera up to 1 1th dilution) was constructed and 3 standards were selected to cover the range of strong reactor with non-reactor sera.
The in-house developed ELISA was evaluated with field chicken sera samples of different age groups. The sera samples of different groups (A, B, C and D of 1-day-old broiler breeder chicks, 1-day-old broiler chicks, 13 weeks old vaccinated layer breeder bird and 30 weeks old vaccinated broiler breeder birds respectively) were evaluated with in house ELISA and its efficiency was compared with commercially available ELISA kit. The samples that were either positive (strong or weak) or negative with commercial ELISA kit also had similar pattern with in-house ELISA. Groups A, C and D were strongly positive while group B was found negative for IBDV antibodies.
It is concluded that in-house developed ELISA is comparable with the commercially available kits.
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Pathogenesis Of Salmonellosis With Respect To Carrier States In Poultry And Its Public Health Impact
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2006 Dissertation note: The present research endevour was made to study and investigate the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from poultry feed, poultry meat and poultry eggs and their role in the chain of transmission of salmonellae to human beings. The objective was to generate data to improve the quality of poultry products and human health awareness.
Salmonellosis is one of the most wide spread food borne zoonoses. The etiological agents Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium not only' produce the disease but during the convalescent phase (after the recovery of disease) remain carriers for indefinite period of time. In this study 400 samples were collected and were distributed and detailed as; poultry feed (n=100), poultry intestines (n100 Small and n=100 Large intestines) and eggs (n=100) were collected for the identification of the organism through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Positivity percentage as tested through PCR for Salmonella enteritidis in the poultry feed was 20,15,10,15 and 10 for layer starter, layer grower, layer finisher, broiler starter and broiler finisher respectively (P>0.05). The positivity percentage as tested through PCR for Salmonella typhimurium for layer starter, layer grower, layer finisher, broiler starter and broiler finisher feed was 15,10,10, 10, and 10 respectively (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between layers feed and broilers feed as far as identification of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimurium was concerned (P>0.05) but the prevalence range of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimuilum from poultry feed was 10-20% which was biologically significant. The positivity percentage rate of Salmonella enteritidis for small and large intestine in Desi birds (local breed) was 2 and 16 % respectively. Where as for broilers in small and large intestine it was 4 and 18% respectively. The positivity of Salmonella typhimurium in small and large intestine of Desi birds was 2 and 14% where as in broilers it was 4 and 16% in the small and large intestine respectively. There was a significant difference (P <0.05) between the positivity of percentage of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimurium as far as identification of Salmonellae from Desi and broiler meat was concerned.
It was found that 16%, 8%, 16'Y0 and 16% egg albumin was found positive for Salmonella enteritidis in layer egg albumin, Desi (local breed) eggj albumin, double yolk albumin and broken egg albumin respectively. In each case 25 egg albumin were collected and tested for the detection of Salmonellae. Similarly the egg yolk from layers, Desi (local breed) double yolk and broken eggs was taken and positivity rate for Salmonella enteritidis was found 12%, 4%, 12% and 12% respectively. It was found that 12%, 4%, 12% and 12% egg albumin was found positive for Salmonella lyphimurium in layer egg albumin, Desi egg albumin, double yolk albumin and broken egg albumin respectively. In each case 25 egg albumin were collected and tested for the' detection of Salmonella. Similarly the egg yolk from layers, desi double yolk and broken eggs was taken and positivity rate for Salmonella enteritidis was found 8%, 4%, 8% and 4% respectively. The positively rate for Salmonella typhimurium in both albumin and yolk was relatively less in both albumin and yolk of layers, desi double yolk and broken eggs. Statistically there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) but the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from different eggs ranged between 4-16% and 4-12% respectively which was biologically significant.
The Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated, identified and grown on the artificial and selective media. The virulence of the organisms of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were estimated through calculation of LD50. It was found as 10358/mI and 103/ml for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium respectively, having significant difference (P< 0.05). In order to understand the pathogenesis and carrier states of salmonella organisms in poultry, a group of 300 broiler birds were procured and divided into three groups were studied upto the age of 3 months. The infection was orally given on the 7th day of their age. As an average 86.74% of the birds were maintaining the organism of the Salmonella enteritidis in the large intestine during the entire experimental period in contrast to the small intestine in which 0% were found positive (P< 0.05). Similarly an average 94.94% of the birds were maintaining the organism of the Salmonella typhimurium in the large intestine during the entire experimental period in contrast to the small intestine in which 0% were found positive (P< 0.05) but non of the samples of Small and Large intestine of control group (Group-C) were found positive for Salmonella enleritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. There was a significant difference between Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in large intestine of poultry (P< 0.05). The histopathology of different organs of broiler chickens i.e liver, lung, spleen, kidney, small intestine, large intestine, bursa of fabracious and lean muscles at different phases of disease was also conducted for the better understanding of pathogenesis due to salmonellosis. The principal lesions in the liver at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B were leukocytic infiltration, necrosis and haemmorrhage. No lesions were recorded in liver after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in group C. The principal lesions of the lungs at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B were leukocytic infiltration,' mild necrosis, vascular congestion and haemrnorrhages. No lesions were recorded in lungs after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in group C. The principal lesions of the spleen were mild leukocytic infiltration, necrosis and congestion at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in spleen after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of the kidneys were marked tubutar necrosis with glomerular degeneration and Ieukocytic infiltration and haemmorrhages at the age of 14 to 28 in groups A and B. No lesions were1 recorded in kidneys after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of the small intestine were degeneration of mucosa with inflammatory cells, necrosis, inflammation, superficial ulceration on mucosal lining of intestine at the age of 14 to 21 days. No lesions were recorded in small intestine after 21 days of age in group A and B. No lesions were recorded in control group C. The principal lesions of the large intestine were leukocytic infiltration with necrosis and inflammation at the age of 14 to 91 days. The lesions were recorded up to 91 days of age in group A and B. No lesions were recorded in control group C. The principal lesions of Bursa of1, fabricious were atrophy & necrosis of bursal follicles and leukocytic infiltration at the age of 14 to 21 in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in Bursa of fabricious after 21 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of lean muscle were muscular degeneration and necrotic areas at the age of 14 to 21 days in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in lean muscles after 21 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C.
The carrier state was not only the source of spread of disease with in the poultry but also caused typhoid fever and food poisoning in humans. The chain of transmission started fron poultry feed to poultry meat and ultimately to humans as dead end host. Finally, the 400 samples of stool and blood from 200 human patients (100 suspected of typhoid fever and 100 suspected of food poisoning) were also collected from four different hospitals from urban area of Lahore for the identification of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium through PCR method in order to see the public health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier birds. A total of 14% and 10% stool samples were found positive for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in case of suspected typhoid fever patients respectively. Similarly 6% and 2% blood samples were found positive for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected typhoid fever patients and also as for as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the hospitals On the average 14 and 10 stool samples were found positive against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from each of the 25 patients of each hospital respectively in case of suspected food poisoning patients. Similarly on an average 5% and 6% blood samples were found positive from 25 patients of each hospital respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected food poisoning patients as far as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the hospitals.
A series of five experiments were conducted and carried out to study and explore the project Pathogenesis of Salmonellosis with respect to carrier states in poultry and its public health impact."
For this purpose, in the 1st phase, identification, isolation and characterization of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was attempted. It was followed by the estimation of LD 50 and carrier states and histopathological study at different phases of disease in broiler chickens experimentally infected with Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium to ascertain the nature of carrier states in terms of maintenance of the Salmonellae by different organs leading to histopathological changes and finally to the stage of shedding of the organism through the feces in the environment. Dissemination to human beings and the Public health impact of Salmonellosis was studied in the human subjects who consumed the meat and eggs of the carrier birds which were followed by testing their stool and blood samples through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this way the pathogenesis and chain of Salmonellas enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infection through poultry feed, meat, eggs and humans beings was transmissible. However, the humans were considered as dead end host. It was concluded that Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was maintained in the large intestine of the poultry and has transmitted from poultry feed, poultry meat and poultry eggs to human beings and thus, causing typhoid fever and food poisoning.
Major aim of this research endeavour was to help in understanding the basic principles involved in the chain of infectious cycle of SalmoneUosis. In addition to that the application of the quality control of poultry products with respect to Salmonella infection to broiler chicks and broiler meat available in the market for human consumption is the ultimate goal of this project. The objective was to reduce the risk of Salmonellosis in poultry and humans. The following measures are suggested.
1. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SALMONELLOSIS IN POULTRY! ANIMALS
o The poultry and their environment should be monitored by frequente testing of Salmonellae.
o Bacteriological profile of poultry house environment.
o Serological testing of flock and removal of infected birds.
o Culturing of tissues from selected birds.
o Egg sheils, egg albumin & egg yolk culturing.
B. Hygiene and Sanitation
o Eggs from infected layer flocks should be pasteurized before consumption.
o Salmonella positive breeder flocks should be given pellet feed.
o Hatching sanitation
o Proper disinfection of hatching eggs.
o Proper sanitation and disinfection of farm premises.
o The provision of salmonella-free feed i.e pellet feed is of prime importance for the prevention of salmonella infections of poultry flocks and parent flocks.
o Control of rodent, insects and wild birds
o For routine treatment of eggs and progeny, only those antibiotics should be used that do not cause microbial resistance against drugs widely used in humans
o Resistance of Campylobacter spp, and Salmonella spp. to fluoroquinolones has become a public health risk. This does not exclude well targeted and transient use of antibiotics as essential measures in salmonellosis control programmes.
o Vaccination of breeder flock is recommended for decrease of the salmonella infection pressure.
1. MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SALMONELLOSIS IN HUMANS
A. Meat and Eggs
o Wrap fresh meat in plastic bags at the market to prevent blood from1 dripping on other foods.
o Cook poultry products at temperature of 170°F for breast meat and at 180°F for thigh meat.
o Avoid eating raw or under cooked meat and egg.
o Cook poultry meat and egg thoroughly.
o Purchase only inspected grade AA eggs and animal food products.
o Handle raw eggs carefully:
o Keep eggs refrigerated
o Throw away cracked or dirty eggs.
o Do not eat half fried and half boiled eggs.
o Wash hands immediately after handling raw poultry or raw eggs.
o Full fried and full boiled eggs should be used for eating to prevent food borne Salmonellosis problem.
b. PERSONNEL HYGIENE MEASURES
o Washing of hands with soap and warm water before and after handling foods, after using the bath rooms.
o Refrigerate foods properly.
- Use bleach to wash cutting boards and counters used for preparation immediately after use to avoid cross contamination of other foods.
o People who have Salmonellosis should not prepare food for others.
o Educate the food handlers and persons who prepare food. Educational programmes covering pre- and post harvest food safety procedures, especially salmonella control, should be initiated in the animal and food production sectors for the public awareness.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0938,T] (1).
Effect Of Different Doses Of Bovine Somatotropin Hormone In-Ravi Buffaloes On Growth, Milk Production and Physiological Parameters
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to see the effect of different doses of bovine sornatotropin hormone (bST) on milk production, milk composition, growth! body weight, and physiological parameters (Hemoglobin, Total protein, 1-lernatocrit values, Cholesterol, Glucose, Urea and ESR level). For this purpose 21 Nili-Ravi lactating buffaloes were involved in this experiment. They were kept at Livestock Experimental Station Bahadur Nagar Okara with similar stage of lactation were selected. They were randomly divided in to three groups A, B and C with 7 animals in each group. The group A was injected with full- recommended dose of bST hormone (250 mg /animal) with trade name of Boostin-250 S/C at an interval of 14 days, while the animals of group B were given S/C injection on alternate days with divided doses of(36 mg/animal). The group C was kept as control. The maintenance requirement of the animals was met through by available green fodder at the rate of 40-50 kg per animal per day while production requirements were met through concentrate ration at the i-ate of half of the milk production. Milk production was recorded daily and milk sarnpes weve coXeeted on weakly basis or analysis. The blood samples were collected on fortnight basis to see the effect of bovine Sornatotropin hormone on physiological parameters. The research trial continued for 6 month till the completion of lactation.
The average (rnean± SD) milk production of groups A, B and C were 7.38±1.30, 7.29±1.20 and 6.66±0.80 litters respectively. The increase in milk production was found to be 11% as compared to group C (control). The average (mean± sd) Fat, SNF and T.S percent in animals of group A were recorded 6.59±0.10, 9.13±0.28 and 15.73±0.34, respectively Where as in group B it was 6.58±0.15, 9.28±0.26 and 16.01±0.30 respectively. The averages (mcan±SD) Fat, SNF and TS percent in control group C were, 6.42±0.111, 8.83±0.47 and 15.45 ±0.245 respectively. There was improvement in Fat, SNF and TS percent of the treated group versus control group. The average (mean±SD) body weight found in subgroups A, B and group C was 528.78±50.64, 561.02±91.35 and 518.06±37.50 kgs respectively. There was slight increase was observed in treated group.
The average values of Hemoglobin, 1-Iaernatocrit, ESR, Cholesterol, Total protein, lipid glucose, and Urea in experimental animals of group A were I 1.44g/dl, 32.84%, 94.15mm/h 173.87mg/lOOrni, 10.99g/dl, 567.57 g/dl, 86.25 mg/dl, and 4.089 rng/dl and respectively. In animals of group B there were 11.96 g/dl, 32.04%, 74.70 mm/h 181.10 mg/lOOm!, 11.10 g/dl, 548.03 g/dl, 84.655 mg/dl and 3.7474 rng/dl respectively. Whereas in-group C (control) the average values of Hemoglobin, Haernatocrit, ESR Cholesterol, Total protein, lipid glucose, Urea were 12.20 g/dl, 33.11%, 83.11 mm/h 190.78, mg/lOOm!, 10.60 g/dl, 557.32 rng/dl, 84.92 rng/dl and 3.8848 g/dl, respectively. It is concluded that the bovine Somatotropin hormone had no desirable effect on physiological parameters. It is concluded that treatment of bovine sornatotropin hormone had no effect on blood composition, milk composition and physiological parameters in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. It is also concluded that dose of bSt of 250mg injected at 14 days interval is beneficial for overall performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloe. To overall bST had positive effect on economic parameters in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.
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Incidence, Chemotherapy And Haematology Of Strongylosis In Horses Of District Layyah
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the infection rate of strongylosis, to test the anthelmintic efficacy of Endoectiven, Vermox, Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Oxfendazole, to study the effect of strongyloids on blood parameters in horses of district Layyah.
Horses were examined for the presence of strongylosis coprologically, till 50 horses naturally infected with strongyle spp. become available. Fifty horses were found positive for strongylosis out of eighty seven horses, so the infection rate of strongylosis was 57.47%. Fifty positive animals were randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each comprising of 10 animals. Another group F comprising of healthy horses was made. Each animal of group A was treated with Endoectiven (8 mg/kg body weight.), group B was treated with Vermox (10 mg/kg body weight), group C was treated with Neem (375 mg/kg body weight), group D was treated with Systamex (10mg/kg body weight) while group E was kept as positive control (untreated) and group F was kept as negative control (uninfected untreated). The efficacy of anthelmintics was calculated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on day 7 and 14 post treatment. Efficacy of Endoectiven (Closantel) was 0 % and 0 % on day 7 and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Vermox (Mebendazole) was 91.93% and 95.16% on day 7and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) was 6.89% and 8.62% on day 7 and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Systamex was 96.82% and 98.4 1% on day 7 and 14 respectively. It was concluded from the above results that Oxfendazole was found most effective than Mebendazole, Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Closantel, while Mebendazole showed better results than Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Closantel. Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) showed better results than Closantel.
Haematological parameters showed significant reduction in total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb) level and packed cell volume (PCV).
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0961,T] (1).
Effects Of Different Disinfectatnts On Pathogens In Poultry
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2006 Dissertation note: Poultry sector is the second largest industry after textile in Pakistan. It is threatened by various diseases i.e; Newcastle disease (ND), Avian Influenza (Al), Colibacillosis, Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS) and Infectious bursal disease (IBD, Gumboro). The efficacy of various available disinfectants (Hygen 275 — 2000 H, Virkon S and Aldekol) was tested at 2x, lx and Y2 x dilution against Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria Coil, Newcastle Disease virus and Avian Influenza virus. Each dilution of all the disinfectant was divided into 4 aliquots i.e; a, b, c and d (each of the
aliquot, for each pathogen). Each aliquot were mixed with equal volume of either of the pathogen. The mixture of the disinfectant and the pathogen was incubated at 37°C for a period of 15, 30 and 45 minutes of interaction. The contents were collected aseptically and processed to evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfectants. Disinfectant A (Hygen 275-2000H) showed good bactericidal as well as virucidal activity at 1% dilution. Disinfectant B (Virkon S) was able to kill all the bacteria and viruses even at 0.25 % dilution. While, disinfectant C (Aldekol) effectively killed the bacteria and viruses at 0.5 % and I % dilutions. Results of the study will help the farmers to adopt effective biosecurity measures to minimize the challenges at farm level.
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Effect Of Sodium Bentonite On Growth Performance And Feed Efficiency
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: A trial was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing sodium bentonite, to find the effectiveness of sodium bentonite on the growth performance of Sahiwal male calves. Twelve animals of almost same age and weight were selected from the available stock at Animal Nutrition Centre, Rakh Dera Chahl, Lahore. These animals were divided into three groups and fed a standard ration "A" according to their nutrient requirements. Rations of group B and C were supplemented with sodium bentonite at the rate of 2.5 and 5.0 per cent while group A served as control. The trial was run for a period of 90 days with normal managemental practices. During the experimental period body weight gain and feed consumption of the individual animals was recorded. At the end of the experiment the data were analyzed statistically. The result of the experiment suggested that addition of sodium bentonite had statistically non-significant effect on the body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversation ratio and rate of passage of digesta through the gastro-intestinal tract. Based on the results of this trial it could be inferred that supplementation of sodium bentonite may have some beneficial effect on the performance of calves. However, use of this clay over extended period of time needs to be investigated for any adverse effect in future
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0968,T] (1).
Effectis Of Supplementation Of Phytase On Growth Performance And Mineral Utilization (Ca, P & Zn) In Japanese Quail
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: Two third of phosphorus present in poultry diets is in bound form (Phytate P) and is predominantly not available to poultry, as non ruminant species lack sufficient endogenous phytase activity. Phytate probably compromises the utilization of protein/amino acids, energy and minerals including calcium, ferrous, zinc, magnesium, potassium & many others and can contribute to mineral deficiencies. Dietary inclusion of phytase enzyme economically generates blo-available phosphorus and reduces the Phosphorus load on the environment. Phytase is the requisite enzyme to degrade phytate and notionally phytase has the capacity to hydrolyze the phytate and release inorganic Phosphorus.
Keeping this thing in view a 28 day long feeding trial was planned. A total of 900 day old Japanese quail chicks were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments each having 10 replicates of 15 birds. Six corn soybean based diets (A & B) were formulated in such a way that they contained similar levels of CP and ME (24% & 2900 kcal/kg) but were different in Phosphorus & Calcium levels. Diet A was in accordance with the nutritional requirements of Japanese quail as specified in NRC (1994) whereas, diet B had lower levels of total Phosphorus and Calcium(0.20% and 0.15% less relative to diet A respectively). Five levels of phytase enzyme (250, 500, 750, 1000 FTU/kg of feed) were added to diet B to obtain diets C, D, F and F, respectively. Body weight gain, feed consumption, FCR, plasma calcium and phosphorus, zinc retention, keel /shank length, dressing %, tibia ash%, toe ash%, deficiency symptoms, mortality % and economics of all experimental rations were the parameters considered. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Technique. The difference among the treatment means were tested by Duncans's Multiple Range (DMR) Test.
The results of the experiment revealed that body weight gain, feed consumption, FCR, plasma calcium and phosphorus, keel /shank length, dressing %, tibia ash% and toe ash% of groups E and F were significantly higher than group B, C and D, (P<0.05).The performance of group E and F was comparable with that of group A (+ve control). No significant difference was observed between these groups.
As far as deficiency symptoms and mortality is concerned, a large number in the groups B (39.30%), C (2 1.33%) and D (16.00%) was found suffering from leg weakness, swollen joints and crippled legs. A higher mortality rate was also recorded in these groups (4.67%, 3.33% and 2.67%, for groups B, C and D, respectively). Very less number of birds showed the above mentioned signs in groups A (0%), E (8.67%) and F (3.33%), similarly mortality percentage in these groups also remained considerably low (1 .33%, 2.67% and 2.00% for groups A, E and F, respectively).
Data pertaining to economics of the experiment revealed a considerably low cost of feed/kg of the group F than all the other treatment groups. The difference between group F and A was calculated as Rs. 1.89. A large amount can be saved as profit if diets are formulated with out DCP and are supplemented with phytase ensuring optimum utilization of phytate.
From the results of above experiment it is concluded that phytase supplementation ensures phytate degradation making available, the minerals and other nutrients chelated to it. Phytase supplementation not only facilitates the feed formulatin but also make possible the inclusion of ingredients which contain anti nutritional factor named, "phytate". This consequently results in considerably improved performance and ultimately higher profitability of the farm.
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Molecular Detection And Speciation Of The Canme Piropiasm
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: An epidemiological study of babesiosis in dogs was conducted at Pet center, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, for one year and information on age, sex and breed was gathered. It was found that from a total number of 6204, dogs up to two years of age were more susceptible than other age groups (2-4, 4-6 and above 6 years).The data regarding genders revealed that males were more prone to the disease than female dogs. As far as the breeds were concerned, crossbred dogs were more susceptible followed by Pointers, Alsatians, German shepherds and Bull terriors.Hot and humid months (June to September) have greater impact on the occurrence of disease. The study regarding identification of ticks revealed that Rhiphicephalus sanguinus is the predominant vector of the disease in Pakistan.
Molecular studies were conducted to characterize and identify the species responsible for canine babesiosis in Pakistan. In this regard, a nested polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was employed on different specimens (Blood, Body tissues and Ticks). For this purpose blood samples were collected from twenty four chronically infected dogs and applied on the Flinders Technologies Associates (FTA) cards for transportation to Australia. Different body tissues (Liver, Spleen, Kidney, Intestine, Bone marrow and Pancreas) were procured after euthanizing the two dogs and DNA was extracted, for further studies. Similarly, the eighty eight ticks were also collected from the infested dogs in the 70% ethanol for transportation to Australia. A nested PCR-RFLP assay was used for the detection and differentiation of Piroplasm species on the basis of the 1 8S ribosomal RNA gene. The assay potentially amplified and identified Babesia gibsoni as the main canine piroplasm. Similar assays on the DNA extracted from body tissues and ticks revealed Babesia gibsoni as the main piroplasm. The PCR was found to have a high detection limit (equivalent to i0 dilution), when using the DNA extracted from blood applied to FTA cards, body tissues and ticks. A new technique was developed for extraction of DNA from FTA cards and tick, in this technique, instead of using the FTA specified punching machine, we used scalpel blades, and so the rest of the chemicals used are'generally and easily available. The same protocol was used for extraction of DNA from ticks, only chemicals used in different quantities with different spinning times. Both of which, resulted in cost reduction, less effort and speedy DNA extraction. The technique reported here has the potential to be standardized for routine DNA extractions from FTA cards and ticks.
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Comparative Study On Physico-Chemical ,Microbiological & Chemical Adulterants Of Raw & Processed Milk.
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Milk production, handling, storage, transportation and marketing of milk is handled in a primitive way in Pakistan. Mostly middle man and contractors are involved in the collection, marketing and distribution of milk. Most of the milk is produced in rural sareas and transported to cities where it is supplied to milk plants and also to house consumers. During transportation and distribution there is no refrigeration involved. Middle man adds ice to keep the milk cool and prevent from spoilage. In addition, they also add chemical to kill bacteria and prevent spoilage of milk.
Adulteration of milk is one of the most serious issue in the dairy sector of Pakistan, causing not only major economic losses for the processing industry, but also major health risks for the consumers. Milk is a perishable item and to prevent the spoilage of milk various chemicals are added. In addition to that microbiological quality of milk is very important which directly concern not only with milk spoilage but also consumer health
Keeping in view this study the main object of this study is to determine the hysico-chemical, microbiological and adulterants in raw and processed milk available in Lahore. The raw milk samples ware collected from local market of Lahore city Gawalas, Retail milk shops, Small Dairy Farms sale points and Milk Plants collection centers. A total of 80 samples of raw and 40 samples of processed milk were collected from Lahore
Raw milk samples were collected from Retail milk shops and Gowalas at four different locations of Lahore city i.e. Defence, Allama Iqbal Town, Samanabad and Inside the wall city, from Small Dairy Farms sale points Sakhian pul and Shadera Town areas. Five samples were also collected from experimental dairy farm of UVAS and collection centers of 4 companies.
UHT and Pasteurized milk samples of five different brands were collected from Lahore. A total of 120 milk samples were collected for Physico-chemical, Microbiological and Chemical Adulterants study.
Physico-chemical, microbiological analysis and adulterants detection tests were performed in WTO Laboratory , University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Color, Taste and flavor of most of the samples were found normal in color, taste and flavor except a few samples of raw milk from shops and Gawalas. Temperature of raw milk was ranged from 4.80±0.096 °C to 30.48±0.611 °C. UHT brands were at ambient temperature and Pasteurized milk brands were stored at refrigeration temperature.
Density in raw milk was ranged from 18.100±0.575 to 27.738±0.16203, lowest in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk ranged from 26.142±0.088 to 28.222±0.3 15 and in pasteurized milk ranged from 26.280±0.527 to 27.377±0.147.
The highest mean of freezing point recorded was -0.325±0.0 10 °C in Gawalas and lowest -0.542±0.003 °C observed in UVAS Dairy milk. URT milk ranged from -0.487±0.006 °C to -0.463±0.007 °C and in pasteurized milk brands ranged from -0.480±0.002 °C to - 0.455±0.008 °C.
Fat in raw milk ranged from 4.038-0.056% to 6.340±0.060% lowest was in shops and highest in UVAS Dairy milk. UHT fat ranged from 3.472±0.006% to 3.492±0.006% and in Pasteurized milk fat ranged 3.452±0.020% to 3.495±0.005%.
SNF in raw milk ranged from 5.386±0.13745% to 8.226±0.026% lowest in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk fat ranged from 7.465±0.033% to 8.082±0.09151% and in Pasteurized milk SNF ranged from 7.563±0.125% to 7.905±0.023%.
Protein in raw milk ranged from 2.131±0.060% to 3.162±0.017%, lowest was in shops and highest was in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk protein ranged from 2.99 1±0.026% to 3.2 10±0.038%, in Pasteurized milk protein ranged from3.001±0.053 to 3.146±0.009. Lactose in raw milk ranged from 2.768±0.067% to 4.364±0.041%, lowest was in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk lactose ranged from 3.827±0.011% to 4.107±0.050%, in Pasteurized milk lactose ranged from 3.870±0.070 to 4.020±0.044.
Ash in raw milk ranged from 0.512±0.017% to 0.786 ±0.004%, lowest was in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy farm. In UHT ash ranged from 0.698±0.0 1 1% to 0.739±0.007%, in Pasteurized milk ash ranged from 0.689±.008% to 0.739±0.007%.
Water added in raw milk ranged from 0 to 36.527±1.945%, lowest was in UVAS Dairy farm and highest Gawalas milk. In UHT water added ranged from 5.939±1.094% tol2.229±0.407% in Pasteurized milk water added ranged from 6.975±0.045% to 12. 150± 1.769%.
pH in raw milk ranged from 6.726±0.019 to 7.052±0.027, lowest was in UVAS Dairy and highest was in Gawalas milk, In UHT milk pH ranged from 6.839±0.019 to 6.870±0.0 19, in Pasteurized milk pH ranged from 6.800±0.024 to 6.886±0.03 1.
Acidity in raw milk ranged from 0.147±0.001% to 0.161±0.000%, lowest was in Gawalas and highest was in Dairy plant collection centers. In UHT milk acidity' ranged from 0.158±0.003% to 0.161±0.003% and in Pasteurized milk acidity ranged from 0.158±0.003% to 0.161±0.003%.To study the microbiological quality, total plate count (TPC), coliform count and S. aureus count were made.
TPC in raw milk ranged from 2.9 x iO± 2.2 x i04 to 1.7 x l0 ± 8.1 x 10± 8.1 x 106. Lowest was in UVAS Dairy farm and highest was in Gawalas milk, in Pasteurized milk TPC ranged from 5.0 x 10±l .2 x i04 to 6.8 x 10±2.3 x 104.
Coliform count in raw milk ranged from 3.1 x i0± 3.0 X 102 to 4.4 x i05 ± 4.3 X i03.
Lowest was 3.1 x i± 3.0 X 102 in UVAS dairy farm and highest was in Gawalas milk.
In Pasteurized milk Coliform count ranged from 58±3.856 to 344±161.272.
Staph aureus Count in raw milk ranged from 6.4 X l0±6.7 X 102 to 8.7 X 10±2.2 X i0
Lowest was in UVAS Dairy farm and highest was in Shops milk, in Pasteurized milk Staph aureus Count ranged from 61.87lO.901 to 276.62±105.178.
All UHT brands were found negative for TPC, Coliform count and Staph aureus count.
The qualitative tests adulterants were performed by (M.A.T). Kit.
In raw milk the major adulterants found were Urea, Formaldehyde, Hydrogen peroxide,
Neutralizers, Boric acid and QAC. All adulterants were found negative in the milk of
UVAS dairy farm.
In UHT and Pasteurized brands the adulterants found were Salt, Sugar, Starch and
On the basis of present finding, it is concluded that multiple factors can markedly affect the quality of milk. Water addition was one of the major adulteration present in every step of milk marketing. All the raw milk samples were found inferior for their Phsicochemical quality. In processed milk the fat percentage was in the normal range while other parameters were inferior. Microbiological contamination was also higher in raw and pasteurized milk samples. Adulteration of milk with chemicals such as caustic soda, urea, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, sugar and salt were also detected in raw and processed milk. The high microbiological contamination and presence of chemical adultrants in raw and processed milk showed that the milk constitutes a potential public health hazard.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1062,T] (1).
Comparision Of Mineral Profile In Lactating And Non-Lactating Nilli-Ravi Buffalo
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 1994 Dissertation note: Nih Ravi is the well established breed of buffalo in Punjab. There are about 140 million buffaloes in the World out of which the largest buffalo population is in India, China and Pakistan. It is a multipurpose animal and fulfils milk and meat demand of mankind. In Pakistan it contributes about 74% of total milk yield. The annual rate of increase in buffalo population is 2.5% and increase in milk production is 3.5% in India and Pakistan. To fulfil the increasing demand of milk and meat, there is an immense need to improve the health status and production potentials of dairy animals. This can he achieved only if we are abreast with physiological norms, the disturbance of which lowers productivity. There are numerous problems of health, reproduction and milk production of Nih Ravi buffalo. Despite this very little information is available on blood chemistry of buffalo belonging to different agro-clirnatic conditions. There are various factors which play important role in their rate of production and minerals are one of those factors. Imbalances of minerals, produces deterimental effect on the performance of livestock e.g. Mineral imbalances lead to syndromes manifested in form of retarded growth, low production, late maturity, wasting disease, non infectious abortion, infertility, silent heat, retained placenta, dystokia and prolapse of vagina and uterus. To cope with the situation more research is required on the subject to locate the extent of mineral imbalances. The conclusive results will produce direct or indirect effect on the production and reproductive performance of livestock. The study is therefore planned to find out the serum mineral profile of lactating and non lactating buffaloes from different areas of Punjab and the effect of stage and number of lactation on mineral profile and to find the correlation of serum mineral profile with prolapse of vagina and uterus.
To determine the mineral profile in lactating and non lactating Nih Ravi buffaloes 200 blood samples were collected from Okara, Jhelum and Lahore/Sheikhupura. The serum was separated from blood by centrifugation. Serum was analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron on spectrophotometer. The data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance and the differences in means were tested by using (L.S.D. test) least significant diference test.
The mean values of serum mineral in lactating and non lactating buffaloes on overall basis were subjected to statistical analysis and found non significant differences. However serum magnesium levels were found to be significant in lactating and non lactating buffaloes.
The means values of serum minerals in buffaloes of various districts were subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance and L.S.D. test and significant differences were found between districts (P <0.05) for sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron, while non significant differences were found for calcium and chloride (P>0.05).
The mean values of serum mineral in lactating and non lactating buffaloes on the basis of lactation number were subjected to analysis of variance and L.S.D. test and found non significant differences for serum sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and iron, while serum phosphorus showed singificant differences on the basis of lactation numbers and stage of lactations.
The differences in the mean values of serum sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium and phosphorus were found to be significant. While calcium and iron showed non significant differences within distircts.
The serum sodium showed deficiency in Lahore/Sheikhupura district while serum potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and iron values were found in normal range in all districts. However serum phosphorus level were slightly higher in buffaloes of all the districts.
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Dvelpoment And Optimization Of Multiplex Pcr For The Detection Of Avian Influenza Strains In Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: The pathogenic Influenza A viruses (subtype H5N1, H7N2 and H9N3), are emerging avian influenza (AI) viruses that have been causing global concern as a potential pandemic threat. Some forms having zoonotic importance (H5N1 and H7N7). So it is a matter of priority to develop quick and efficient methods for detection of Influenza viruses.
For the detection of avian influenza, HA (haemagglutination) test and HI (haemagglutination inhibition) tests are being used for long time. But studies have shown that Influenza virus shows variability and diversity and a high rate of mutation, which makes diagnosis difficult. For this reason the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays are considered to be a helpful tool.
In this study design, a multiplex RT-PCR strategy was optimized and developed for the detection of AI virus (subtypes H5, H7 and H9). Primers were designed from sequence available Influenza Database (IVDB) for Pakistan and neighboring regions. The primers were annealed at different temperatures so as to optimize a temperature at which all three primers can amplify their respective subtypes. The results clearly indicated that a multiplex RT-PCR is a quick and efficient method for the detection and it is also economical as fewer reagents are utilized. The PCR products of the reaction can potentially be used to provide additional information about strain variation, either by restriction analysis or PCR product sequencing.
The core objectives achieved are the development of an efficient and economical method for detection of avian influenza viruses by designing indigenous primers and optimization of a multiplex RT-PCR for the avian influenza virus.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1148,T] (1).
Determination Of Feed Digestibility And Growth Performance Of Indian Major Carps (Catla Catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala And Labeo Rohita) Reared Under Similar Feeding Conditions
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Artificial feed plays an important role in semi-intensive fish farming, where density of fish is high. Fish feed development is the least developed sector in aquaculture, particularly in third world countries. The formulation of nutritionally balanced and acceptable diet for fish feed is possible only if information regarding its digestibility is available. It is well known that these two parameters, nutritionally balanced diet and its digestibility, play a key role for the development of artificial feed for fish. Determination of nutrient digestibility is the first step in evaluating the potential of an ingredient for use in the diet of reared species. Information on digestibility coefficients of feed ingredients is very useful not only to enable formulation of diets that maximize fish growth by providing appropriate amounts of available nutrients but also to reduce fish wastes.
The present study was therefore, designed to find out the digestibility of nutritionally balanced diet that contains cheap and easily available ingredients. The experimental and reference diets were evaluated for comparative growth and diet utilization efficiency in three Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus rnrigala). The highest weight gain was observed in the Cirrhinus miri gala (20.57 ± 2.8 g & 0.7 ± 0.4 cm) followed by Labeo rohita (19.17 ± 3.02g & 1.1 ± 0.4 cm) and Catla catla (19.23 ± 3.Og & 0.4 ± 0.3cm), with the experimental or test diet (TD). The lowest growth was also observed in the Catla catla (14.6 ± 3.8 g & 0.2 ± 0.1cm) with reference diet (RD). Growth, FCR and digestibility of nutrients (Protein, EE, DE) were assessed. Proximate analysis (i.e., crude protein, gross energy, dry matter and marker estimation) of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. The highest protein digestibility was observed in Labeo rohita (83.4±3.5%) followed by Cirrhinus mn gala (82.2 ± 4.2) and Catla catla (81.8± 4.6%) The over all digestibility's of nutrients was higher for experimental diet in three fish species i.e. crude protein (84.4 ± 2.1), dry matter (33.3 ± 8.4), crude fat (82.1± 3.1) and gross energy (61.0 ± 5.1). Nutrient digestibility of reference diet were lower (crude protein 77.2 ± 1.3, dry matter 53.0 ± 3.0, crude fat 78.7 ± 0.58 and gross energy 58.3 ± 4.5) as compared to the experimental diet.
Similarly the FCR and FCE values for experimental diet (3.1 ± 0.12 and 32.4 ± 0.69) were better than the reference diet (3.8 ± 0.06 and 25.6 ± 0.58). Among three fish species the Cirrlzinus miri gala has better FCR and FCE (3.4 ± 0.57 and 29.6 ± 5.1) followed by Cat/a catla (3.5 ± 0.42 and 29 ±.0 4.2) and Labeo rohita (3.5 ± 0.49 and 28.5 ± 4.95), respectively. FCR and FCE ratios for reference diet was the lowest in the Labeo rohita (3.9 and 25.0), whereas Cirrhinus mrigala and Cat/a cat/a showed similar ratios (3.8 0 and 26.0), respectively.
Key physico-chemical parameters viz, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, were regularly monitored during the study period. All the parameters showed positive significant correlation with each other except DO which showed negative significant correlation. The correlation of physico-chemical parameters with growth was negatively significant whereas positive correlation was observed between DO and growths indicating that DO have a significant effect on the growth.
The over all results showed that the experimental diet (40% protein level) has better growth and nutrient digestibility as compared to the reference diet (24.5% protein level) which resulted poorer growth and digestibility values.
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Breed Characterization Of Red Sindhi And Tharparkar Cattle Breeds By Mitochondrial D-Loop And Gytochrome
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Livestock plays an important role in economy of Pakistan. Different livestock animals used for for meat, milk, draught, and sports. The genetic data of different cattle breeds like Red Sindhi and Tharparkar is not available which needs to be established for their genetic identification, conservation and to find their genetic diversity among them. Blood samples of pure bred animals were collected from their respective home tracts. The Red Sindhi cattle samples were collected from (Barani Livestock Production Research Institute, Kherimurat, Attock, Govt. Red Sindhi Cattle Breeding Farm, Tando Muhammad Khan and Department of Livestock Management, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam) and Tharparkar cattle samples were collected from (Department of Livestock Management, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Tharparkar cattle Farm at Nabi Sar Road and from Tando Qaiser in Sind). DNA was extracted with the standard protocol in Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory of Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Specific primers were designed by using special softwares Primer 3 for mitochondrial D-loop region and Cytochrom b gene from NCBI accession no. AF492350. Then after primers optimization PCR amplification was done. Then sequencing of target fragments was carried out. Sequences were alligned with the help of software blast2sequence. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP5) were identified and comparison of 5 mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of two cattle breeds was done. Sequences were analyzed and compared with already reported sequence of Mitochondrial DNA of Bos indicuss, Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis available at NCBI.
Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 4.1 software (http://www.megasoftware.net/MEGA4.1.html) showed that Pakistani, European and Asian cattle are genetically same but different from Buffalo. This work provided the genetic data which is very helpful for determining the genetic diversity of cattle population, breed identification, animal forensic and paternity cases and making effective breeding policies and conservational activities in future. This work is very helpful about breed characterization of two cattle breeds (Red Sindhi and Tharparker) and developing understanding about genetic architecture of cattle breeds as present study conclude that six SNPs were present in both breeds, four private to Red Sindhi and 22 were private to Tharparkar.
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Identification And Genotyping Of Vp1 Genses Of Fmd Viruses
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Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Within two decades after its first report in 1954 from Pakistan, Foot and mouth disease has become endemic in the country and poses a serious threat to large as well as small ruminant population. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is prevailing in cattle and buffaloes and is caused by either 0, A, Asia-i serotype of the FMD virus in Pakistan. The present study was undertaken to study the mutation rate of FMD virus and also molecular typing of the strains prevalent in Pakistan was done.
A total of 60 samples from buffalo and cattle were collected from five districts of Punjab including Lahore, Faisalabad, Sialkot, Okara and Sheikhupura. Soon after extraction of their RNA, all of them were reverse transcribed and then subjected to amplification by using different sets of the primers including universal as well as serotype specific primers. Then their VPI portions were amplified by using VP1 specific primers. Among 60 samples, 48 were positive with universal primers. Other 12 samples were not amplified with these primers hence not processed.
Among 48 FMD positive samples, 24 were positive with serotype 0 specific primers, 16 with serotype Asia-i and remaining 8 were positive with serotype A specific primers. After their amplification, the amplicons were run on the gel. These amplicons were extracted by using DNA extraction kit. After their purification, they were sent to Macrogen® (Seopl, Korea) and Centre of Excellence for Molecplar Biology, Pakistan (CEMB) for sequencing. Each amplicon was sequenced thrice and the consensus sequence was established eliminating sequencing errors.
Sequence identity and multiple sequence alignment of molecular sequences (nucleotide and amino acids) were performed with Clustal W algorithm (Thompson et al., 1994). Neighbour joining trees were constructed by using MEGA version 4.0 (Kumar et al., 2004). Nucleotide distance matrices were computed by Kimura two parameter algorithm based on the total nucleotide substitutions and evolutionary trees for VP1 genes were constructed.
For FMDV serotype '0' phylogenetic analysis, 14 VPI sequences from various field isolates were compared with some previously published Pakistani FMD 0 type VP1 specific sequences available with GeneBank and some recently published VP1 sequences reported by countries bordering with Pakistan including India, Iran and Afghanistan Similarly, 12 VP 1 sequences of FMDV serotype Asia-I isolates of this study were compared with previously published sequences and their phylogenetic relationship was established. However, the sequencing results of serotype A were inconclusive and were not included for phylogenetic analysis. Three sequences of three locally available FMD vaccines were also studied and compared with the outbreak strains.
Polymerase chain reaction was optimized with respect to MgCI2, buffer pH, annealing temperature, primer concentration, template concentration, and Taq polymerase. A concentration of 2.5 mM of MgCl2 resulted in the best amplification of the target sequences (Figure 1). The buffer with pH 8.8 yielded the best results (Figure 2) Although, the suggested annealing temperatures for various primers (of various serotypes) ranged from 48 °C to 63 °C, however, a temperature of 56 °C was found to be the best with all sets of primers (Figure 3). The best intensity DNA bands were observed with 0.3 pM concentration of the primers (Figure 4). Moreover, the best cDNA template concentration giving optimum amplification was found to be 3.0 p1 per reaction (Figure 5). Lastly, a concentration of 0.5 U of Taq polymerase was not sufficient for amplification of cDNAs, however, 1.0 U of enzyme was found to yield better amplification (Figure 6).
VP 1 DNA sequences of six previously published Pakistani FMD serotype 0 strains were analyzed phylogenetically with VP 1 DNA sequences of 14 isolates of the study. Serotype 0 isolates of this study distributed themselves into two distinct clusters (Figure 19). First cluster comprised of Sheikhupura 1 and 2, Muridkey 1, Raiwind 1, Nankana 1, Gujranwala 1 and Gujrat I isolates (Figures 19 and 20), whereas the second cluster included Depalpur 1, Sahiwal 1, Okara I, Multan 1, Toba 1, Faisalabad I and Pattoki 1 isolates (Figures 19 and 21). The first cluster was found to be associated with previously published Pakistani isolates of 2006 mostly. However, it also showed association with Afghanistan's isolates of 2004 (Figure 20). The second cluster seemed to be mostly related to previously published Pakistani isolates of 2003 (Figure 21). The overall grouping of the 14 sequences, when compared with each other, depicted a three clustered phylogram (Figure 22). Serotype 0 isolates from Depalpur, Sahiwal, Okara, Multan, Pattoki, Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad grouped together into a clan and had more than 85% sequence similarity with each other. The second cluster consisted of isolates of Sheikhupura, Nankana, Raiwind and Muridkey. These sequences had more than 86% similarity with each other. The third cluster consisted of only two isolates which were 100 % similar to each other. However the third cluster had only 74 % sequence similarity to cluster I and 73 % sequence similarity when compared with cluster 2.
When the phylogenetic relationships with previously reported isolates of Asia 1 was evaluated, FMD Asia I isolates of this study were found to be scattered into two distinct groups (Figure 16). Group one consisted of isolates of Lodhran, Toba and Hafizabad that were more closely related to Indian isolates sharing more than 98% identity with each other and more than 94 % sequence identity with isolates of Indian 2001 to 2004 (Table 5 and Figures 16 and 17). However, they shared more than 86% sequence similarity with Pakistani isolates of 2002-2005 (Table 5). Group two comprised of isolates of kasur, Lahore, Pakpattan, Okara, Faisalabad, Jhang, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and multan alongwith vaccine A and B (Figure 16). The isolates of group 2 were found to be closely associated with previously published isolates of Pakistani and Afghani origin of year 2003 and 2004 (Figures 16 and 18). Collectively, they shared an overall 70% sequence identity with each other. However, isolates of Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan and Multan shared more than 98% similarity with each other, a measurement of close relationship denoting a likely common origin as one clan or dade. Similarly, isolates of Pakpatan, Faisalabad, Okara, Kasur, and Lahore shared 88% sequence identity with each other and qualified as one clade.
Although, overall amino acid sequence similarity of our isolates was not strikingly different from that of the published isolates, however, amino acid substitutions with dissimilar properties were found with a scattered pattern of distribution. For example, 15th amino acid residue which is hydrophilic in the previously published isolates had a substitution with a hydrophobic amino acid residue in our three isolates namely Sheikhupura 2, Muridkey I and Raiwind I (Figure 25). Similarly, 14th amino acid residue which is hydrophobic in nature was found to be replaced with a hydrophilic one in our last five isolates. Amino acid residue number 13 (Figure 25) had a substitution with a hydrophobic residue in some of our isolates etc. etc. It is interesting to note that such substitutions with amino acids having dissimilar properties have also been found, albeit at lower rate, in previously published sequences by many researchers (Figure 25).
A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences in the critical VP I region of FMD serotype Asia I revealed that most of this study isolates shared very high homology with sequences of Vaccine A. However, the sequences of isolates of Lodhran, Hafizabad and Toba did not match much with that of either vaccines, A or B (Figure 23). Sequences of Vaccine A had a "K" which seemed to be replaced by a "T" in the sequences of most of the isolates. Considering the properties of various amino acids, this change does not signify a major shift in the three dimensional picture of the protein as K is a lysine, a positively charged amino acid, whereas a T is threonine, a hydrophilic amino acid in nature. Next substitution in most of the isolates is a "P" for "A" in comparison to the vaccines. Again, it is not a significant change as both P and A share the same property, hydorphobicity. Similarly a K with an R can be substituted without much change in the overall shape of the protein molecule. Next amino acid substitution is a leucine instead of methionine. Again both are hydrophobic in nature; hence their impact on the overall picture is minute, if at all. However, glycine and arginine are two very different amino acids; the former is a hydrophobic amino acid whereas the latter is positively charged one. Such amino acid substitutions may have the potential to make a major impact in terms of the epitopic differences in the capsids of vaccinal and field viruses. A comparison of the deduced amino acids of FMD serotype 0 isolates also exhibited such changes with the vaccinal virus (Figure 24).
Of the three hyper immune sera raised against three different vaccines in rabbits, only one vaccine induced a measureable immune response yielding good precipitation line against various FMD virus antigens.
In summary, RT-PCR for diagnosis of serotypes A, 0 and Asia 1 of FMDV was optimized and could be used for prompt and precise diagnosis of FMD in the country. Although, RT-PCR data pertains to bovines in the current project, but PCR optimization parameters are equally applicable to FMDV infections in other FMD susceptible animal species such as sheep and goat. The combination of PCR and sequencing of the VP1 gene to detect and analyze FMDV in disease outbreaks is fast (less than 6 hours for PCR and about 24 hours for sequencing), and it can give an accurate immunologic characterization of the virus, thus providing a rational basis for choice of vaccine. In fact, the molecular epidemiology of field isolates is a powerful tool to monitor the circulation of viruses (Saiz et al., 1993).
Secondly, various isolates of serotypes 0 and Asia 1 were sequenced along with some vaccinal strains. Sequence similarity tree analysis indicated that most of our isolates were closely related to previously reported Pakistani isolates and to those of neighboring countries such as India, Afghanistan and Iran. Additionally, amino acid sequence similarity data of major immunogenic site that forms 13G-13H loop in FMDV serotypes revealed that serotype Asia 1 vaccinal strain and Asia 1 isolates of this study possessed high degree of similarity suggesting a likely host immune response against the vaccine that may afford some protection against most field isolates of serotype Asia 1 type. Lastly, of three vaccines tested, only one was found to afford protection against field isolates of FMDV suggesting more work on vaccine issue in the country.
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Differntial Diagnosis Of Malaria And Dengue Fever On The Basis Of Clinical Findings And Laboratory Investigations
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: I took two hundred (200) patients in total for purpose of my study. I included all cases with pyrexia of unknown origin with chills and rigors with 6-7 days history. These cases were first evaluated for Malaria by making their thin and thick films for malarial parasites.
There were thirty patients out of two hundred who were positive for malarial parasites. There complete blood picture was done that is RBC count, Heamogolobin percentage, platelet count, WBC count and ESR. The cases who were negative from malaria were further evaluated for dengue viral infection by doing capture ELISA 1gM. Before doing ELISA 1gM dengue strip method test was done and the cases who were positive on strip (Paper Chromatography) were included in 1gM ELISA study. The cases that were positive for 1gM ELISA were studied for same blood investigation which was mentioned earlier. It was also found that there had been some incidence of dual dengue infection and malaria and the incidence rate was 2%.
Now after collecting the data it was analyzed by SPSS. It was inferred afterwards from the data that all the patients +ve for dengue 1gM had been facing with low platelet count increased reticulocyte count, increased hemoglobin, decreased WBC and no significant effect on ESR had been seen. About 83% of dengue 1gM patients were having decrease platelet count. This thrombocytopenia varies from person to person and an inverse relationship has been found between dengue 1gM and platelet of the patients.
The intensity of thromobocytopenia was more in old age patients or in patients with poor health status or in those patients in which tire of anti dengue 1gM was very high. This thromobocytopenia can be used as a diagnostic tool in addition to clinical history in patients who live in periphery where the facility of ELISA is not available. The rise in platelet number indicates recovery of the patients and it should be monitored daily till the complete recovery of patients is achieved.
The rise in hemoglobin concentration has also been noticed due to hemo concentration about 76% of patients with anti dengue 1gM positive were having elevated level of hemoglobin that is ranging from 17-19 gram/dl. The increase in RBC count has also been noticed in association with increased hemoglobin concentration a mild fall in WBC count has also been noticed i-e upto 4000 in 76% of the patients. In those patients who were +ve for malarial parasites and negative for dengue 1gM, such changes in blood pictures were not appreciated although the vector of both diseases is same but AD's mosquitoes which is the carrier of dengue virus (an ARBO virus) causes more severe form of disease.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Suturing Techniques And Suture Materials For End-To-End Anastomosis Of Small Intestine in Dogs
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The small intestine is a tube-like structure, which extends between the stomach and largeintestine. It starts at the pylorus and terminates at the cecocolic junction. Small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids, carbohydrates, fats and electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions. Any disease condition of jejunum like neoplasia or devitalization due to foreign body necessitates the resection of it. This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different suturing techniques and suture material applied during end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine. The study was designed on eighteen stray dogs. The dogs were divided into 3 groups i.e group A, B, and C comprising 6 animals each. Each group was further subdivided into the subgroups as, Al, A2, Bi, B2 and Cl, C2. The dogs of group A was numbered from 1-6, group B from 7-12, and group C from 13-18 for the identification purpose. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia. In group A, Simple interrupted, group B modified Gambee and in group C interrupted Lembert suturing technique for end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine was used. In subgroup Al, B, C! chromic catgut and in subgroup A2, B2 an C3 polyglyconate suture materials was used.
In group Cl, operated dog No.2 died on day 16 post operatively. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of health status including vomiting, diarrhea, and weight gain or weight loss, wound healing, radiographic assessment, decrease in lumen diameter, alignment of tissue plane and quality of wound healing of the anastomotic site in all three group A, B and C. The leakage was checked at 2, 4, 6 and 12 week post surgery using contrast radiographs. During the study period the dogs were housed in the kennels available at Surgery Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
The present project is clearly indicated that modified Gambee suturing technique was found to be more suitable and compatible anastomotic technique with excellent clinical superiority. It resulted in the batter wound healing, minimal lekage, minimal reduction in lumen diameter at the anastomotic site, excellent in its alignment of tissue plane, satisfactory clinical layer to layer healing , is simple to duplicate under field conditions and minimal abdominal complication.
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Impact Of Various Feeding Regimes On Growth Performance Of Male Buffalo Calves
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: There has been a gradual decline in per capita availability of proteinous food particularly of animal origin for human consumption in our country. The feasible solution of the problem is to increase the production of meat. The potential of buffalo as a food animal to meet present and future demands of rapidly growing population deserves special attention because of its capacity to economically convert course roughages and other cereal by products into meat.
Pakistan is second largest buffalo holding country in the world having 29 million buffalo. Traditional system of buffalo meat production is inefficient; animals destined for slaughter are mostly culled and old stock. Male calves are not reared specifically for producing meat but they are kept only for milk let down in villages and are slaughtered even at 6-7 days of age in pen-urban areas. So far very little work has been done to evaluate the tremendous meat production potential of buffalo calves with a particular plan of nutrition.
Present study consisted of a feeding trial of about three months in duration. Fifteen Nih Ravi calves of approximately the same age and weight were selected for the subject study. The animals were randomly divided into three equal groups which were reared on three different feeding regimes. Group I was fed TMR ad-libitum and 2 kg of green fodder. Group II was fed available green fodder ad-libitum and concentrate ration
@ 1% of body weight. Group III was fed Lucerne hay ad-libitum and concentrate ration @ 1% of body weight. . Weighed quantity of feed was offer to every animal on individual feeding basis in a group and refusal was also recorded individually.
The results of study revealed that animals fed on TMBR performed better as compared to other feeding regimes. Among three feeding groups, highest (124.60 ± 7.82 kg) weight gain was observed in TMBR group while, lowest (108.20 + 5.80 kg) weight gain was found in Hay group. As far as feed intake is concerned, highest (777.42 + 8.87 kg) feed intake was observed in fodder group while, lowest (755.10 ± 16.61 kg) feed intake was found in TMBR group. Out of three feeding groups, calves fed on TMBR showed best feed conversion ratio (6.07 ± 0.47) while, the feed conversion ratio in calves fed on hay and fodder was 7.04 ± 0.39 and 7.01 ± 0.32 respectively. Economic analysis per kg weight gain revealed that TMBR group had the lowest cost of production in rupees (101.43 ± 7.92) per kg weight gain, where as highest cost of production (130.40± 7.40) was found in hay group. Analysis of variance of serum chemistry means revealed that no significant differences were found in total protein, urea, glucose, and creatinine values for all three feeding regimes.
On the basis of results of this study it is concluded that TMBR can be utilized as an alternate for our conventional feeding practices as it can meet all nutritional requirements of the animal. It is easy to handle, transport and store besides having a longer shelf life.
It is suggested that further trials with TMBR be carried out on different age and sex groups of buffalo and cattle in order to evaluate its effects on the performance of the animals.
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Immuo-Pathological Response Of Pigeons To Challenge Infection Of Newcastle Disease Virus (Ndv)
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: This study trial was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two locally available live Newcastle disease vaccines (Medivac ND LaSota and VRI, Mukteshwar ND vaccine), also to compare two routes (Oral and Ocular) of vaccine administration in term of antibody titre and assessment of protection against field (chicken) isolated virulent Newcastle virus challenge (NDV) in pigeons. Study of clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesion in different organ of non-vaccinated and challenged birds was also the part of our present study. For this purpose one hundred and twenty pigeons were purchased from the local market and screened for Newcastle disease antibodies using Hemagglutination inhibition test. Healthy pigeons were randomly divided into six groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, comprising 20 birds each. Group E and F were kept as positive and negative Control respectively. Group A and C were vaccinated with Medivac ND LaSota vaccine at day 7th and 21st of experiment through oral and ocular route. Similarly Group B and D were immunized with VRI (Mukteshwar) ND vaccine through oral and ocular route respectively. At 28th day of experiment all the groups except group F were challenged with velogenic field isolate of NDV at a dose rate of 0.1 ml through ocular route. Serum samples were collected at day 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 of experiment for the determination of antibody titre. Post-infection clinical signs in control positive group were i.e. anorexia, dullness, depression, decreased feed intake, discharge from mouth, greenish diarrhea, nervous manifestations, leg and wing paralysis. Gross lesions on different organs were hemorrhages in trachea, proventriculus, spleenomegaly and greenish intestinal contents. Medivac ND LaSota vaccine produced higher immune response in term of antibody titre as compared to VRI (Mukteshwar) ND vaccine. It was also observed that ocular route irrespective to vaccine type produced significantly (P<0.05) higher immune response than oral route. Vaccine strains used in this study efficiently induced immune response through ocular route, suggesting that implementation of this vaccination programs in future may prevent ND outbreaks in pigeons, especially in racing pigeons, and may prevent NDV spread to other avian species, mainly poultry.
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Effect Of Different Energy Sources On The Fattening Potential Of Buffalo Calves
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Buffalo is an important animal which contributes approximately 50% meat in Pakistan. Traditional system of meat production is inefficient. About 50 % of the male calves die during the first week of their life. Some calves are raised to 60-80 kg on extremely poor and unbalanced diets and only a few are raised to about 200 kg of live weight with very low average daily gains. Most of the meat produced in the country comes from end of career, or emergency slaughtered animals. To improve meat production in country calves are required to be fattened through feed lot system. Energy-rich sources available in Pakistan include cereal grains (wheat, maize, barley, oats, sorghum, and rice), wheat bran, rice polishing and molasses etc. At the same time fats and oils are also rich source of energy and infrequently used in animal feeding. Molasses, a by product of sugar industry, is an excellent and cheaper source of energy. An objective of the study was to compare efficiency of energy sources for meat production. For this purpose, a fattening trial was conducted on 15 Nili-Ravi buffalo calves of approximately the same age and weight to study the comparative efficacy of three different energy rations. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 5 calves each. Animals were offered three different rations. The experiment was carried out for 90 days. Group A was fed TMR having molasses as energy source, group B was fed TMR having com grain as energy source and group C was fed TMR with rumen protected fat as energy source. Daily feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, economics and blood parameters (blood glucose, total protein, urea and creatinin) were studied. The Data obtained was analyzed under CRD through ANOV A and the difference among treatment means were tested with LSD. The average weekly growth rate of group A, B and C was 6.23±0.187, 6.l85±O.l87 and 6.08±0.187 respectively. The average daily growth rate of group A, Band C was 0.89, 0.88 and 0.87 kg respectively. Total Mixed Ration taken by group A, B and C was 2064.5 kg, 2546.01 and 1993.7 kg respectively. The average daily feed intake was 4.59 ±O.l06, 5.66±0.106 and 4.43±0.106 kg per day of group A, B and C respectively. Group A, C had non significant difference (P>0.05) from each other while group B was significantly different from group A and C. The feed conversion ratio of group A, B and C was 5.16 ±0.25, 6.40±0.25 and 5.10±0.25 respectively. The results showed that calves fed ration C has highest FCR than ration A and B. The results of the study revealed non significant difference in the concentration of serum urea, creatinine, glucose and serum total protein among the experimental animals. The cost of one kg live weight for group A was Rs 78.73 while Rs 102.78 and Rs 129.1 for group Band C. The results showed th~t ration A was more economical than ration Band C. The findings of this study showed the benefit of utilization of different energy sources in the fattening ration of calves. Due to higher prices and demand of cereal grains, other cheaper sources such as molasses can be used for fattening as energy source. If there is unavailability of molasses and cereal grains then bypass fat (Berga fat) can be used for fattening purpose. The study revealed that each energy sources is equally effective.
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Effect Of Feeding Citrus Pulp Silage On The Growth Performance Of Sahiwal Calves
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; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Livestock is contributing about 53 per cent of agricultural value added and 11.4 per cent to the national GDP with a total animal heads of 157.3 million but feed availability of crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) is deficient by 38.10 and 24.02%, respectively. However, a decline in domestic feed resources and the need for Pakistan's livestock production to become internationally competitive are strong reasons for promoting the use of alternative locally available and cheap sources of feed ingredients, such as citrus pulp from fruit processing industry which do not attract competition in consumption between humans and livestock. The primary objective for the use of these by-products is to reduce the feed cost and consequently cost of producing a unit of the product like milk or meat as well as to fulfill the nutrients demands of animals. Citrus pulp is a by-product widely available in Pakistan and is mainly discarded as waste. Its cost is relatively low compared to its nutritive value but is seldom used as ruminant feed. The large amounts which are available during the harvesting season can be ensiled in combination with dry roughage, to get the required moisture level of it. So in the present study citrus pulp with wheat straw was ensiled and the silage was fed to Sahiwal calves to observe its intake, weight gain as well as economics. Results of the present study revealed that the optimum level of 20% citrus pulp in feed gave good results while intake and weight gain decreased for 30% citrus pulp in feed. Average total weight gain were 27.5, 37.5, 28.75 and 23.75kg for ration A, B, C and D, respectively (containing 10, 20 and 30 citrus pulp, respectively). Average daily gain for group A, B, C and D were 0.44, 0.60, 0.46 and 0.38kg, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). When average daily feed intake for each calf was calculated on dry matter basis it showed 4.40, 4.50, 3.39 and 3.13kg respectively for group A, B, C and D which was not significantly different between diets. By ascertaining the cost of the feed for ration groups it showed significance difference having average cost of production per animal per kg body weight 37.07, 23.80, 21.68 and 25.58 Rs for group A, B, C and D, respectively.
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Comparative Growth Rate And Body Composittion Of Major Carps (Labio Rohita , Cata Catla And Cirhinus Mrigala )
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Presently fish culture in Pakistan is primarily dependent on natural food produced in pond by the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. It is supplemented with cheaper agriculture by-products to meet the nutrient deficiencies. Artificial feed which is a blend of various plant and animal by-products is rarely used. Development .of appropriate artificial feed now has become mandatory to transform conventional fish culture practices to advanced fish production systems to improve per unit fish production. The present study was therefore signed to formulate a quality supplementary feed from cheap and easily available feed ingredients that contains at least minimum required nutrients for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out). The feeds developed during these studies were evaluated in terms of growth, diet utilizalion efficiency and its effect on the body composition and flesh quality of the three Indian majr carps (Catla cat/a, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala).The study comprised of three trials. Trial I was conducted on fingerlings of individual species under monoculture system using 42% protein diet. Trials II and III were conducted on Grow-out fish using 35% protein diet under monoculture and polyculture systems. The study was conducted in earthen ponds having an area of 0.03 ha with three replicates and a control. After preliminary preparation of ponds, in trial I, fingerlings were stocked at 80 fish per pond. while in trial II at 70 fish of each species and in trial III ratio of 30%, 50% and 20% of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala per pond were maintained. All the ponds received same amount of organic and inorganic fertilizers (cow dung, poultry manure, SSP and urea) thoughout the experimental period. Supplementary feed in trial I was applied at 4% of fish wet body while in trial II and III feed was applied at 3% of fish wet body weight daily. In trial I 42% protein diet was used containing fish meal. soybean meal. maize gluten (60%). rice polish, wheat bran. maize grains. molasses. vitamins and minerals while in trial II and III 3YYo protein diet containing fish meal, soybean meal. canola meal. rice polish. wheat bran, molasses, vitamins and mineral was used. Growth parameters in terms of length and weight gam were regularly monitored fortnightly. Organolept sensory evaluation was done at the termination of each trial. Proximate fish body composition was determined at the start and at the end of the experimental trials. Fatty acid profile of three experiments was performed at the post-trial basis. In addition, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FeR). protein efficiency ratio (PER). protein utilization (PU). gross nitrogen retention efficiency (G RE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %) were also determined. Proximate analysis of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. Key physico-chemical parameters viz. temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), free CO2, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, light penetration. salinity and nitrates, were regularly monitored during the study period. In trial I the highest net weight gain was observed in treatment group (D 1) (Catla calla 9425.83 g and 171.5 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (374.34 g and 178.7 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (288.18 g and 161.9mm). The lowest growth was observed in Cirrhinus mrigala (176.9 g and 116.4 mm) in control (DO). A significant difference was observed regarding net weight gain among three fish species and between different treatments (DO and 0 I). The net weight gain was significantly higher in trial I treated (01) ponds than control (~O). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR %) were also determined. Labeo rohita exhibited higher values (1762.51 % and 3.03%) followed by Catla calla (1341.58% and 2.95%), while Cirrhinus mrigala showed lowest (976.17% and 2.6%) with experimental diet (DI) Again Cirrhinus mrigala exhibited lowest percent weight gain and SGR (300.85% and '1.54%)in control (DO) ponds. In trial II grow-out under monoculture the net weight gain of fish differed significantly among three fish species and between treatments (DO and D2). Calla catla showed highest net weight gain (37\.88 g and 72.2 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (310.18 g and 72.3 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (270.75 g and 57 mm) in experimental unit (02) while a lowest net weight gain of Cirrhinus mrigala (162.15 g and 36.5 mrn ) was observed in control (DO). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita under different treatments were found non-significant. Although Catla catla showed highest percent weight gain and SGR values (109.78% and 0.81 %) followed by Labeo rohita (90.93% and 0.69%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (84.3% and 0.65%), respectively with experimental diet (D2). Lowest values of percent weight gain and SGR (48.54% and 0.43%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala in control ponds (DO). In trial III grow-out under poly culture the average final weight of fish was significantly different in control (~O) and experimental diets (02) while species showed non-significant difference regarding final weight and net weight gain. The highest final and net weight gain of Lobeo rohita (679.46 g and 370.5 g) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (674.52 g and 303.86 g ) and Catla catla (607.2 and 307.06 g), respectively in experimental unit (D2) while Catla catla exhibited lowest final weight and net gain in weight (493 g and 182.3 g) in control (DO). Regarding percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species under polyculture system no significant difference was observed hence, Labeo rohita showed highest percent weight gain and SGR (126.87% and 0.9%) followed by Catla catla (l 02.31 % and 0.76%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (85.15% and 0.63%), respectively with experimental diet, while Cirrhinus mrigala once again showed lowest values (40.12% and 0.37%), respectively in control diet (DO). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein utilization (PU), gross nitrogen retention efficiency (GNRE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %), in all the three experiments under monoculture as well as in polyculture system, for fingerlings and grow-out fish of three species were found non-significantly different. However, in trial I fingerlings better FCR values (1.63, 1.56 and 1.43) were obtained for Catla catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala and Labeo rohita. Regarding gross nitrogen retention efficiency Catla catla showed highest GNRE % value (10.4) followed by Labeo rohita (9.3) and were found significantly different from Cirrhinus mrigala (6.5) in experimental unit. In trial II grow-out monoculture, FCR values 3.7. 4.57 and 4.56 for Calla calla. Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita were pbtained while GNRE % varied 9.5,5.8 and 8.0. respectively. In trial III grow-out poIyculture the FCR values of three species varied from 3.99, 4.72 and 3.61, respectively while GNRE % varied from 10.3, 8.2 and 12.5%, respectively among Calla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo Rohita. The Labeo rohita for GNRE% differed significantly from other two species. No significant difference among species and between diets (DO, D 1 and D2) was observed in proximate composition in all the three experiments. However, in case of fingerlings Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D 1) showed higher protein contents (16.44<Yo) while Catla catla showed the lowest protein content (12.9%). Crude fat contents were found highest (7.28 %) in Labeo rohita with control diet (DO) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (6.96 %) and Labeo rohita (6.S2 %) in experimental diet (01) while lowest values were observed for Calla catla (4.17%) in control (DO). The Ash contents showed minor variations among species and treatments ranged from (4.81 % and 3.S6%) for Catla catla, (4.34% and 4.7S%) for Cirrhinus mrigala and (3.98% and 4.49%) for Labeo rohita in control and treated ponds, respectively. Highest gross energy was found (6.S3MJg'l) for Labeo rohita and lowest (S.OMJg'l) for Catla catla with experimental diet (D 1). In trial II grow-out monoculture the highest crude protein contents (1S .16%) were observed in Labeo rohita followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (14.S3%) with control diet (~O) while lowest for Labeo rohita (12.13%) in (02). Higher contents of crude fat (7.31 %) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala followed by Catla catla (S.38%) in experimental group and lowest amount 3.18% and 3.19% was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla in control group (~O) . . Higher amount 4.11 % was found in Catla catla under control (~O) while lowest amount 3.1 % was observed in Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D2). Highest gross energy percentage 996.13%) was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala under experimental diet (D2) while lowest 4.91 % was observed for Catla catla in control group (DO). In case of experiment III grow-out polyculture the proximate body composition highest crude protein contents (IS.76% and 10.53%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala followed by catla catla 911.87% and 13.3S%) and Labeo rohita (12.72% and 6.S6%) in treated (D2) and control (DO) group. respectively. Higher crude fat contents (6.S7%) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest (3.13%) in Labeo rohita and (2.9S%) in Catla catla. Ash percentage was found higher in Catla catla and lowest (2.14%) in Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala (2.87%) under (DO). Gross energy contents were found highest (6.84MJg,l) in catlacalla under (DO) and (6.56MJg,l) Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest amount (3.24MJg.l) were observed in Labeo rohita under (DO). Mineral composition of three fish species under three dfferent experiments showed non- sign ificant differences. Minor variation regarding mineral composition was observed in pre- treatment and post-treatment level. However. Ca and P contents showed relatively higher percentage than Mg and K contents in all the three experiments. A significant difference was observed in Mg contents in experiment III where Catla catla showed significantly higher (0.045%) percentage than Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita each containing 0.02%. A significant difference was observed in fatty acid profile among three fish species and between diets (~O, Oland D2). Among fatty acids, palmitic acid (C 16:0) was found a dominating fatty acids in all the three experiments. In trial I highest concentration (40.59 g 100 g-1 was found in Cirrhinus mrigala under (DO) and 37.19 in (D1) while lowest (30.75 and 30.78 g 100 g.l) in Labeo rohita and Catla catla under (D 1). The concentration of total saturated fatty acids were observed higher and ranged from (40.20 to 53.29 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (29.30 to 37.81 g 100 g-I), w-6 PUFA (7.65 to 14.94 g 100 g') and @-3 PUFA (7.76 to 11.07 g 100 g-I). respectively. In case of trial II significant differences were also found among three fish species and diets (D0 and 02) for different fatty acids composition. Palmitic acid (C 16:0) also showed highest concentration ranged from 28.36 to 29.73 g 100 g-I). Total saturated fatty acids were found higher that varied from (35.90 to 39.41 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.52 to 40.84 g 100 g-I), and l:PUFA (19.02 to 24.40 g 100 g-I), respectively. In trial III once again same pattern of dominance of palmitic acid along with total saturated fatty acids (36.43 to 42.24 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.899 to 43.72 g 100 g-I) and 2:PUFA (14.97 to 23.03 g 100 g-I) were observed. In case of organoleptic evaluation all the species under di Iferent culture system and treatments illustrated non-significant differences. Hence. significant differences were observed among different cooking processes (steamed and fried fish). The physico-chemical parameters of pond water remained within the acceptable limit for Fish gowth. Although comparatively lower values of temperature were found for experiment II and III for grow-out trial that was conducted in fall. The correlation co-efficient studies revealed a positive significant correlation of temperature, TDS, light penetration and salinity with growth of fish species while pH showed positive non-significant correlation with growth of fish. It was concluded from the present study that both the experimental diets D I and 02 for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out) showed significantly higher growth of all the three species in monoculture system. The diet D2 did not showed any significant higher growth in polyculture system but overall growth performance remained high in polyculture than monoculture treated ponds of grow-out fish. Comparison of species indicated that artificial diets (DI and D2) remained much suitable for Catla catla and Labeo rohita than Cirrhinus mrigala under both the culture systems. Non-significant difference was observed in the body composition and flesh quality irrespective of their economic viability. Information derived from the present research experiments will be useful in future research and formulating supplementary feed for Indian major craps for different age groups. It can also be helpful in understanding the mineral and fatty aeid profiles of the Indian major carps cultured under semi-intensive pond culure system whieh is first study of its kind on these species in Pakistan.
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Effect Of Various Concen Trayious Of Hydrogen Pereoxide On Chemical And Microbiogical Quality Of Raw Buffalo Milk
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Milk is a complex mixture of fat, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and other miscellaneous constituents dispersed in water. Milk production in flush season is much more than in the normal. Milk production and supply fluctuate through out the year and during winter it is surplus to its demand. Surplus milk is available in winter due to new calving, less consumption of milk by the consumer. In winter season ample amount of green fodder is available to the animals which in turn increase the milk production.
Milk and milk products being very delicate and perishable food require special handling prior to the consumption and further treatment. Pakistan due to its harsh climatic conditions people are using different methods, for the preservation of milk. They are using different chemicals, additives and antibiotics to enhance the keeping quality of milk. Present study was planned to investigate the various concentration of hydrogen peroxide or raw buffalo milk and its effect on chemical and microbiological quality of raw buffalo milk.
Raw buffalo milk samples were collected from Dairy Animal Training and Research Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus Pattoki Fifty samples of raw buffalo milk (100ml each) were collected to studied the nutritional composition and microbiological quality of the milk after adding the hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide of different concentration i.e. 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.075%and 0.1% were used in this study. There was no significant change in the result regarding various nutritional composition of raw buffalo milk after adding the various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. There is a slight change in the lactose % during study of 48 h storage of milk at different temperature. Statistically the change which occurred in lactose during storage is significant whereas over all decrease in Solid Not Fat is non significant
Mean value of TPC of raw buffalo milk treated with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide storage at the three different temperatures indicated that at 10° C TPC was very less as compared to control. TPC at 30° C after 48 h was 9.83x106.Which was very less as compared to TPC of control i.e. 1.195 x107.
The effect of H2O2 on the quality of the milk is negligible as compared to the losses suffered without it. The hydrogen peroxide definitely have its effect as a preservative.. The use of preservative in milk and dairy products are not new in the countries where ambient temperature remains quite high. Our study suggests that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide to be used for the preservation of raw milk is 0.05 % to 0.1 %
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Uterine Microbial Flora Of Sahiwal Cattle During Oestrus And Its Relayionship With Pregnancy Rate
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: In the present study uterine microbial flora of Sahiwal cattle during oestrus and its relationship with pregnancy rate was determined. According to the results a total of 11 bacterial species were isolated from 50 uterine samples of estrus Sahiwal cattle, maintained at Livestock Production Research Institute (LPRI), Bahardur Nagar, district Okara, Punjab province, Pakistan. The isolates include E. coli, Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Citrobacter diversus, Salmonella spp., Proteus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Tabulation of results showed that prevalence of these isolates was different among pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Moreover, E .coli, Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Citrobacter diversus are found to be thriving in uterus as normal microbial flora, whereas, Streptococcus spp. isolate as abnormal microbial flora appearing to be having some role in decreasing pregnancy rate. While, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium spp. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella spp., and Proteus spp. Isolates could not be differentiable as normal and abnormal uterine microbial flora due to insignificant available data. Furthermore, complete blood counts of 50 blood samples of these same animals indicated that those animals harboring isolates like Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Corynebacterium spp. in their uterus, had more likelihood of abnormally increased value of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) than to presence of any other bacteria. But due to lower data of Pseudomonas spp., and Corynebacterium spp isolated from total samples, only Streptococcus spp. seemed to be ranked as abnormal in Pakistani Sahiwal cattle cows. Interestingly all those animals from where Corynebacterium spp. was isolated, were showing increased values both of MCV and HCT (Hematocrit) which is indicative of their pathogenic role in causing uterine infections.
On the basis of this study it can be modestly concluded that uterine microbial flora identification may serve as a better tool in assessing and foretelling the reproductive health status of the breeding animals. After necessary assessment, presence of any harmful microbial flora or pathogen can be effectively treated through either selecting an appropriate antibiotic by using culture sensitivity testing or by using any suitable bactericidal agent thereby help in boosting conception and pregnancy rates.
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Study Of Livestock Health Issues And Availability Of Veterinary Services To Pastoral Herds Of Northern Pakistan
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Pastoralists contribute great contribution in the economy of the developing world providing food and employment to peoples. In Pakistan pastoralism is also present and the pastoralists having their livestock keeping mobile through all the year upland and lowland. The goal of this research study has been to assess the major health problems in market oriented Livestock development. Although the feed resource and grazing land are quite enough, the research that was carried out in Narran valley reveals of how widespread the diseases are the health problems of livestock. The study indicates Narran valley has a high livestock population, which plays a substantial role in the livelihood of the farmers. In general, livestock is the most important unit of the Agricultural Community in both the market and the households' level. Unfortunately, animal productivity is very low in the area there are many reasons for this, among which is the major obstacle of widespread animal health problems and veterinary services availability. The diseases reported in the herds are the CCPP, FMD, Brucellosis, Small Pox, Liver flukes, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Enterotoxaemia, GID, Tympany, and PPR. These diseases cause heavy economic losses in their herds every year. The veterinary services for the land less pastoralists were not available where their herds were settled. For this research a survey was conducted to get the perceptions of the pastoralists and the veterinary services providers. Questionnaires were made for the pastoralists and veterinary services providers.
Results of this study lead to development of a policy for the landless herder's livestock. This was a useful study on the livestock health issues and veterinary services, as no other study has been carried out in Pakistan for the livestock of land less transhumant herders. Additionally this study can become the basis for further research in their livestock.
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Nutritional Evaluation Of Locally Availabie Feed Stuffs In Different Agro- Ecological Zones Of Punjab
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Pakistan's economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock production. The production per unit animal in terms of meat and milk production is low as compared to developed countries. The major reason behind this truth lies in efficient use of feed resources. In Pakistan, availability of data on indigenous feed resources in different agro-ecological zones is scanty and limited. Present study was planned to analyze the nutritional profile of locally available feed resources in different agro-ecological zones of Punjab. This study was conducted into two phases; first phase consisted of collection of samples from ten districts of Punjab. From each district, sample of fodder, dry roughages and concentrate ingredients were collected randomly from different places. The estimated total number of sample was 1020; fodder (440), dry roughages (250) and concentrate (330) samples were collected in both summer and winter seasons. The second phase of the study consisted of chemical analysis of nutritional profile of collected samples. Samples were analyzed for crude protein, ash, detergent fibres i.e., NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin and cell soluble contents. Data thus collected were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance technique under CR Design.
In wheat straw the average CP percentage was 2.20 ± 0.25% while the value for ash content was 9.79 ± 1.97%. NDF and ADF averaged as 80.33 ± 4.43% and 52.41 ± 2.56% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Kasur and Sahiwal district while lowest from Sheikhupura district.
In the rice straw average CP percentage was 1.71 ± 0.24% while the value for ash content was 13.56 ± 1.91%. NDF and ADF averaged as 78.36 ± 5.40% and 54.11 ± 2.25%. Higher value for protein was reported from Sahiwal district while lowest from Lahore and Pakpatan district.
In the maize stovers average CP percentage was 2.76 ± 0.39% while the value for ash content was 7.81 ± 2.16%. NDF and ADF averaged as 75.03 ± 4.78% and 48.15 ± 3.67% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Kasur district while lowest from Pakpatan district.
In the sorghum stovers average CP percentage was 2.72 ± 0.15% while the value for ash content was 5.81 ± 1.16%. NDF and ADF averaged as 77.74 ± 4.60% and 49.95 ± 2.31% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Sahiwal district while lowest from Hafizabad district.
In the millet stovers average CP percentage was 3.03 ± 0.37% while the value for ash content was 6.45 ± 0.72%. NDF and ADF averaged as 75.80 ± 4.45% and 43.81 ± 0.94% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Hafizabad district while lowest from Kasur district.
In the rice husk average CP percentage was 2.99 ± 0.22% while the value for ash content was 16.37 ± 0.58%. NDF and ADF averaged as 78.90 ± 2.90% and 69.01 ± 1.17% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Pakpatan district while lowest from Kasur district.
In the oat fodder average CP percentage was 11.89 ± 0.74% while the value for ash content was 10.68 ± 0.57%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 63.09 ± 1.88%, 32.68 ± 2.33%, 4.26 ± 0.81% and 36.91 ± 1.88% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Okara district while lowest from Sheikhupura district.
In the wheat fodder average CP percentage was 11.74 ± 0.51% while the value for ash content was 6.84 ± 0.78%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 66.65 ± 2.70%, 36.31 ± 2.08%, 9.40 ± 1.72% and 33.35 ± 2.70% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Lahore district while lowest from Khushab district.
In the mustarad fodder average CP percentage was 13.42 ± 0.39% while the value for ash content was 11.57 ± 0.66%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 56.19 ± 1.94%, 38.49 ± 1.98%, 12.24 ± 0.98% and 43.81 ± 1.94% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Muzafargarh district while lowest from Pakpatan district.
In the berseem average CP percentage was 17.32 ± 0.82% while the value for ash content was 12.94 ± 0.76%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 57.37 ± 2.63%, 31.63 ± 1.90%, 10.67 ± 1.04% and 42.63 ± 2.63% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Pakpatan district while lowest from Hafizabad district.
In the lucern average CP percentage was 21.34 ± 0.84% while the value for ash content was 11.65 ± 1.69%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 45.60 ± 2.04%, 37.73 ± 0.63%, 11.87 ±1.05% and 54.40 ± 2.04% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Hafizabad district while lowest from Sahiwal district
In the sugarcane fodder average CP percentage was 5.60 ± 0.31% while the value for ash content was 11.78 ± 0.92%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 72.30 ± 3.88%, 38.20 ± 1.76%, 12.94 ± 1.13% and 27.20 ± 3.00% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Sheikhupura district while lowest from Lahore district.
In the grasses average CP percentage was 9.91 ± 0.48% while the value for ash content was 11.74 ± 0.94%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 72.71 ± 5.20%, 36.25 ± 1.96%, 6.29 ± 0.99% and 27.29 ± 5.20% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Lahore district while lowest from Sheikhupura district.
In the maize fodder average CP percentage was 8.10 ± 0.75% while the value for ash content was 11.39 ± 1.58%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 70.88 ± 1.94%, 32.88 ± 1.42%, 7.15 ± 1.87% and 29.12 ± 1.94% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Kasur district while lowest from Okara district.
In the sorghum fodder average CP percentage was 6.62 ± 0.44% while the value for ash content was 8.96 ± 1.41%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 67.75 ± 2.79%, 42.11 ± 2.64%, 7.52 ± 0.96% and 32.25 ± 2.79% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Okara and Khushab district while lowest from Kasur district.
In the millet fodder average CP percentage was 7.76 ± 0.34% while the value for ash content was 14.80 ± 0.88%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 69.90 ± 1.39%, 40.59 ± 4.54%, 9.74 ± 1.24% and 30.10 ± 1.39% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Sahiwal district while lowest from Khushab district.
In the corn grain average CP percentage was 9.47 ± 0.22% while the value for CSC content was 75.54 ± 1.39%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 24.46 ± 1.39% and 5.88 ± 8.47%. Higher value for protein was reported from Lahore district while lowest from Okara district.
In the wheat grain average CP percentage was 12.66 ± 0.89% while the value for CSC content was 59.75 ± 3.64%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 40.25 ± 3.64% and 4.86 ± 0.80%. Higher value for protein was reported from Lahore district while lowest from Gujranwala district.
In the Sorghum grain average CP percentage was 9.96 ± 0.42% while the value for CSC content was 49.11 ± 3.10%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 50.89 ± 3.10% and 22.06 ± 0.72%. Higher value for protein was reported from Hafizabad district while lowest from Muzafargarh district.
In the wheat bran average CP percentage was 12.53 ± 1.07% while the value for CSC content was 36.63 ± 2.24%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 63.37 ± 2.24% and 17.25 ± 2.63%. Higher value for protein was reported from Lahore district while lowest from Gujranwala district.
In the rice polish average CP percentage was 16.12 ± 0.69% while the value for CSC content was 47.58 ± 2.34%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 52.42 ± 2.34% and 18.28 ± 0.80%. Higher value for protein was reported from Hafizabad district while lowest from Kasur district.
In the cotton seed cake average CP percentage was 24.16 ± 0.36% while the value for CSC content was 40.91 ± 2.27%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 59.09 ± 2.27% and 27.65 ± 2.13%. Higher value for protein was reported from Khushab district while lowest from Sheikhupura district.
In the rape seed cake average CP percentage was 35.77 ± 0.42% while the value for CSC content was 57.42 ± 2.41%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 42.49 ± 2.59% and 24.61 ± 2.08%. Higher value for protein was reported from Sheikhupura district while lowest from Pakpatan district.
On the basis of the results of this study it is concluded that this study has generated compositional data of dry roughages, fodders and concentrates. This has lead to the preparation of dry roughages, fodders and concentrates composition tables for better feeding of livestock. The students, farmers and research workers may benefit from these tables.
It is suggested that further trials on palatability, feed intake and digestibility should be conducted to visualize practically the extent of digested nutrients in these dry roughages, fodders and concentrates.
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Phylogenetic Analysis Of Newcastle Disease Virus On The Basis Of Fusion Protein Gene Isolated From Poultry In Lahore District
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Among the destructive and vastly communicable viral infections of poultry the most devastating disease is Newcastle Disease (ND) caused by a virus belong to genus Avulavirus of paramyxoviridae family, avian paramyxovirus-1. The NDV causes huge economic losses to the Poultry Industry. The available vaccines failed to protect the birds from the disease; this project is designed to find reasons of the vaccine failures. Keeping in view the importance of outbreaks reported due to NDV and adverse effects on Poultry Industry a study was conducted to examine the function of the cleavage site of Fusion protein sequencing, in Newcastle Disease Virus virulency through Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction via objective to find the genetic variations among the different isolates of Newcastle Disease field viruses in Lahore District.
One hundred suspected samples of NDV from dead and morbid birds were collected from different sources and areas of Lahore district. Prepared inoculums were inoculated in the 9-11 days old embryonated hen eggs for virus isolation. The allontoic amniotic fluid (AAF) was harvested and tested for HA activity. Further confirmation of NDV was done by using Reference NDV antiserum (HI). Out of 100 samples, 63 showed Hemagglutination activity with washed chicken RBCs and only 16 samples were repressed with specific known NDV antiserum. The remaining samples showed inhibition with known H5, H7 and H9 specific antiserum (12, 13, and 22) respectively. The isolates that were found to be positive through Hemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI) were further tested for Intra Cerebral Pathogencity Index (ICPI). ICPI was performed to characterize the isolates into Lentogenic, Mesogenic and Velogenic forms. The ICPI values obtained after pathogencity test of 16 isolates showed that only 6 isolates have the pathogenicity index above 1.5, and the remaining isolates below 1.5 and above 1, the average higher ICPI value of 16 virus isolates was 1.78.
On the basis of Intracerebral Pathogencity index (ICPI) results only 5 samples were selected for RNA extraction and PCR amplification. The RNA extraction was performed by using kit method (High Pure RNA Isolation kit by Roche-Germany) as recommended by the manufacturer. The gene representing F protein was amplified through Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Nucleotide sequencing of complete (1580 bp) F gene of 1 NDV isolate was performed. The sequencing results of 1580 bp were compiled and sequence alignment of the NDV isolates, based on a variable portion covering the F-gene site, was done by using, software, ClustalW. The Neighbor-joining phylogenetic Tree was constructed with bootstrap value 1000 using software, MEGA 4.1. The phylogenetic result showed that our isolate has been distinct from Pakistani isolate and has 96% similarity with SPVC/Karachi/33/2007 (velogenic) available in GenBank.
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Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Cattle
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great
economic importance in cattle industry. The current project was designed to estimate the
prevalence of anaplasmosis, ticks and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of
Anaplasma marginale among cattle in Sargodha, Khushab and Rawalpindi districts,
Punjab, Pakistan. Moreover, haematological changes in A. marginale infected cattle and
efficacy of chemosterilization regimens were evaluated using locally available drugs for
the elimination of adult naturally infected carrier cattle.
A total of 1050 blood, serum and tick specimens were collected from randomly
selected small holders (n=90) and private livestock farms (n= 12) using multistage cluster
random sampling technique. A total of 30 union councils, 34 cattle farms (30 small
holders and 4 livestock farms) and 350 cattle were selected as primary, secondary and
elementary sampling units from each district. Sampling unit was indigenous and
crossbred cattle of both the sexes.
Microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood mears revealed an overall
prevalence of blood parasites as 21.14%. Anaplasma marginale was the highe t prevalent
(5.81 %) haernoparasite of cattle followed in order by Theileria sp. (5.14%) and Babesia
bigemina (4.76%), respectively. Crossbred cattle were more susceptible to TBDs as
compared to the indigenous cattle. Highest prevalence of TBDs was recorded in summer.
The prevalence of tick-transmitted diseases was higher in small holders (31.3%) than
private livestock farms (17.5%). Chi square analysis indicated a significant association
(P<0.05) among indigenous and crossbred cattle to selected TBDs. Wherea. non-
significant association between different age groups, seasons, sex and farm sizes were
The overall seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle using cELlSA was
31.05%. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred cattle of more than 4 years of age and
there was a significant (P<O.OO I) association between different age groups and breed. The
seroprevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in summer season in Sargodha and
Khushab districts. Moreover, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in small holders
in all study districts.
The epidemiological data and relevant information regarding area, host and farm
management factors were collected on a questionnaire through interview from each dairy
farmer, attendant or manager from September, 2009 to August, 20 10. Multivariate
analysis of risk factors revealed that cattle of more than 4 year of age (OR=5.42), heavy
tick infested (OR =2.10), crossbred (OR = 1.59) cattle were significantly at higher risk for
seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale. Presence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)
microplus (OR=3.70), use of ivermectin (OR=3.97), moderate interval of acaricide
frequency (OR= 16.50), stall feeding (OR=4.90) and use of unhygienic needles
(OR=24.00) were significantly associated with seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale
in cattle (P<0.05). The Sargodha district was at higher risk (OR = 1.81) as compared to
Khushab and Rawalpindi.
The tick species identified from cattle were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum,
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguine us, Rhipicephalus
(Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. The overall prevalence of tick infestation
among cattle was 54.76%. The highest prevalence (57.71%) of cattle tick infestation was tick infested sites in cattle followed by dewlap (92%), inner thighs (90%), neck & back (54%), tail (26%), ears (13%), around eyes (10%), flanks (4%) and legs (2%).
The haematological changes were studied at different levels of parasitaemia " 7%, >7-15% and> 15%) in Anaplasma marginale infected Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. There was a significant difference (P<O.OS) among total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular
haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) at different levels of rickettsemia in both breeds. ignificant difference (P<O.OS) was noticed among RBCs, PCV and MCH blood parameters between Sahiwal and crossbred cattle.
A total of sixty Anaplasma marginale seropositive adult Sahiwal cattle were selected having their ages between 3-4 years ranging in weight from 246-341 kg. The animals were divided in four groups designated as OXY -group-I, E RO-group-II, IMC- group-III and control-group-IV, comprising IS animals each. The seropositive animals received oxytetracycline (22 mglkg IV once in a day for five days), enrofloxacin (S mglkg IV once in a day for five days) or imidocarb (S mglkg 1M twice, 7 days apart). Re ult of chemosterilization study indicated that oxytetracycline 13/1S (86.67%) and irnidocarb
dipropionate II/IS (73.33%) eliminated Anaplasma marginale infection in adult naturally infected carrier cattle on S6th day. The carrier clearance was confirmed by cELISA followed by subinoculation of blood in seronegative splenectomized calves.
It was concluded that TTBDs are widely distributed in Punjab, Pakistan. Host. management and area factors are involved with the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Haemolytic anaemia is the major haematological finding of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Oxytetracycline is more effective and safe In chemosterilization of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. There is a need for country wide epidemiological studies on ticks and TBDs using advanced serological
and molecular techniques. Moreover, the identification of the potential vector of anaplasmosis should be required for the effective prevention and control of anaplasmosis in Pakistan.
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Production, Purification And Evaluation Of Anti Tetanus Serum
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: To produce anti-tetanus serum, ten female sheep of about 3 years of age are immunized with commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccine (Imatet™, Amson vaccines and Pharma) for eighteen weeks to these experimental animals with two weeks interval. Serum samples of all the sheep were also collected fortnightly and stored at -20 ºC.
ELISA was performed to determine the antibody (IgG) titer of all the test samples. Out of 90 samples, 20 samples showed tetanus antibody (IgG) titer of 100.8 I.U. or more, while 8 samples presented tetanus antibody (IgG) titer of 160.9 IU or more. Out of these 8 samples, 3 samples had tetanus antibody (IgG) titer of 190.9 I.U. or more. Maximum tetanus antibody (IgG) titer was 195.4 I.U. at day 120.
Three samples exhibiting maximum antibody titer (190.9 I.U., 195 I.U. and 195.4 I.U.) were mixed in equal quantities for purification of Immunoglobulins (IgG). A volume of 15 mL of aggregated serum samples was mixed with 15 ml of saturated ammonium sulfate having final concentration of 45 % in the mixture which is continuously stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. Mixture was centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 30 minutes in refrigerated centrifuge machine and dialyzed against 10 changes of PBS at 4 ºC. Desalting is checked with BaCl2 solution.
The purified tetanus immunoglobulins (IgG) were treated with papain to produce Fab Fragments. Then the protein content of the purified tetanus immunoglobulins and Fab fragments was estimated with Bradford protein Assay. BSA standard curve was used to produce a regression equation [Y (OD Value) = 0.218 + 0.033 X (Protein Concentration)] which was used for calculation of the protein contents of the samples.
The purified tetanus immunoglobulins and Fab fragments were tested for purity with SDS-PAGE analysis. Then in vivo toxin neutralization test was performed in mice to check the tetanus toxin neutralization ability of the sera produced.
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Prevalence Of Trichomonas Foetus In Large Ruminants Of District Hafiizabad
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Trichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a protozoan parasite of reproductive tract of large ruminants and causes abortion. This organism is found in males and females associated with varied pathology and clinical symptom. Disease has venereal transmission and male remain infected throughout the life. Pakistan is a developing country and artificial insemination facility is not available to all farmers and some are reluctant to avail it.
This study was designed to check the prevalence of T. foetus in large animals in district Hafizabad. One hundred and fifty preputial and vaginal samples were collected from cattle and buffaloes 75 each. These samples were from 100 females and 50 males. Vaginal mucus from females was thoroughly examined for T. foetus in direct smear and in smear stained by Giemsa stain. Male samples were subjected to examination by direct smear, centrifugation and stained smear performed from sediments for detection of T. foetus. Overall prevalence of T. foetus was 12.0% (18/150) in sampled animals and species wise T. foetus infection was 8% (6/75) for cattle and 16% (12/75) for buffalos. Sex related prevalence of T. foetus in cows is 6% (3/50) and in buffaloes was 14% (7/50). Infection was more common in buffalo bulls 20% (5/25) as compared with cow bulls 12% (3/25).
There was no difference in diagnosis of T. foetus in females by direct smear or by examination of stained smears. Whereas stained smears prepared from sediments of preputial washings were more sensitive in diagnosing of T. foetus infection as compared with direct smear method. Study also indicated that infection was exclusively seen in animals that were involved in natural breeding.
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Chemical Equivalence Of Different Brands Of Oxytertacycline Hydrochloride And Its Minimum
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the chemical equivalence of various brands of Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (long acting, short acting & PVP) approved by the ministry of health and available in the local market for veterinary use. Oxytetracycline was measured by HPLC method developed and standardized in the laboratory. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the Oxytetracycline by HPLC assay method were determined. From stock solution of working standard (Oxytetracycline hydrochloride) different concentrations 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 10, 25, 50 and 100µg per ml were prepared for the determination of LOD. The LOD calculated was 0.100(µg/ml) and LOQ was 0.5 (µg/ml). Correlation coefficient was 0.99994050. Concentration of the active ingredient (Oxytetracycline hydrochloride) in all preparations was same as mentioned on the label except Oxytetracycline (74%), Terrasym PVP-100 (81%), and Onyx-LA (72%).
MIC of Oxytetracycline hydrochloride against following bacterial isolates determined by micro-broth dilution test was Bacillus subtilis (50µg), Staphylococcus aureus (100µg), Eschericiha coli (50µg), Salmonella enterica (1000µg) and Pasturella multocida (50µg).It showed that all these bacterial cultures have developed resistance against Oxytetracycline hydrochloride.
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Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Method And Staple Suture Technique For Intestinal Aanastomosis In Dogs
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Intestinal resection and anastomosis is frequently essential during abdominal surgeries. Indications for intestinal resection are malignancy, inflammation, stricture formation, injuries and ischemia. Several surgical situations necessitate the resection of intestinal segments and the formation of consistent anastomoses. Conventionally, a large diversity of suture materials has been used to make hand-sewn anastomoses. Surgical stapler was made for the first time at the beginning of 20th century but its use remained limited in gastrointestinal surgery. Currently, stapled anastomoses is an essential part of the majority of the gastrointestinal surgeries. The simple-interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique, in which absorbable monofilament suture material is used, is presently believed to be the technique of choice for end-to-end bowel anastomosis. This procedure is mostly used in gastrointestinal surgeries with comparatively lesser complications. Intestinal anastomosis with skin staples was started by military surgeons for the soldiers suffering from bowel trauma caused by gunfire. In this technique, stainless steel skin staples were used to create a seromuscular intestinal anastomoses. There are several types of staplers available in markets, e.g. circular ligators, clip appliers, endoscopic staplers etc. The circular stapler is a disposable anastomotic instrument that places a round, double staggered row of titanium staples connecting intervening tissues. It can generate an end-to-end, end-to-side, or side-to-side anastomosis. This round stapler is available with a variety of staple line diameters to be used according to need. In current years, there has been a large shift from hand-sewn method towards the use of intestinal stapler in gastrointestinal surgery. They present a possible reduction in operational timing and are easy to learn and use than for hand-sewn method. So, staplers are very popular in the trainee. This research project was tested on 12 mongrel dogs divided randomly into two different groups (A and B). Each group comprised of 6 dogs. Conventional hand-sewn method of end-to-end anastomosis was applied on group A and stapled anastomosis was made in the dogs of group B. Two surgical techniques were applied for end to end anastomosis of jejunum. In group-A conventional hand-sewn anastomosis technique was applied. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and then anatomosed with simple interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique. The absorbable, monofilament suture material was applied manually. This is currently considered the method of choice for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in small animal surgery. This technique is well described and has been used throughout the canine gastrointestinal tract with a relatively low complication rate. In group-B a circular mechanical stapler was used to construct anastomosis. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and end-to-end anatomosis was made using a mechanical stapler. Comparison of both techniques was made on the basis of clinical parameters (temperature, pulse, respiration, vomiting, diarrhea and blood in feces), radiographic evaluation, exploratory laparotomy, change in lumen diameter and duration of surgical procedure. There is a significant difference in change in diameter within each group before and after surgery but there is no significant difference in change in diameter or stenosis formation between these two groups. There is a significant difference in the duration of operation; stapled group significantly requires an average of 10 minutes less than conventional hand-sewn method. Conclusively it was inferred that there is no significant difference in change in diameter between stapled group and hand sewn group but the anastomosis construction time is shorter in stapled group. Stapled anastomosis is safe and faster technique than hand-sewn method. The prevalence of low complication rate makes it all the more ideal for application in routine practices.
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Evaluation Of Different Extenders For The Cryopreservation Of Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Semen
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Buffalo is playing an important role in our country's economy by producing milk, meat and draught power. Genetic potential of low producing animals can be improved by using artificial insemination technology. Unfortunately, less number of elite bulls are available and low fertility rate of buffalo by using cryopreserved semen has been obtained. Semen is exposed to osmotic and oxidative stresses during processing, cryopreservation and thawing before insemination. Fertilizing ability is lost due to spermatozoa damage and it ultimately results in poor conception rates in buffalo. In order to protect spermatozoa from these stresses and improve fertility in buffalo, five osmotic pressure based concentrations of three extenders i.e. Citrate egg yolk extender (CEYE), Tris egg yolk extender (TEYE), and Lactose egg yolk extender (LEYE) were prepared by varying the quantity of the solutes to obtain an osmotic pressure of 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295 mOsm/kg. Osmotic pressure was measured by an osmometer.
In the first experiment, equal volume of semen obtained from four Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was pooled and used to study the effects of osmotic pressure on post thawed semen characteristics. For this purpose, three basic media: citrate fructose media, tris citric acid fructose media and lactose media were prepared and divided each media in to five equal parts to maintain osmotic pressures of 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295mOsm/kg. These basis media were stored in a biomedical freezer, which were later used in preparing three semen extenders i.e. Citrate egg yolk extender (CEYE), Tris egg yolk extender (TEYE), and Lactose egg yolk extender (LEYE). During each collection, fifteen extenders (each of three extenders having five osmotic pressures i.e. 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295mOsm/kg) were used to extend the semen. After freezing, semen characteristics like sperm motility rate, viability rate, acrosomal integrity rate, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) rate, MTT reduction rate, sperm DNA integrity rate and lipid peroxidation were noted. Post thaw sperm motility rate in (%) CEYE was significant (P<0.05) at 295mOsm/kg compared to 255, 265 and 275mOsm/kg. However, sperm motility rate of different osmotic pressures of TEYE and LEYE was non-significant (P>0.05). Sperm viability rate (%) was non-significant (P>0.05) in all three extenders. Sperm acrosomal integrity rate was non-significant in CEYE and LEYE. However, it was significant (P<0.05) at 265, 275 and 295mOsm/kg in TEYE. Sperm PMI rate, MTT reduction rate, sperm DNA integrity rate and lipid peroxidation were non-significant (P>0.05) in CEYE, TEYE and LEYE.
On the basis of the individual and overall comparison of different semen characteristics of three extenders and their osmotic pressures, LEYE with 295mOs.kg was considered to be continued in the next experiment to upgrade the extender by adding taurine (TA) at 0.0, 30, 50 and 70 mM and trehalose (TR) at 0.0, 20, 40, 60 mM concentration. Semen collection, processing, freezing etc were done as per experiment-1 and same post thaw tests were carried out. Post thaw sperm motility rate was significantly (P<0.05) higher at TA-0.0 and TA-20mM and all concentration of TR. Sperm viability rate, acrosomal integrity rate, PMI rate, MTT reduction rate and lipid peroxidation at different concentrations of TA and TR were recorded non-significant (P>0.05). However, sperm DNA integrity rate was significant (P<0.05) higher at TA-0.0 and TR-0.0mM.
On the basis of comparison of different semen characteristics under various concentrations of taurine or trehalose, supplemented in semen extenders. Concentration of TR-70mM was considered to be continued in the next experiment to test fertility of the optimized extender.
Semen straws of LEYE supplemented with TR-70mM were used to inseminate the 50 buffaloes in heat (Supplemented group), while, traditionally used tris based buffalo bull semen extender was used (control group) to compared pregnancy rate (PR) of this experiment. Pregnancy rate in control and supplemented group was 38 and 54% respectively, which was statistically non-significant (P>0.05).
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Isolation, Characterization Of Chondroitin Sulphate And Its Efficacy In Osteoarthritis
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Chondroitin sulphate (CS) and Glucosamine sulphate (GS) are two main components of articular cartilage. It is believed that these molecules slow down wear and tear of cartilage. Moreover, if administered exogenously as drugs, these may initiate synthesizing capacity of cartilage. Among these, GS promotes the formation and repair of cartilage, whereas CS promotes elasticity and prevent cartilage breakdown by inhibiting degradative enzymes. Concurrent use of both structural units of cartilage as drugs in osteoarthritis (OA) may lessen the progression of disease.
The present study was conducted to elucidate the chicken keel cartilage as an alternate and potential source for this endogenous component that may be used exogenously to repair or prevent damage to joints. Chicken keel cartilages were collected from healthy broilers. CS was extracted using MgCl2 solution (3M), dialyzed and digested with papain. The extracted material was purified by ethanol precipitation, centrifugation and then freeze dried. Proximate analysis of semi-purified polysaccharides revealed the presence of carbohydrates (65.49±0.10), crude protein (12.82±0.26), ash (11.12±.56), moisture (9.88±0.32) and fat (0.69±0.14). Fiber contents were found to be nil in the processed samples. Dimethylmethylene blue binding (DMMB) assay was performed for determination of percent contents of CS in extracted semi-purified samples and mean concentration was found to be 70.77±2.35. Semi-purified polysaccharides were further characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer) technique and characteristic Peaks of CS molecules were recorded at 854, 854 and 853 cm-1 and then compared with spectrum of standard CS. Protein content being a major impurity in extracted samples was determined by Bradford method quantitatively (4.64±0.29). Two protein impurities having 77.8 and 50.5 kDa molecular weights were revealed by SDS-PAGE.
Efficacy of semi-purified CS from chicken keel cartilage, standard CS from shark source and GS, alone and in combination in experimental OA rat model was evaluated. To develop OA similar to spontaneous OA, 10mg papain/0.5mL (Sigma, Cat # P 3125) in buffered solution of 0.05 M sodium acetate pH 4.5 was injected intra-articularly in each right knee joint of fifty five albino rats (pre-anesthetized with anesthetic ether). Ten rats (n= 10) were injected with 0.5mL of normal saline (0.9%) in right knee joint that served as control group. Then from fifty five papain injected rats, twenty five were divided into five groups (n=5) for development and assessment of OA model (OA groups). Progression of disease was monitored by clinical scores, histopathological scores and concentration of CTX-II as biomarker in sera samples of experimental rats by ELISA using a commercial kit (serum preclinical CartiLaps ® ELISA kit) for control and OA groups (n=5) on day 0 (control group) and days 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post papain injection (OA groups). Highest mean clinical score (10.38±1.1) was observed on 1st day and least on 28th day post papain injection i.e. 5.00±.34. Highest mean histopathological score and CTX-II concentration was recorded on 28th day i.e. 12.82±1.64 and 36.82±3.81. Values of clinical scores, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentration reached to maximum on 21st day and then sustained thereon. Second phase of experiment is comprised of evaluating and comparing the efficacy of extracted CS samples (chicken keel cartilages), standard CS (shark source) alone and in combination with GS. For this purpose, remaining five rats out of ten injected with normal saline intra-articularly served as control groups along with treated and non treated groups of experimental rats. Remaining thirty OA induced rats were divided into six groups (five rats /group). Group 1 (n=5) called non treated group received only placebo till 60th day and served as negative control group.
Treated Group 2 received GS alone, Group 3 CS (standard) and Group 4 were given extracted CS. Group 5 was treated with combination of GS plus CS (standard) and Group 6 with GS plus CS (sample). Doses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were administered as 1.2g/kg/day CS and 1.5g/kg/day GS alone and in combinations. Drugs were offered early in the morning in bolus form with feed (10g) after overnight fasting while non-treated group received only placebo (without any drug).
Anti-arthritis activities of CS standard and extracted alone and in combination with GS were assessed clinically, analyzed statistically by using one way ANOVA. Level of significance (P<0.05) was recorded by using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) Post hoc Test. Mean scores of clinical, histopathology and CTX-II concentrations observed at 60th day in control rats (without OA) were 0.00, 0.00 and 2.55, respectively. OA induced untreated group showed mean score for clinical signs, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentrations 4.15, 12.24 and 36.70 and GS treated group 3.19, 3.96 and 6.12 at 60th day of treatment, respectively. For CS (standard), mean scores of clinical signs, histopathological lesions and CTX-II concentrations were recorded as 2.64, 2.44 and 4.48 and for CS (extracted) were 2.26, 2.28 and 4.40 in sera correspondingly at 60th day of treatment. The lowest mean values of clinical signs, histopathology and CTX-II concentrations in sera of treated group with standard CS plus GS were found to be 0.94, 0.94 and 2.62 followed by extracted CS plus GS treated groups 01.05, 1.27 and 2.74, respectively. Clinical, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentrations in group of rats treated with combinations were found to reverse the diseased condition after 60th days of treatment as the values were close to that of normal rats and far away from OA rats. It is concluded that extracted CS from poultry has comparable efficacy with CS standard from shark source alone and in combination with GS. Poultry by-product (keel cartilage) is found to be an alternate and cheap source for CS (chondroprotective agent) as compare to expensive, less available and religiously prohibited source for Islamic countries particularly.
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Study Of Socio-Demogrphic And Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated With Foot And Mouth
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: A cross sectional study was conducted during February 2012 to April 2012, in Chagai district, Balochistan. Information about education and economic status of the farmers, managemental practices, vaccination, outbreak history, veterinary services and transboundry animal movement was collected from 323 (282/323 farmers and 41/323 livestock traders) on a structured questionnaire. The status of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not known in Chagai, following research has been planned to see the potential association between farming practices and FMD.
Factors which were significantly associated with the occurrence of foot and mouth disease in district Chagai were education level of Farmers (illiterate 60%, literate 40%) and livestock traders (illiterate 42%, literate 58%), socioeconomic status of the farmers <20000 rupees (63%) and >20000 rupees (37%) and livestock traders <20000 rupees (12%) and >20000 rupees (88%), type of animals in the herd of farmers (cattle, 2%, sheep 4.2%, goat 19%, cattle-sheep-goat 9% and sheep-goat 67%) and livestock traders (cattle 17%, goat 3%, cattle-sheep-goat 68% and sheep-goat 12%), housing system used by farmers (open 93%, closed 7) and livestock traders (open 12%, closed 78%), feeding methods in case of farmers (grazing 93%, stall feeding 7%) vaccination against FMD farmers (yes 3%, no 97%) and livestock traders (yes 39%, no 61%), veterinary services available to farmers (yes 17%, no 87%) and livestock traders (yes 48%, no 52%) , nomadic movement of farmers (yes 62%, no 38%), export of live animals (yes 73%, no 27%) and import (yes 10%, no 90%). Other managmental practices like quarantine (no, 100%), isolation of sick animals from the herd (no, 100%), feeding of young animals milk of the sick mothers (yes, 100%) and proper disposal of the dead animals (no, 100%) were factors which were not analyzed due to zero cell values.
It is concluded that illiteracy, poor economic status of farmers, type of animals (sheep and goat), open housing system, mixed grazing in the range land, low vaccine coverage, poor veterinary services and free movement of animals are strongly associated with the occurrence of foot and mouth disease in Chagai district. Transboudry animal movement of livestock to and from Afghanistan and Iran can aggravate the situation. Regular vaccination of livestock and awareness of farmers can help to improve the animal health status in Chagai.
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Identification Of Single Nucleotide Potymorphisms In Atp Synthase F0 Subunit 6 And Synthase 8 Genes
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Pakistan is a fertile country regarding Animal Genetic Resource (AnGR), which have more than 1 million camel population belonging to 21 breeds of one humped camel i.e. Camelus dromedarius. Pakistan is the third major camel raising county in the world after Somalia and Sudan. All camel breeds of Pakistan has unique phenotypic traits, however, genetic data is inadequate for their evolutionary and phylogentic study. So to explore and use the genetic potential of dromedary camel, this research work was done.
ATP 6 and ATP 8 genes
ATP synthase is an enzyme in which oxidative phosphorylation occurs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The objective of this research was to examine the sequence of ATP 6 and ATP 8 genes in eight camel breeds of Pakistan (Marceeha, Barela, Kachhi, Pahari, Thari, Watni, Kharani, and mix-bred) to find SNPs and to see phylogenetic relationship among them as well as their position while considering already reported camel breeds from all over the world along with other mammalian species in GenBank NCBI.
A total of 79 blood samples from eight selected camel breeds of Pakistan, were collected from different government livestock farms and private owners in respective breeding areas of each breed by travelling throughout the country. DNA was extracted and quantified using standard protocols. Specific primers for the selected ATP 6 and ATP 8 genes was designed using primer fox software from reported sequences from the NCBI GenBank (Accession number, JN632608). Primers were optimized and PCR amplification was done on all camel DNA samples. Then all PCR products were processed for sequencing using ABI Prism Genetic Analyzer 3130 xl following standard protocols.
Sequence and Phylogenetic analyses
All sequences were aligned and analyzed using blast2sequence available on NCBI and CodonCode Aligner. Twenty nine Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from the aligned 842 bp coding region of ATP 6 and ATP 8 genes. Consensus sequences for eight breeds of Pakistan were used for construction of phylogenetic tree (Neighbor-Joining method) among them using MEGA5.1 software package. The tree indicated high genetic similarity between Mareecha and Pahari camel breeds of Punjab. The Thari, Watni, Kharani and Kachhi breeds of Balochistan province grouped close to each other indicating genetic relatedness among them. Further the phylogenetic trees were constructed for the comparison of Pakistani camel sequences with reported sequences of other camel breeds of the world and different species/ mammals available on GenBank, NCBI. The UPGMA Phylogenetic tree showed the high similarity of all Pakistani camels with Arabian dromedarius camel confirming the dromedarius genetic architecture of Pakistani camels. The two humped (Camelus bactrianus) grouped separately like llama, alpaca (the biological cousins of camel), However both types of camel and llamas were clustered together in one clade while all other mammalian species were grouped together in another clade. However cattle, yak and American bison grouped together, buffalo remained close to cattle. Sheep and goat were also grouped together. Conclusively the phylogenetic tree based on ATP 6 and ATP 8 genes reconfirmed not only the genetic position of Pakistani camel but also the biological/ taxonomic classification of other mammals and species.
Significance of research work
This work provided the genetic information on eight selected camel breeds of Pakistan and contributed in the existing information in Animal Genetic Resources of Pakistan and helped in exploring the rich genetic structure of our local camel breeds for their effective and meaningful conservation for future generations of Pakistan. This study was just an initial step to explore the genetic worth of Pakistani camel and data produced may act as base line information for other researcher planning to do more research work on camel to get maximum benefits from genetic potential of camel with its unique characteristics. This may also be helpful in designing proper breeding and conservation policies for camel in Pakistan.
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Serofpidemiology, Zoonotic Potential And Chemotherapy Of Neosporosis In Dogs And Cattle
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The aim of current study was to demonstrate the most important features of Neospora caninum infection in Pakistan. In the present study, I examined the prevalence of N. caninum in 7 districts of the country and to accessed the efficacy of various drugs against the parasite in cell culture.
For the achievement of this purpose, the core objectives were,
To have an overview on the overall seroprevalence of neosporosis throughout the country by means of cELISA in aborting, at risk and clinically healthy cows.
To check the correlation of Iscom ELISA and cELISA, and determination of prevalence of N. caninum by means of Iscom ELISA on milk samples.
To identify the transmission of disease towards human.
To determine the efficacy of various drugs against N. caninum.
In phase 1, overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle (detected by means of cELISA, VMRD, Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) was found to be 43.4% with a significant difference (P < 0.05) of seropositivity among all 18 herds (n = 5 aborting herds, n = 13 non-aborting/clinically healthy herds) selected from 7 districts of Pakistan. The seropositivity of cattle to N. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in aborting animals (52.7%) as compared to non-aborting cows ( 41.5%), indicating a significant difference between aborting and non-aborting cattle. In case of pregnant and non-pregnant animals, similar findings were recorded in our study. A significantly higher rate of seroprevalence was observed in pregnant dams (59.8%) than non-pregnant cattle (35.2%). Overall, higher serological prevalence was evaluated during the summer season (61.1%) in all areas followed by autumn (46.9%), spring (34.9%) and least seropositivity was observed in winter season (26.6%).
The difference in seropositivity was significantly different among all age groups, greater in animals older than 2 years of age. Furthermore, the prevalence was statistically significant (P < 0.05) among cattle of different breeds. Seroprevalence in cases of crossbred animals were higher followed by exotic and indigenous breeds.
Phase 2, describes the seroprevalence of N. caninum in clinically healthy dairy cows. A selection of 760 animals from 13 dairy herds located in Punjab and Sindh Province, Pakistan to demonstrate the presence or absence of the Neospora caninum infection in commercial dairy cattle. The serostatus of the cows towards N. caninum was detected by cELISA (VMRD, Pullman, WA). Out of 760 animals, (43.2%) were seropositive to N. caninum. A significant difference of positivity was recorded among all 13 dairy herds. Age wise prevalence though not statistically significant among all age groups, was greater in animals over 2 years of age and least in heifers. Variation was also observed in samples from cattle of different breeds. A significantly higher prevalence was observed in crossbred animals than in purebred and nondescript cattle. Seasonal prevalence was higher during summer season than rest of the seasons. The seroprevalence of N. caninum in pregnant cows was significantly greater than in non-pregnant animals.
Second experiment of this phase describes the seroprevalence of 240 animals from 5 herds with a high rate of abortion, the percentage of seropositivity observed in these herds was 43.8%, slightly higher than the clinically healthy and non-aborting cattle. No significant difference was observed among all sample locations in this experiment. However, significant difference of positivity was recorded among different breeds of cattle. Age wise prevalence, though not statistically significant (P > 0.05), was greater in animals older than 2 years of age.
The assessment of milk samples from lactating cows were also determined for Neospora caninum antibodies by means of Iscom ELISA (SANOVIR® Sanova Biotech AB, Uppasala, Sweden) and showed a good level of agreement (r² = 0.9959) between the two tests (cELISA and Iscom ELISA). Although, the cELISA (VMRD, Inc., Pullman, USA) expressed a higher seropositivity and sensitivity than Iscom ELISA (Sanova Biotech AB, Uppasala, Sweden). Therefore, both of the ELISA tests (cELISA and Iscom ELISA) for the detection of N. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle can perform better in lactating animals. The Iscom ELISA has some advantages over cELISA as it's easy to collect milk samples than serum samples, moreover Iscom ELISA is cheaper and easy to use but has low sensitivity than cELISA and cannot be used in dry animals. The percentage of positivity detected through Iscom ELISA on individual milk samples were 61.4% and 76.6% by cELISA.
In phase 3, an epidemiological study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs of different breeds and age groups. The serum samples of dogs were analyzed by cELISA (VMRD, Pullman, USA) showed a seropositivity of 23.5%. There was no significant difference of seropositivity among various sample locations, highest prevalence was observed in Muzaffar Garh (31.9%), followed by Gujranwala (27.9%), Lahore (25.1%), Hafizabad (20.2%) and least prevalence was recorded in district Okara (14.6%). A significant difference in prevalence of N. caninum antibodies between male (26.1%) and female (18.8%) dogs were recorded. The difference in seroprevalence was not significant among all age groups. The samples with no age record showed a highest prevalence (29.5%) and least seropositivity was observed in adult dogs of 3-6 years of age (18.7%). During Summer season, highest positivity to N. caninum was (31.0%) recorded while the lowest prevalence (16.0%) was observed in Winter season.
Phase 4, describes the seroprevalence and transmission of N. caninum in humans. A selection of 52 serum samples from humans was analyzed for the presence of N. caninum antibodies. The serostatus of the humans towards N. caninum antibodies (IgG) was determined by using commercially available antigen coated IFAT slides (VMRD, Inc., Pullman, Washington USA) and human conjugate. Overall very low prevalence (1.9%) of N. caninum antibodies was reported in this study. Only one case was found to be positive, these findings indicate that no strong evidence of N. caninum infection in humans.
In phase 5, in vitro drug trials was conducted to access the best efficacy of three commercially available drugs. We found that among three anticoccidial drugs i.e Clindamycin, Diclazuril and Sulfadiazine, Diclazuril has best inhibitory effect against N. caninum tachyzoites in cell culture followed by Clindamycin and sulfadiazine.
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Genetic Evaluation Of Teddy Goats In Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Data available on 20455 kidding and performance records of 5545 Teddy goats and progeny of 406 sires maintained as separate flocks at three different locations i,e (I) Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman, District Bakkhar (1983-2008) (II) Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Khariewala District Layyah (1971-2008) and (III) Livestock Experiment Station Chak Katora, District Bahawalpur (1975-2008) Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed for documenting both genetic and environmental sources which influence growth and reproductive traits. Breeding values of sires and does were estimated and genetic and phenotypic trends for various performance traits were drawn. The data was analyzed using the GLM procedure (General Linear Models) of the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS, 2004) to study the influence of environmental sources of variation on various growth and reproductive traits. The genetic parameter estimation was done using REML procedure fitting an Individual Animal Model. Estimates of breeding values for various performance traits were also calculated by using BLUP. For these purposes WOMBAT software was used.
The Least squares means for Age at first service, Age at first kidding, Weight at first service, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period, kidding interval, birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six months, weight at nine months, yearling weight, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six months, post-weaning daily gain at nine months and post-weaning daily gain at twelve months the least squares means were 245.65±0.73 days, 14.07±0.01 kg, 394.14±0.76 days, 18.06±0 kg, 1.24±0.004, 153.58±0.73 days, 327.53±1.12 days, 1.66±0.03 kg, 9.59±0.01 kg, 11.70±0.02 kg, 16.69±0.02 kg, 21.03±0.03 kg, 70.21±0.16 grams, 31.39±0.08 grams, 45.25±0.03 grams and 45.95±0.02 grams, respectively. The percentage of single births was 43 percent, while multiple births were 57 percent. The sex ratio was 51:49 males and females.
Year, sex, flock, and type of birth were main sources of variation on all the growth traits. The influence of season of birth was significant on yearling weight; however its effect on weight at six and nine months was non-significant. A significant influence of (p<0.01) birth and weaning weight was noticed on weight at 6, 9, 12 months and on post-weaning daily gain at 6,9 and 12 months. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, birth weight and weight at service were observed on age of does at first service, while the seasonal and flock effect on the trait was non-significant. The influential environmental sources of variation on weight of does at first service were year, season and age at first service(p<0.01). A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, season, type, age and weight at service on age and weight at first kidding was noticed. The influence of year of service, flock, age and weight at service on services per conception was significant (p<0.01); however, effect of season of service on the trait was non-significant. A highly significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season of service, services per conception and weight at service were observed on service period. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season on kidding interval was noticed. The effect of flock was non-significant on the trait, however, age and weight at kidding had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the service period and kidding interval.
The heritability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at twelve months, age at first service, weight at first service, age at first kidding, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.28±0.23, 0.23±0.32, 0.19±0.42, 0.09±0.01 and 0.12±0.01, 0.21±0.32, 0.17±0.42, 0.12±0.02, 0.15±0.01, 0.19±0.22, 0.21±0.01, 0.19±0.04, 0.20±0.04, 0.07±0.01, 0.06±0.05 and 0.05±0.03, respectively. The repeatability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.53±0.02, 0.38±0.01, 0.02±0.05, 0.01±0.04 and 0.05±0.03, respectively.
The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between birth weight and other growth traits were; weaning weight 0.61, 0.20 and 0.19, with weight at six months 0.39, 0.24 and 0.23, with weight at nine months 0.25, 0.38 and 0.36, with yearling weight 0.29, -0.01 and -0.02 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.55, 0.31 and 0.29, respectively, while corresponding values for correlations between weaning weight and other growth traits were; with weight at six months 0.29, 0.19 and 0.17, with weight at nine months 0.23, 0.27 and 0.25, with yearling weight 0.45, 0.29 and 0.27 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.97, 0.68 and 0.65, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at six months and other growth traits were; with weight at nine months 0.71, 0.27 and 0.25 with yearling weight 0.64, 0.21 and 0.19 and with pre-weaning daily gain were 0.31, 0.33, 0.31, respectively. The values for these correlations between weight at nine months and other traits were; with yearling weight 0.79, 0.23 and 0.21, with pre-weaning daily gain 0.25, 0.39 and 0.37, with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.72, 0.81 and 0.79, respectively, while the estimates of these three correlations between yearling weight and other traits were; with pre-weaning daily gain 0.47, 0.41 and 0.42 and with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.65, 0.10 and 0.08, while the corresponding values between pre-weaning daily gain and other traits were; with post-weaning gain at six months were 0.34, 0.15 and 0.13, with post-weaning gain at nine months 0.22, 0.13 and 0.12 and with post-weaning daily gain at twelve months were 0.54, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively.
The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between age at first serviceand other traits were; with weight at first service 0.22, 0.79 and 0.76, with age at first kidding 0.76, 0.97 and 0.91 and with weight at first kidding 0.34, 0.14 and 0.11, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at first service and other traits were; with age at first kidding 0.39, 0.81 and 0.80, with weight at first kidding 0.35, 0.22 and 0.21 and with weight at first kidding 0.82, 0.18 and 0.16, respectively.
Analysis of pedigree records for coefficient of inbreeding revealed that number of animals being 4465 (42.61 percent) with an average inbreeding of 2.43 percent and the highest level being 46.48 percent. The number of non-inbred animals was 6014 (57.39%). Out of the total of 406 sires used 23 were found inbred having an average inbreeding coefficient of 3.125 percent. Most frequent value for this category of animals was zero. The highest number of animals 1531 (14.61 percent) had an inbreeding percentage between 0.1 to 3.125, while only 104 animals (0.99 percent) were found with inbreeding of more than 25 percent. Most of the growth traits were statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds except yearling weight and post-weaning weight gain at twelve months, in which the means of both the traits were similar in both the groups. Among reproductive traits, age at first serviceand kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were also statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds, while weight at first service and kidding interval were similar in both the groups.
The ranges for estimated breeding values for different traits were, birth weight (-0.18 to 0.08 kg), weaning weight (-0.61 to 0.40 kg), weight at six months (-0.27 to 0.11 kg), weight at nine months, (-0.07 to 0.09 kg), yearling weight (-0.12 to 0.18 kg), pre-weaning daily gain (-0.30 to 1.20 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 6 months (-0.74 to 1.27 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 9 months (-0.32 to 0.57 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 12 months (-1.08 to 1.57 grams), age at first service(-43.23 to 58.06 days), weight at first service (-0.55 to 1.07 kg), age at first kidding (-53.31 to 48.34 days), weight at first kidding (-1.19 to 3.50 kg), services per conception (-0.18 to 0.16), service period (-7.07 to 9.80 days) and kidding interval (-13.23 to 20.89 days), respectively. The genetic trend in both birth weight and weaning weight showed an increasing trend during the period of study, while the genetic trend in weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months had no significant trend and fluctuated in the vicinity of zero.
It is envisaged from the present study that over the 34 years period selection remained ineffective to bring the desired changes and it will remain so if random use of breeding animals is practiced. The possible use of ineffective selection could be unavailability of efficient techniques for the evaluation of animals and incorrect performance recording etc. It is therefore, necessary to correct all these discrepancies by taking corrective measures as discussed above. The following corrective measures may be a first step towards a goal oriented breeding policy.
1. The animals kept mainly for producing meat, the single most important factor is reproductive rate, which contributes to the efficiency of production (Shelton 1978). The most striking feature of sheep and goat enterprise is the ability to breed, off-season. Teddy goat is a non-seasonal breeder as kidding was observed throughout year with 36%, 19%, 25% and 20% kiddings recorded during spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively, therefore a controlled breeding programme being practiced at times (as was observed during the present study at all the three stations) should not be advocated in any form at all and the desirable trait of non-seasonality should be the main pillar of a meat goat enterprise.
2. Although a higher percentage of abortions (70%) was observed in summer months but the percentage of dead births and mortality was almost equally distributed throughout the year, which indicates that better management of the flock during extremes of weather will results in less abortions and reduced mortality.
3. The high percentage of multiple births (57%) as against single births (43%) in teddy goats found in present study has backing of several studies, which showed that although there was slow growth rate in multiple births, yet they performed better by producing more total weight of kid weaned. Therefore prolificacy becomes a very important reproductive criteria and therefore emphasis should be selection of those animals with higher percentage of multiple births.
4. Environmental effects on productive and reproductive traits were significant; therefore through better management there are ample chances of improvement in these traits.
5. Low to medium heritability was recorded in all the growth traits, which offers scope for genetic selection.
6. Selection of animals to be the parents of future flock must be based on EBVs of growth traits.
7. Reproductive performance in present study was more than satisfactory. Early maturity which has been the main characteristic of Teddy breed was better as compared to many other breeds of the tropics (Beetal, Kamori, Jamunapari and Sirohi). Teddy goats were efficient than other breeds of the region when the means of the other reproductive traits like services per conception, service period and kidding interval were taken into consideration, however, room for improvement is still there.
8. Inbreeding in present study showed some increasing trend during the last five years and the percentage of animals kept on increasing during the last decade, therefore to control inbreeding a breeding plan with introduction of new blood from time to time is of utmost importance.
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Epidemiological, Haematological & Serological Studies Of Leptospirosis In Dogs And Human At High Risk In And Around Lahore City
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis of global importance capable of causing significant subclinical and clinical syndromes both in humans and animals. The disease is characterized by fever, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia and other signs consistent with renal and hepatic disease. Considering the significance and the substantial losses rendered by Leptospirosis, the present project was designed to study epidemiology and haematology in dogs and humans at high risk in Lahore district and its peri-urban areas.
The study was accomplished in 4 phases. In phase-I, sero-prevalence both in dogs and human was studied including case fatality rate and associated risk factors through cross a sectional study. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from dogs attended at the Pet Centre of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and other private clinics situated in and around Lahore area through systematic random sampling technique over a period of one year (1st Dec. 2010 to 30th Nov.2011). Blood samples from every fifth un vaccinated dog were collected, but if the dog was vaccinated then the sample was collected from the next unvaccinated one. In this phase 100 sera samples from human volunteers which were at maximum risk (veterinarian, pet and livestock owners, para-vet staff) were also collected. All samples were screened out by using ELISA kits like Canine Leptospira IgG ELISA Kit Catalog no. BG-CAN11485, NovaTein Biosciences, Woburn, MA, USA and Serion Elisa Plate, Virion/Serion GmbH, Wurzburg, Germany for dogs and humans respectively at the Medicine Laboratory and University Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
To study overall prevalence of Leptospirosis in dogs a total of 429 dogs were examined and it was found that out of 429 blood samples 155 were found positive for Leptospira antibodies. Thus an overall prevalence of Leptospira was recorded as 36.13%. Prevalence of Leptospirosis in dogs during different months of the year was also recorded. The months of September, October and June showed ere the highest prevalence and recorded as 50%, 48.57% and 45% respectively. Although, a few cases were seen during the months of December, January and February while moderate number of cases was recorded during the rest months of the year. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the prevalence of Leptospirosis during the different months of the year. Out of these 429, 93 pups and 336 adults were examined for Leptospirosis and found that 26 pups and 129 adults were positive i.e. a prevalence rate of 27.95% (26/93) and 38.39% (129/336) for Leptospirosis was recorded in pups and adult dogs respectively and this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). In this study a prevalence rate of 38.49% (102/265) and 32.31% (53/164) for Leptospirosis was recorded in male and female dogs respectively and this difference between the sexes was also non-significant(p>0.05). According to the results of this study a sero-prevalence of 21.24% (24/113) in winter, 35.82% (24/63) in spring, 40.34% (71/176) in summer and 49.32% (36/73) were recorded in fall season and this difference was significant (p<0.05). The highest prevalence rate was observed in fall and summer seasons of the year during higher rain fall seasons of the year.
To study overall prevalence of Leptospirosis in humans, a total of 100 blood samples were examined through random sampling technique during the whole study period and overall prevalence rate of 44.00% was observed in human population. Different risk factors like different months of the year, age, sex and season were also studied and that the highest prevalence of Leptospira in humans was observed in the months of March, April and August i.e. 66.66%, 66.66% and 60.0% respectively. No significant difference (p>0.05) in the sero-prevalence of Leptospirosis in human during the different months of the year was observed. Sex-wise prevalence rate of 48.71% (38/78) and 27.27% (06/22) for Leptospirosis was recorded in male and female respectively and this difference was significant (p<0.05). The results of this research project revealed a prevalence rate of 47.29% (35/74) and 34.61% (09/26) for Leptospirosis in adults and young ones respectively and this difference was again non-significant (p>0.05). According to the results of this study a sero-prevalence of 41.93% (13/31) in summer, 40.00% (06/15) in fall and 25.92% (07/27) in winter, while 66.66% (18/27) was recorded in spring season of the year and this difference was significant (p<0.05) and the highest prevalence rate was observed in spring.
In phase-II, the effect of Leptospirosis on various blood parameters were determined in both dogs and human. The results of present study revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) between the Hemoglobin (Hb), Erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR), Packed cell volume (PCV), Total Leukocytic count (TLC), Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes of healthy and Leptospira affected dogs, while a non-significant difference was observed (P >0.05)among values of lymphocytes. It showed that values of Hb forthe diseased dogs were lower than healthy ones while ESR, PCV, TLC, Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes, were more than in normal dogs. Likewise, in humans all the studied parameters were significantly (P <0.05) different between infected and healthy ones. The values of Hb concentration in diseased humans were lower than the healthy ones while ESR, PCV, TLC, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, and Monocytes were higher than in healthy people. A negligible change was observed in the percentage count of lymphocytes.
In phase-III, the comparative efficacy of commercially available vaccines against Leptospira was studied. Two commercially available vaccines, Vaccine #1 with protection against two serotypes of Leptospira (Canicola, Icterohaemorragiae) and vaccine #2with protection against four serovars of Leptospira i.e Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa and Pomona were compared After six months it was observed through ELISA screening that the vaccine #2 provided better overall protection compared to the vaccine #1 to the pups as well as adult dogs against the Leptospirosis but this difference was non-significant (p>0.05).
In the last phase of this study the chemotherapy trial was conducted. Results found that the efficacy of Penicillin G was 70%, while in group B Amoxicillin produced 60% results and in group C Sarsaparilla proved to be 40% effective against this infection although this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). It is concluded that among therapeutic agents used to treat Leptospirosis in dogs, Penicillin G , Amoxicillin and Sarsaparilla are ranked in respective order of efficacies.
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Influence Of Early Weaning On Growth Performance, Plasma Metabolites And Rumen Fermentation Indices In Neonatal
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Rearing of young calves is a labor intensive and costly segment of livestock production. From birth to weaning, young calf undergoes a transition from monogastric to adult ruminant. The concept of weaning from milk at an early age is based on early development of functional rumen enabling calves to utilize low quality roughages. In current study, a series of experiments were conducted to refine the more effective weaning regime for buffalo calves and use of by-products of the ethanol production industry in early weaned cattle calves.
Conventionally, buffalo calves are kept with the dam, allowed to suckle a little amount of milk along with seasonal green forages, and weaned around the age of one year. To date, limited published work was available on growth performance and economics of buffalo calves weaned from milk at an early age. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to reduce the weaning age and evaluate the growth performance of male Nili-Ravi buffalo calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatments: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF), and early weaning (EW). After colostrum feeding, calves were individually fed whole milk at 10% of their BW, adjusted weekly until 6 wk of age. Thereafter, milk allowance was gradually tapered to zero in CMF, LMF and EW treatments at 12, 10 and 8 wk of age, respectively. Calf starter feed was provided ad libitum from wk 2 through wk 12 and individual intakes were recorded daily. Blood sampling was carried out form wk 6 through 12, on a weekly basis. The BW and structural measurements (HG, WH, and HW) were carried out at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. In young buffalo calves, the regimen of weaning at 8 weeks of age was more effective. The early weaned calves showed similar growth rate to those in the CMF and LMF by consuming more calf starter and saving a substantial amount of high priced milk. On the basis of the results of this experiment, buffalo calves successfully adapted to early weaning that might help to mitigate issues like poor growth and low returns associated with traditional calf rearing practices. Furthermore, this study effectively reduced the weaning age from 1 year to 8 weeks of age. Hence, reducing weaning age did not affect the growth performance of Nili-Ravi buffalo calves by 12 weeks of age.
Early development of the rumen is the main objective of a successful early weaning program which depends upon the amount of starter intake, VFA production, and ruminal papillae development. Studies have shown that grains in starter feed can be replaced by DDGS up to 28% of DM without compromising the growth performance and rumen development. Second experiment was planned to evaluate the effects of replacing grains and soybean with DDGS and ammonia treated DDGS at 25% of DM. Study was conducted in collaboration with dairy science department SDSU (USA). Twenty one neonatal male Holstein calves were assigned to one of the three of dietary treatments: C = 0% DDGS, DDGS = 25% DDGS, CAFEX-DDGS = 25% CAFEX treated DDGS. In a 10 week experiment, calves were fed 680 g MR through 4 week, reduced to half during wk 5, and weaned at the end of wk 5. Starter intakes were conducted daily; whereas, body weights, structural measurements were conducted at the start of experiment and then on a weekly basis. Jugular blood samples were taken on a weekly basis using EDTA and NaFl coated evacuated tubes. Rumen samples were collected from a subset of 15 calves (n=5 calves/ treatment) at wk 5, 7 and 10. At the end of experiment, four calves from each treatment were also slaughtered to determine rumen morphometric measurements (PL, PW, RWT and PC). Experiment illustrated that weight gain, structural measurements, total starter intake, DMI and feed efficiency were not affected by the inclusion of DDGS and CAFEX treated DDGS at 25% of DM in starter feeds. CAFEX treatment of DDGS improved the CP contents of DDGS from 29.5% to 40%; however, inclusion of CAFEX-DDGS in starter reduced feed intake during the pre-weaning period. Whereas, overall starter intake was higher in calves fed DDGS based starter feed indicating the effect of ammonia treatment on palatability. Lower pre-weaning starter intake, slow rumen fermentation of CAFEX-DDGS resulted in lesser BHBA concentration leading to lesser development of rumen papillae growth (PL and PW). However, there was a tendency for higher weight gain in calves fed DDGS based starter due to increase in starter intake. In the light of these results it is concluded CAFEX-DDGS can be included in starter feeds at 25% of DM without affecting the growth performance. However, further research is required to evaluate the digestibility of DDGS after CAFEX treatement. Similar, growth performance indicates that CAFEX-DDGS can replace the corn and soybean meal in starter feeds.
In third experiment, microbial diversity in developing rumen and intestine of young calves fed DDGS and CAFEX treated DDGS at 25% of starter was investigated. Experiement was carried out at SDSU dairy research station (USA). Fifteen calves with n=5 per treatment, fed according to protocols described in Experiment II. Calves were sampled for rumen contents at wk 5, 7 and 10 of age; whereas, intestinal contents were collected at the time of slaughter. The DNA was extracted subjected to PCR-DGGE and dendogram was constructed using cluster analysis software. Results revealed that microbial population was highly different from each other at wk 10 indicating the effect of age and dietary treatment on rumen micro flora. Whereas, intestinal and rumen bacterial diversity at wk 5 and 7 of age was not affected by inclusion of DDGS and CAFEX-DDGS in starter feed. The changes in intestinal microflora of DDGS and CAFEX-DDGS fed calves compared with control group showed that the effect of dietary treatments on post-ruminal availability of nutrients and microbial proteins. In conclusion, rumen bacterial population changes with the advancing age and the type of ingredients used in the diet. Further, research is required to identify the effect of feeding DDGS on growth of particular bacteria like methanogen and their impact on methane production and feed efficiency.
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Clinicopathological Study Of Theileriosis In Naturally Infected Sheep
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Theleiriosis in sheep is an important infectious disease of small ruminants characterized by General weakness, weight loss, anorexia, elevated body temperature, petechial hemorrhages on conjunctival mucosa, swollen lymph nodes, anemia and cough. Changes in hematological, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters are good indicators for diagnosis of theileriosis. For this purpose a total of 100 blood samples from infected sheep as well as 50 blood samples from healthy sheep were collected on the basis of clinical examination and peripheral blood smears from different farms in and around Lahore. The collected samples were processed at Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore. Hematological parameters were measured by automatic hematology analyzer & serum biochemical parameters were measured by using commercial kits by colorimetric methods using spectrophotometer. Histopathological changes were observed by making slides of tissue samples, and observed under microscope. Molecular confirmation of Theleria sp. was done by using Polymerase Chain Reaction. Finally the data obtained for hematological and serum biochemical parameters were analyzed by using Student's t test.
Previous studies on serum biochemical parameters and hematological parameters were mostly done in large ruminants. But there is little investigation available on the biochemical and hematological alterations of theileriosis in small ruminants. In this study blood samples taken from sheep were examined under microscope by making thin blood smears using Giemsa stain. Theileria piroplasms were seen in RBCs at 100x. Blood samples were also processed for PCR test. In all Theileria ovis positive samples 520-bp fragment was generated on gel by using primers TSsr 170F and TSsr 670R for sheep. All samples positive on microscopy were also positive by PCR. This study provides the base line data for molecular diagnosis of Theileria ovis in sheep in Pakistan. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated in the sheep naturally infected with theileriosis while healthy sheep were selected as control. Hematological findings revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in RBC count, WBC count, Hb Conc. and PCV in infected animals as compared with healthy animals. Serum biochemical findings also revealed alterations in activities of enzymes and plasma proteins. A significant decrease in total proteins, albumin, glucose and creatinin and triglycerides was observed while significant increase (P<0.05) in ALT, AST, bilirubin was observed in affected animals as compared with healthy animals. A non significant increase in urea and cholesterol concentration was also observed in infected animals as compared to healthy animals. Different tissues were examined to study gross and histopathological changes. Liver was large, pale and friable. Prescapular lymph nodes were swollen and spleenomegaly was also seen. Kidney showed hemorrhagic spots and some were mottled. Histological examination of the lymph nodes revealed edema, widened intercellular spaces, parenchyma degeneration, massive lympholysis, widened sinuses at some areas and macrophages. Splenic nodules were sparse, diminished in size and lymphocyte depletion in follicles was prominent.In liver, mild infiltration of leukocytes around blood vessels, vacuolation in hepatocytes, increase in sinusoidal space and atrophy of hepatic cord was seen and hepatic cord was broken. In kidney, degeneration of tubular epithelium cells was seen. This study concluded that theileriosis in sheep was associated with some alterations in blood parameters and histopathological changes which could be useful in the diagnosis of ovine theileriosis.
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Isolation And Characterization Of Auxin Producing Bacterial Strains From Plant Rhizosphere
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Auxins are a class of plant hormones or plant growth substances. Auxins have a cardinal role in the regulation of many growth and developmental processes in the plant. Soil samples were serially diluted and screened for auxin production by Salkowski method. Isolates that have the ability to produce auxin were identified by culture characters, morphology, and bio-chemical profile. From 150 isolates, 04 bacteria were selected (AUX-36, AUX-53, AUX-137, and AUX-142). The bacteria were identified by following the flowcharts described in “Berges Mannual of Determinative Bacteriology”, 9th addition. These isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus marinus respectively. Next, different physical and chemical parameters for growth of bacteria and auxin biosynthesis were optimized. For the optimization of bacterial growth OD values of the culture broth (at wavelength 600nm) was taken by spectrophotometer. To estimate the amount of auxin (ìg/ml) produced in the culture broth; a standard curve (concentration of auxin ìg/ml at x-axis and OD value at y-axis) was prepared by using commercially available auxin.
The optimum conditions for growth and auxin production by AUX-36 was found to be pH 7, 0.98% osmotic pressure at 37 °C after 72 hours of incubation. If the medium is supplemented with 0.1 and 1.0% glucose, sucrose and peptone then it increased the bacterial growth which ultimately increased the auxin concentration in the broth medium. The growth and auxin
Production by AUX-53 was 0.98% NaCl concentration at 37 °C after 72 hours of incubation. The optimum pH was found to be 7 but it showed good growth at acidic as well as alkaline pH. The addition of glucose and sucrose in the growth medium increased the growth as well as auxin production. The optimum conditions for the growth of AUX-137 were as follows: pH=7, 0.98% osmotic pressure, temperature 37 °C. However the isolate had good growth at 28 °C and 2% NaCl concentration as well. The bacterial cell density and auxin increased with incubation time up to 72 hours. The isolate produced highest concentration of auxin under the same conditions. Similarly, the cell density and auxin increased with the increasing concentration of glucose in the growth medium. Sucrose increased the auxin only in the culture filtrate. While the bacteria AUX-142 showed highest growth as well as auxin production at 42 °C after 72 hours of incubation. The optimum pH and osmotic pressure was found to be 7 and 2% respectively. The cell density and concentration of auxin increased with the increasing concentration of peptone in the growth medium. Addition of tryptophan (1-2%) increased the auxin concentration in the culture supernatant of all isolates.
Next, the seed germination test and plant pot experiment were performed of selected isolates to observe the effect of bacterial inoculation on wheat plants. In seed germination test treatment of seeds with AUX-36, AUX-53 and AUX-142 significantly increased the root length and number of root hairs as compared to non-treated seeds. In plant pot experiment comparison of various growth parameters of inoculated plants with non-inoculated plants revealed the improvement in plant growth by bacterial inoculation.
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Toxinotyping And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium Perfringens Isolates From Muttion, Beef and Poultry Meat
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: A total of 300 meat samples including chicken, mutton, and beef (100 each) collected from local butcher shops as well as large meat outlets and grocery stores situated in various localities of Lahore were analyzed to determine the level of C. perfringens contamination. The samples were enriched in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM), purified on Tryptose Sulfite Cycloserine (TSC) agar that is highly selective media for C. perfringens and were identified by their culture characters, morphology and biochemical profile. C. perfringens was successfully isolated from 12 out of 300 samples with an overall positivity ratio of 4 %. A relatively higher percent prevalence of the C. perfringens was found in meat from local butcher shops (6.66 %) in comparison to the ones collected from the larger meat outlets (1.33 %) where meat is supplied under cold chain management system. Within each meat type a total of 6, 5, and 1 of the samples from chicken, mutton, and beef meat, respectively were found positive for the presence of C. perfringens.
Toxinotyping of the positive isolates was performed using commercially available alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins detection ELISA kits. Out of 12 confirmed isolates of C. perfringens only six were found positive for the production of various toxins. Three of the isolates produced alpha toxin and were grouped as type A, one of the isolate produced alpha, beta and epsilon toxin therefore confirmed as type B, one of the isolates produced alpha and beta toxin so belong to type C whereas one of the isolate produced alpha and epsilon toxin so it was grouped as type D while six of the isolates did not produce any toxin.
The toxin producing isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing against 13 antibiotics commonly employed to treat the foodborne infections. It was observed that most of the antibiotics were effective against C. perfringens exhibiting a wider zone of inhibition around the antibiotic discs. All the six isolates were susceptible to the chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and ceftriaxone. Five out of six isolates were susceptible whereas one of the isolate was classified as intermediate against tetracycline, lincomycin, and cefotaxime. Five isolates were sensitive and one was resistant to erythromycin. Four isolates were susceptible to penicillin and one each was intermediate and resistant to the antibiotic. All of the other drugs were relatively less effective with a least activity of amoxicillin against the isolates.
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Characterization Of Linear Type Traits In Nili Rivei Buffaloes Of Pakistan
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The present study on conformation recording of Nili Ravi buffaloes was planned because there was lack of studies on this aspect of Nili Ravi buffaloes. The main objective of the study was to document and characterize linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes so that the buffaloes with proper body characteristics could be identified for selection and breeding programs. Nili Ravi buffalo herds maintained at Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey, Pattoki, distt. Kasur, Livestock Experiment Station, Chack Katora distt. Bahawalpur, Livestock Experiment Station Haroonabad distt. Bahawalnagar, Livestock Experiment Station Khushab, distt. Khushab, Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman distt. Bhakhar and some private breeders were utilized in this study.
The guidelines for conformational recording of dairy cattle provided by the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) were followed in this study. A total of 437 milking buffaloes were scored for linear type traits on a scale of 1-9. First scoring was performed within 15 to 90 days of calving and then each after about 90 days interval.
Genetic parameters viz. heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluation techniques. Influencing factors such as age of the buffalo at scoring, stage of lactation, parity, herd and season of scoring were included in the model. Individual Animal Model was fitted under Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Procedure. Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems. Genetic parameters were estimated fitting an Individual Animal Model using the ASREML set of computer programs.
A total of 1180 records on different linear type traits and body measurements were generated over a scoring period of 2 years. Most of the average values for linear type traits were seen to fall under the intermediate category of 4-6. The means±SD for different linear type traits were found as 5.07±1.35, 5.23±2.35, 5.41±1.45, 5.76±0.98, 6.73±1.53, 4.91±1.85, 4.99±0.88, 4.99±0.90, 5.39±2.13, 4.78±1.1, 5.36±1.56, 4.91±1.84, 5.76±1.67, 3.58±0.88, 5.66±2.24, 6.42±0.88, 4.88±0.69, 4.92±1.08, 4.87±0.84, 5.34±1.79, 4.76±1.78, 5.97±0.94, 5.04±2.488, 5.15±1.65 and 6.44±1.03 for stature, chest width, body depth, angularity, rump angle, rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle , fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement, locomotion, body condition score, top line, bone structure, rear udder width, udder balance, teat thickness, thurl width, and temperament, respectively.
A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits (P< 0.0001). Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits. Parity was observed as a highly significant source of variation for some of the body traits including stature, body depth, body condition score and bone structure. However most of the udder related traits were affected by this factor. A non significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, central ligament, locomotion, top line, udder balance, thurl width and temperament. A highly significant effect of season of scoring was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, locomotion and thurl width among body traits. However, stature, body depth, body condition score, top line, bone structure and temperament were not affected by season of scoring. Udder conformation traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, rear udder width, and udder balance were affected by the season of scoring, however rest of the udder traits including udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement and teat thickness were not significantly different in different seasons.
Significant linear effect of age of the buffalo at scoring was seen on most of the linear type traits. including stature, body depth, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length, body condition score, bone structure, rear udder width, teat thickness and thurl width. However, chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, top line, udder balance and temperament were not affected by linear effect of age. Quadratic effect of age was found as significant on most of the linear type traits except chest width, angularity, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, udder balance and temperament.
Univariate heritability estimates of linear type traits were observed as for stature, 0.36±0.092; chest width, 0.10±0.081; body depth, 0.32±0.081; angularity, 0.06±0.071; rump angle, 0.15±0.071; rump width, 0.38±0.092; rear legs set, 0.02±0.07; rear legs rear view, 0.08±0.07; foot angle, 0.09±0.07; fore udder attachment, 0.21±0.07; rear udder height, 0.09±0.07; central ligament, 0.09±0.09; udder depth, 0.10±0.091; front teat placement, 0.11±0.091; teat length, 0.08±0.091; rear teat placement, 0.11±0.081; locomotion, 0.06±0.06; body condition score, 0.14±0.091; top line, 0.03±0.05; bone structure, 0.09±0.09; rear udder width, 0.15±0.09;
udder balance, 0.16±0.07; teat thickness, 0.22±0.091; thurl width, 0.31±0.09 and temperament, 0.14±0.07, respectively.
Some important positive phenotypic correlations of linear type traits with 305 days milk yield were observed as 0.18±0.04 for body depth, 0.15±0.04 for rump angle, 0.13±0.04 for rump width, 0.30±0.04 for rear udder height, 0.43±0.03 for central ligament, 0.16±0.03 for rear teat placement and 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width. Rest of the phenotypic correlations were very low. Considerable negative phenotypic correlations included -0.16±035 for body condition score, -0.15±0.04 for top line, -0.16±0.03 for front teat placement, -0.14±0.04 for udder depth and -0.26±0.04 for fore udder attachment.
Most of the linear type traits showed positive but low genetic correlation with 305 days milk yield including 0.140±0.0001 with stature, 0.210±0.0001 with body depth, 0.11±0.0001 with rump angle, 0.19±0.0002 with rump width, 0.14±0.0001 with rear udder height, 0.20±0.000001 with central ligament, 0.14±0.0000001 with rear teat placement, 0.13±0.0001 with rear udder width, 0.14±0.0000001 with udder balance, 0.09±0.0001 with thurl width and 0.12±0.0000001 with temperament.
Phenotypic and genetic correlations of most the linear type traits with score day milk yield were generally higher than with 305 days milk yield. Phenotypic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.09±0.03 for stature, -0.21±0.03 for chest width, -0.05±0.04 for body depth, -0.17±0.03 for angularity, -0.12±0.03 for rump angle, -0.16±0.05 for rump width, -0.32±0.03 for rear legs set, -0.16±0.04 for rear legs rear view, -0.22±0.03 for foot angle, -0.34±0.03 for fore udder attachment, -0.16±0.04 for rear udder height, -0.16±0.04 for central ligament, -0.25±0.03 for udder depth, 0.06±0.04 for front teat placement, 0.008±0.03 for teat length, -0.19±0.04 for rear teat placement, -0.15±0.04 for locomotion, -0.22±0.03 for body condition score, -0.35±0.03 for top line, -0.08±0.04 for bone structure, -0.17±0.05 for rear udder width, -0.18±0.04 for udder balance, -0.20±0.03 for teat thickness, -0.11±0.04 for thurl width and -0.11±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Genetic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.57±0.05 for stature, 0.09±0.02 for chest width, 0.31±0.04 for body depth, 0.06±0.02 for angularity, 0.15±0.03 for rump angle, 0.30±0.05 for rump width, 0.04±0.02 for rear legs set, 0.06±0.01 for rear legs rear view, 0.06±0.02 for foot angle, 0.10±0.02 for fore udder attachment, 0.18±0.03 for rear udder height, 0.12±0.02 for central ligament, 0.18±0.02 for udder depth, 0.60±0.06 for front teat placement, 0.23±0.03 for teat length, 0.07±0.01 for rear teat placement, 0.021±0.02 for locomotion, 0.12±0.02 for body condition score, 0.08±0.02 for top line, 0.08±0.03 for bone structure, 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width, 0.19±0.03 for udder balance, 0.095±0.02 for teat thickness, 0.12±0.02 for thurl width and 0.27±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Among body measurements, head related measurements included head length, horn diameter at base, length and width of ear and poll width and their average values were found as 54.13±3.48, 18.65±2.06, 29.5±2.12 and 18.66±1.22, and 30.95±2.35 cm, respectively. Average values for neck length and neck circumference were observed as 53.32±4.56 and 95.77±8.58 cm, respectively.
The height and length of body was measured at different body points and average values were found as 139.56±6.29 cm for horizontal body length, 154.01±7.61 cm for diagonal body length, 135.77±4.4 cm for height at sacrum, 132.04±4.57 cm for height at withers, 130.77±4.61 cm for height at 6th rib position, 126.34±4.51 cm for height at last rib position, 128.89±4.83 cm for height at hook bone and 118.81±4.45 cm for height at pin bone.
The average values for heart girth, paunch girth, sprung at 6th rib position and sprung at last rib position were resulted as 194.46±10.31, 238.52±13.96, 45.15±4.48 and 68.72±5.2 cm, respectively. Mean estimates for top wedge area, front wedge area and side wedge area were obtained as 3152.79±309.53, 1030.17±136.34 and 3105.07±345.26 cm2, respectively. The length of tail and its diameter at base was measured and its value averaged 103.51±12.55 and 22.41±2.005 cm, respectively. Average values of skin thickness at neck, ribs, belly and tail region were found as 4.16±1.16, 5.85±1.36, 7.34±1.49 and 1.71±0.55 mm, respectively. Mean values for some other traits included 43.52±2.582 cm for rump length, 3.12±0.56 cm for heel depth and 523.13±81.63 kg for body weight. It was observed that herd was a significant source of variation for all body measurement traits. Age of the buffalo at classification was a significant source of variation for all of the body measurements except horn diameter at base, poll width, tail length, skin thickness at tail and height at hook bone.
Most of the body measurements have been found to be lowly to moderately heritable in the current study. Heritability estimates for various body measurements were observed as 0.16±0.09 for horn diameter at base, 0.38±0.04 for ear length, 0.06±0.09 for ear width, 0.25±0.091 for head length, 0.14±0.09 for poll width, 0.03±0.06 for neck circumference, 0.05±0.07 for neck length, 0.05±0.09 for body length, 0.05±0.09 for diagonal body length, 0.41±0.09 for tail length, 0.28±0.091 for tail diameter at base, 0.04±0.09 for skin thickness at neck, 0.02±0.09 for skin thickness at ribs, 0.10±0.09 for skin thickness at belly, 0.07±0.08 for skin thickness at tail, 0.11±0.09 for height at sacrum, 0.28±0.09 for height at withers, 0.22±0.092 for height at 6th rib position, 0.25±0.092 for height at last rib position, 0.18±0.091 for height at hook bone, 0.07±0.08 for height at pin bone, 0.04±0.06 for sprung at 6th rib position, 0.07±0.06 for sprung at last rib position, 0.13±0.09 for heart girth, 0.05±0.09 for paunch girth, 0.11±0.09 for top wedge area, 0.05±0.06 for front wedge area, 0.16±0.07 for side wedge area, 0.13±0.08 for rump length, 0.02±0.06 for heel depth and 0.33±0.07 for body weight.
Phenotypic correlations of 305 days milk yield with various body measurements were in low range. Positive phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.02±0.04 for sprung at 6th rib position to 0.17±0.05 for ear length. Some of the important body measurements have positive phenotypic correlation with 305 days milk yield as 0.15±0.04 for head length, 0.04±0.04 for diagonal body length, 0.04±0.02 for height at withers, 0.11±0.03 for height at sacrum, 0.11±0.04 for sprung at last rib position, 0.04±0.04 for heart girth, 0.08±0.03 for rump length and 0.07±0.03 for body weight. Negative phenotypic correlations with 305 days milk yield ranged from -0.03±0.03 for side wedge area to -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base. Some important negative phenotypic correlations included -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base, -0.04±0.04 for neck circumference, -0.12±0.03 for skin thickness at neck and -0.08±0.03 for front wedge area.
Positive phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included 0.09±0.05 for body weight, 0.07±0.002 for rump length, 0.09±0.003 for sprung at last rib position, 0.09±0.005 for height at hook bone, 0.08±0.02 for height at sacrum. Rest of all the traits were low in correlation with milk yield. Negative phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included horn diameter at base as -0.15±0.02 and heel depth as -0.13±0.04. Rest of all negative phenotypic correlations were very low.
Positive genetic correlations of 305 days milk yield varied from 0.02±0.002 for ear width to 0.23±0.02 for side wedge area. Some important body measurements have positive genetic correlation values as 0.121±0.000001 for head length, 0.162±0.000001 for diagonal body length, 0.080±0.000001 for height at withers, 0.15±0.000001 for height at sacrum, 0.15±0.000001 for sprung at last rib position, 0.14±0.0005 for heart girth and 0.16±0.007 for body weight. Negative genetic correlation for this trait was observed only for skin thickness at neck region as -0.16±0001.
About 40 traits regarding udder and teat measurements before and after milking were analysed. Average values for udder length, width, height, depth and circumference before milking were found as 52.65±6.87, 53.52±6.19, 54.34±4.99, 18.76±3.87, and 77.05±11.69 cm, respectively while the corresponding values for the same traits after milking were found as 47.08±6.57, 48.15±5.79, 55.39±5.15, 18.11±4.11 and 67.04±8.11 cm, respectively. Teat impression distances between front teats, rear teats, fore and rear teats from right side and fore and rear teats from left side were found as 12.46±3.01, 7.01±1.91, 8.08±1.8 and 7.71±1.75 cm, respectively. Pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics were found as 12.93±3.12 and 11.71±2.83 cm for distance between front teats; 7.48±1.93 and 6.61±1.58 cm for distance between hind teats; 8.34±1.91 and 7.54±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 8.004±1.95 and 7.17±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 10.19±2.17 and 9.057±1.50 for diameter of fore right teat; 10.92±2.45 and 9.611±1.66 cm for diameter of rear right teat; 10.33±2.11 and 9.33±1.45 cm for diameter of fore left teat; 11.25±2.54 and 9.937±1.76 cm for diameter of rear left teat; 10.71±2.63 and 11.2±2.39 cm, for teat length of fore right teat; 13.05±3.27 and 13.13±3.03 for teat length of rear right teat; 11.09±2.71 and 11.88±2.61 cm for teat length fore left teat and 13.75±3.04 and 14.47±2.99 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
All of the udder conformation traits before and after milking were highly significantly different in different herds (P<0.0001). Stage of lactation was found to be highly significant source of variation (P<0.0001) for before milking udder length, before milking udder height, average before milking udder circumference, after milking udder length, after milking average udder circumference, teat impression distance between fore, between rear and between fore and rear teats on both sides. However, before milking average udder width, before milking udder depth, after milking average udder width, after milking udder height and after milking udder depth were not affected by this factor.
All of the above mentioned traits were significantly affected by parity except after milking udder depth and teat impression distance between fore teats and between rear teats.
Season of scoring significantly affected before milking udder length (P<0.01), before milking average udder width (P<0.05), before milking average udder circumference (P<0.01), after milking average udder width (P<0.01), after milking average udder circumference (P<0.0001), teat impression distance between fore and hind teats of left side (P<0.05). Rest of all the traits were not significantly different in different seasons.
Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by linear and quadratic effect of age of the buffalo at classification. Herd was a significant source of variation for all teat related traits recorded at pre stimulation before milking time. Stage of lactation significantly affected pre stimulation distance between front teats, pre stimulation distance between hind teats, pre stimulation distance between fore and hind teats on right and left side, pre stimulation diameter of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of rear right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore left and rear left teat. However, pre stimulation diameter of rear right teat, pre stimulation diameter of fore left teat and pre stimulation diameter of rear left teat were not affected by this factor. All of these parameters were affected by parity except pre stimulation distance between hind teats and pre stimulation teat length of fore left teat. Similarly all of these traits were affected by season of scoring except pre stimulation distance between fore, between hind, between right and between left teats.
All of teat characteristics after milking were significantly affected by herd. Stage of lactation significantly affected after milking distance between fore and hind teats of right side (P<0.05), after milking teat length of fore right and rear right teat (P<0.01), after milking teat length of fore left teat (P<0.05) and rear left teat (P<0.0001). Rest of all traits after milking were not affected by stage of lactation. Most of the teat parameters after milking were significantly affected by parity except after milking distance between front and between rear teats, after milking teat length of rear right teat and after milking teat length of fore left teat. Distances among teats after milking and after milking diameter of rear left teat were not significantly affected by season. Rest of all traits were significantly affected by this factor.
Heritability estimates for before milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference were found as 0.08±0.07, 0.22±0.08, 0.22±0.09, 0.05±0.06 and 0.21±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values after milking for these traits were observed as 0.14±0.07, 0.20±0.08, 0.09±0.08, 0.02±0.08 and 0.09±0.07, respectively.
Heritability estimates for before milking and after milking teat characteristics were found as 0.11±0.09 and 0.15±0.09 for distance between front teats; 0.03±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for distance between hind teats; 0.32±0.09 and 0.06±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.16±0.08 and 00.09±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.21±0.08 and 0.11±0.08 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.05±0.05 and 0.02±0.05 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.19±0.08 and 0.25±0.09 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.07±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.12±0.06 and 0.08±0.06 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.02±0.05 and 0.11±0.07 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.29±0.09 and 0.29±0.092 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.14±0.08 and 0.08±0.07 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.29±0.04 and 0.18±0.04; 0.30±0.04 and 0.33±0.04; -0.26±0.03 and -0.20±0.03; 0.07±0.04 and 0.06±0.05 and 0.18±0.04 and 0.14±0.04, respectively. Corresponding values in the same order for genetic correlations were observed as 0.17±0.0002 and 0.21±0.0003; 0.33±0.0002 and 0.19±0.0003; -0.29±0003 and -0.34±0003; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 and 0.28±0.0004 and 0.23±0.0003, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with score day milk yield were found as 0.29±0.03 and -0.18±0.02; -0.32±0.02 and 0.17±0.01, -0.38±0.001 and -0.20±0.002, 0.28±0.01 and -0.04±0.04 and 0.21±0.04 and -0.15±0.04, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.19±0.03 and 0.07±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.20±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.21±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.18±0.03 and 0.18±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.07±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.04±0.03 and 0.14±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.03±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.02±0.04 and 0.20±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.24±0.03 and 0.28±0.03, for teat length of fore right teat; -0.13±0.03 and -0.009±0.04 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.01±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and 0.06±0.03 and 0.22±0.03 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.22±0.0002 and 0.12±0.0003 for distance between front teats; 0.26±0.0001 and 0.13±0.0001 for distance between hind teats; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.09±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.11±0.0001 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.09±0.0002 and 0.16±0.0001 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.080±0.00001 and 0.11±0.0001 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.07±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0002 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.003±0.000001 and 0.003±0.0003 for teat length fore left teat and 0.003±0.000001 and 0.002±0.0002 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as -0.37±0.02 and -0.48±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.06±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.03±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.03±0.039 and 0.08±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; -0.33±0.03 and -0.16±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.46±0.03 and -0.26±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.41±0.03 and -0.24±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.30±0.03 and -0.28±0.04 for diameter of rear left teat; -0.43±0.03 and -0.49±0.03 for teat length of fore right teat; -0.36±0.02 and -0.47±0.02 for teat length of rear right teat; -0.41±0.034 and -0.43±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and -0.28±0.021 and -0.53±0.02 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for before and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as 0.13±0.016 and 0.15±0.02 for distance between front teats; 0.30±0.04 and 0.40±0.05 for distance between hind teats; 0.19±0.05 and 0.38±0.05 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.32±0.06 and 0.44±0.06 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.22±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.16±0.02 and 0.23±0.03 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.15±0.02 and 0.22±0.03 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.11±0.02 and 0.24±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.19±0.02 and 0.17±0.02 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.075±0.01 and 0.07±0.01 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.27±0.029 and 0.27±0.03 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.10±0.01 and 0.08±0.01 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Least squares means for various performance traits were found as 7.02±2.46 for score day milk yield, 1801.61±624.59 for lactation milk yield, 2074.1±360.85 for 305 days milk yield, 2149.09±680.59 for best milk yield, 272±69 for lactation length, 408.553±203.63 for preceeding dry period, 1762.05±305.97 for age at first calving, 477.68±64.53 for weight at first calving, 110±33 for age at scoring in months, 523.133±81.63 for weight at scoring in Kg.
Most of the phenotypic studies on Nili Ravi breed are limited to recording only few body measurements. In order to explore the physical features of this breed, linear scoring system needs to be adopted which is based on measurement of certain specific parts of body as per international standards according to the ICAR guidelines. However, some of the linear scores developed for dairy cattle breeds do not fit for this breed and harmonization of certain trait definitions is needed even for the linear score system for this breed. The following points are important regarding linear scoring system for Nili Ravi buffaloes:
" In case of rump angle, the score ranging as 1-3 which refers to higher pin bone than hook bone is not present in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for central ligament ranging as 1-3 which refers to convex floor of udder has not been observed in this breed. The position of front teat placement as inside of quarter scoring as 7-9 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The position of rear teat placement as outside of quarter scoring as 1-3 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for top line ranging as 8-9 which represents a back bent upwards has not been observed in this breed. The score of 1 and 2 which represents a rear udder deeper than the fore udder has also not been observed in the present study. A higher temperament score indicates that buffaloes tend to be excited especially at the time of milking and handling. This behaviour of buffaloes needs to be improved through selection and breeding.
" A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits. Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length and rear udder width. Most of the udder related traits were affected by parity such as fore udder attachment, rear udder height, udder depth, teat length, rear udder width and teat thickness. significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, top line, thurl width, and temperament.
" Initiation of conformation recording in public and private sector and use of selective and planned breeding will be helpful for the improvement in milk yield and to bring uniformity in body features of Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Scoring in first parity should be adopted as in later parities adjustment for age and parity will be needed.
" Differences among herds for most of the traits suggest that performance can be improved by exploiting genetic potential through selection and breeding. Heritability estimates for most of the linear type traits were found as higher than the reported values available in literature. The reasons might be due to species differences and relatively small data set as well as incomplete pedigree records. Even then the results might be considered for inclusion of some of the linear type traits in selection programs. Keeping in view that this is a preliminary study on genetic aspects of linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes, further studies and research with larger data set is needed to explore linear type traits and to validate the findings of the current study.
" A positive genetic correlation of stature with milk yield suggest that taller and heavier buffaloes produced more milk and selection for taller buffaloes may result in improved milk yield but the efficiency of milk yield must be studied before making indirect selection for milk yield through stature. Negative phenotypic correlation of chest width with score day milk yield suggested that buffaloes with wider chest are relatively less efficient in milk production. Further studies are needed with larger data set to verify the results. A considerable positive genetic correlation between body depth and milk yield suggest that body depth may be considered for indirect selection of higher milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Considerable genetic correlation with milk yield suggest that rump width is important in this breed of buffaloes and can be used for indirect selection for improved milk yield. A considerable negative phenotypic correlation of fore udder attachment with milk yield is important however negligible genetic correlation suggest that fore udder attachment is independent of milk producing genes and separate selection for each trait should be considered keeping in view heritability of the trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder height with milk yield suggested that selection for this trait might be helpful for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Genetic correlation of teat length with score day milk yield is considerable in the current study but very low with 305 days milk yield. The findings of current study suggested that rear teat placemen has a considerable genetic correlation with milk yield and can be used for indirect selection for better milk yield. The results of current study are not in agreement with most of the reports in the literature regarding correlation of BCS with milk yield. Further research is needed to verify positive genetic correlation of BCS with milk yield before using BCS as selection criterion for milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Due to negative phenotypic correlation of body condition score with milk yield, an optimal score of below average ranging from 4 to 5 may be recommended. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder width with milk yield suggested that some of the same genes are controlling milk yield and rear udder width and indirect selection for improved milk yield is possible through selection for rear udder width in Nili Ravi buffaloes. This genetic correlation with milk yield is considerable but further studies are needed before the udder balance could be included for selection program in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Current study indicated that teat thickness is not genetically important with negligible correlation with milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes but negative phenotypic correlation is considerable and buffaloes with thinner teats are suitable for more milk production. A low but positive genetic correlation of thurl width with milk yield provides a scope for further studies to explore this trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Further studies are needed with relatively larger data set to explore temperament and verify its relationship with milk yield in this breed of buffaloes. Generally, the least squares means for most of the body measurements were found in the normal range and were in agreement with most of the reports in literature.
" Comparatively higher body weight was observed than the reports available for Nili Ravi buffaloes. One of the reason for this might be relatively better supply of feed and fodder during the course of study and also the records pertaining to 3rd and latter parities were more in number than the records on younger buffaloes. The top and side wedge area are almost similar with less variation showing that Nili Ravi buffaloes are relatively more wedge shaped.
" Most of the body measurements were affected by the herd and age factors but the effect of parity, stage of lactation and season of scoring was variable for different traits and showed not very clear trend. Body weight was affected by all the factors studied in the current investigation. Most of the body measurements have been found to be moderately to highly heritable in the current study. Overall range of heritability estimates for body measurements was found as 0.08±0.09 to 0.92±0.00.
" Skin thickness has been found under the genetic control and can be improved through selection and breeding keeping in view its importance and demand in the leather industry and also its correlation with milk yield.
" Diagonal body length in the current study has shown a low but positive genetic correlation with milk yield and this trait might be considered in the selection program for Nili Ravi buffaloes. The negative genetic correlation of skin thickness in the neck region with 305 days milk yield is important and advocates the thinking of farmers about the negative correlation of skin thickness with milk yield. Genetic correlation of heart girth with milk yield although not very high but seems to be important and can be considered for indirect selection for milk yield through heart girth measurement. A reasonable genetic correlation of body weight with milk yield suggested that this trait should be considered in the selection program for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Udder colour has not been found important. Buffaloes with pendulous udders have produced more milk. The possible reason for this more milk is that such buffaloes were recorded in latter parities and age of those buffaloes was high and the size of their udder was large. The frequency of buffaloes with such type of udder is only 8%. Buffaloes with such type of pendulous udders are more prone to udder and teat injuries and mastitis and their life time production is less. Thick and lengthy teats have been observed in this breed and the reason might be due to hand milking and direct suckling of cows by the calves.
" Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by herd, parity, stage of lactation and age of the buffaloes at classification. Most of the udder measurements have been found highly heritable and this provides a good scope for improvement of these traits through selection and breeding. A general decrease in the distance between fore, rear and fore and rear teats on both sides was observed after milking. This indicated that the distance measured after milking was a good indicator of actual distance between teats of this breed irrespective of stage of lactation. Udder length, width, udder circumference and height either recorded before milking or after milking have been found genetically correlated with milk yield and they should be considered for selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A reasonable positive genetic correlation of distance between fore and between rear teats suggested that this distance is important for milk yield and should be considered for selection in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The results of present study suggest that teat diameter is not genetically much important for milk yield and the reason of thick teats is due to hand milking and direct suckling by the calves.
" Teat distance between front teat, between rear teat, diameter of fore right and rear right teat and teat length of fore right teat have shown low but not negligible genetic correlations with milk yield and should be given some importance in making selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Brown colour buffaloes have not been observed in this study because such animals at Govt. livestock farms are culled at an early age, however farmers think that such type of buffaloes are better milk yielder and they like and demand such animals, development and conservation of these animals is advocated at experimental level to study their potential.
" Further research is needed to evaluate visual image analysis system as a tool for quick and more accurate conformation recording.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1708,T] (1).