Antibacterial And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Different Extracts Of Zingiber Officinale Rhizome Against Common Poultry Pathogens
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Antimicrobial compounds having plant origin inhibit bacteria through different mechanisms and can be used for the treatment of infections against resistant microbes. Majority of antibacterial drugs in clinical use are derived from natural origin. Hence, the present study is designed for antibacterial and cytotoxic evaluation of different extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome against common poultry pathogens.
The four sequential i.e. hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale were prepared by soxhlet extraction. Antibacterial activity of these extracts was determined by agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens type A, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Haemophilus paragallinarum. Zone of inhibitions were determined by well diffusion method. MICs of plant extracts were determined by micro broth dilution method. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by applying MTT assay on Vero cell lines
The zone of inhibitions showed by hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale against Staphylococcus. aureus were 12.33mm, 13.67mm, 16.33mm and 14mm; against Clostridium perfringens type A were 12mm, 16.33mm, 14mm and 8.33mm; against Escherichia coli were 14.33mm, 13.33mm, 14.33mm and 12mm; against Salmonella enterica were 17mm, 17.33mm and 12mm; against Haemophillus paragallinarum were 12.67mm, 13mm and 14mm respectively. Hexane extract showed no zone of inhibition against Salmonella enterica and aqueous extract was ineffective against Haemophillus paragallinarum.
MICs values of hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome against Staphylococcus. aureus were 2500µg/ml, 625µg/ml, 2500µg/ml and 2083.33µg/ml; against Clostridium perfringens type A were 2500µg/ml, 312.5µg/ml, 1250µg/ml and 5000µg/ml; against Escherichia coli were 5000µg/ml, 1250µg/ml, 5000µg/ml and 5000µg/ml; against Salmonella enterica were 312.5µg/ml, 5000µg/ml, 5000µg/ml; against Haemophillus paragallinarum were 2500µg/ml, 1458.33µg/ml and 2500µg/ml respectively. MIC was not performed against hexane extract of Salmonella enterica and aqueous extract of Haemophillus paragallinarum as no zone of inhibition observed against them. Hexane extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome was cytotoxic at concentration ≥ 750µg/ml, chloroform extract at concentration ≥ 1500µg/ml and aqueous extract at concentration ≥5000µg/ml. Ethanol extract at concentration ranging from 1500µg/ml to 2.92µg/ml was not cytotoxic to cell.
The indigenous plant Zingiber officinale have antibacterial activity against common poultry pathogens and helpful to develop new drug from plant origin.
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Antibacterial And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Sequential Extracts Of Eucalyptus Globulus Leaves Against Common Poultry Pathogens
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Phytomedicines mark the major component of health care as natural medicines have always provided the strong foothold for the discovery and manufacturing of synthetic drugs. So plants are a rich source of bioactive compounds having many therapeutic activities and majority of them are still untapped. Eucalyptus globulus is a medicinal plant known for its value to cure asthma, respiratory infections, cough and allergic reactions. The antimicrobial activity, insecticidal and hypoglycemic activity have also been credited to the plant. Most of the studies have been conducted on the essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and little work has been reported on extracts. Whereas, sequential extracts has not been employed yet.
Hexane, chloroform and ethanol, aqueous extracts were prepared by the sequential extraction on Soxhlet apparatus and antibacterial activity was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Clostridium perfringens type A and Haemophilus paragallinarum by agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution method. The zones of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration were determined. The extracts showing antimicrobial activity were further evaluated for cytotoxicity by using MTT assay on Vero cell line. The cell culture media was prepared and cell lines were propagated to form monolayer then monolayer was exposed to plant extract dilutions. After 24-48 hours, MTT dye was introduced and cell survival percentage was calculated.
The statistical analysis was conducted with help of Statistic Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for windows version 16, SPSS inc, Chicago, IL, USA) and results were compared using one way ANOVA.
The zones of inhibitions showed by hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globulus against Staphylococcus aureus were 0.0, 19.3, 20.3 and 23.3mm; against Clostridium perfringens type A were 14, 22.3, 14.0 and 15.3mm; against Escherichia coli were 0.0, 12.6, 13.3 and 15.6mm; against Salmonella enterica were 10, 12.3, 18.6 and 21mm; against Haemophilus paragallinarum were 0.0, 8.6, 14 and 18mm respectively. Hexane extract showed no zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Haemophilus paragallinarum.
The MICs values of hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globulus against Staphylococcus aureus were 0.00, 104.1, 32.55 and 312.5 μg/ml; against Clostridium perfringens type A were 52.08, 39.06, 16.27 and 312.5 μg/ml; against Escherichia coli were 0.00, 78.12, 260.4 and 625.0 μg/ml; against Salmonella enterica were 13.02, 104.1, 130.2 and 416.6 μg/ml; against Haemophillus paragallinarum were 0.00, 104.1, 260.4 and 416.6 μg/ml respectively. MIC was not performed against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Haemophilus paragallinarum for hexane extract as no zone of inhibition was observed against them.
Hexane extract of Eucalyptus globulus was cytotoxic at concentration ≥ 312.5μg/ml, chloroform extract at concentration ≥ 375μg/ml, ethanol extract at concentration ≥ 625μg/ml and aqueous extract was cytotoxic at concentration ≥312.5 μg/ml.
The indigenous plant Eucalyptus globulus has antibacterial activity against common poultry pathogens and can be helpful for development of new drugs of plant origin.
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Evaluation Of Antibacterial Effect Of Gymnema Sylvestre Species Cultivated In Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: This study was conducted to determine the use of medicinal plants as an antibacterial agent and its potential to as an alternative medicine against bacterial infections. For this purpose Sequential extracts (i.e. Hexane, Chloroform, Ethanol and Aqueous) of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. were tested against S. aureus, E. coli, S. enterica, C. perfringens type-A, H. paragallinarum. Of each bacterium 3 isolates were tested by using well diffusion method. The results were obtained by determining the ZOI by well diffusion method and MIC by using 96 well ELISA plate.
The mean ZOI and mean MIC values of G. sylvestre leaves extracts showed that chloroform and ethanolic extracts have more antibacterial activity against all five microorganisms. Only chloroform and ethanolic extracts showed antibacterial activity against all 5 microorganisms while hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against S. enterica, S. aureus, H. paragallinarum, C. perfringens type- A but no activity was observed against E. coli. On the other hand aqueous extract have showed antibacterial activity only against C. perfringens type-A but no antibacterial activity against remaining four bacteria under study. While analyzing results based upon MIC, the chloroform extract has more antibacterial effect when compared with hexane. Hexane extract was more potent than aqueous extract whereas ethanolic extract was the least potent.
When overall antibacterial effect of all the extracts was evaluated against all bacterial strains, it was observed that C. perfringens type-A was the bacterium most vulnerable to antibacterial activity of sequential extracts of dried leaves of G. sylvestre as it responded
to all four sequential extracts and gave maximum zone of inhibition (10-22mm range) while no other bacteria showed such bigger zone of inhibition.
On the basis of MIC, it can be assumed that chloroform extracts have more antibacterial components as compared to hexane extract. Hexane extracts have more antibacterial components as compared to ethanolic extracts. The activity of aqueous extracts is negligible as it showed response against only one bacterium.
MTT assay was performed on supersaturated solutions of sequential extracts of dried leaves of G. sylvestre. Results revealed that small concentrations of these extracts are not toxic. Cell survival percentage (CSP) values below 50% were given at concentrations of 5800μg/ml (38.76%), 7225μg/ml (43.71%), 8150μg/ml (44.90%) and 3125μg/ml (41.84%) by hexane, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. Finally, on the basis of MIC and CSP for all of four sequential extracts, it is concluded that chloroformic extract is the most active and safe extract against all of 5 experimental bacteria, while hexane extract is safe against only C. perfringens type-A and ethanolic and aqueous extracts are cytotoxic on their MIC values for all the experimental bacteria. Statistical analysis showed that ZOI and MIC values were significantly different between the groups while within the same group they were non-significant.
Finally it can be concluded that the leaves of plant Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. cultivated in Pakistan has considerable antibacterial activity and considerable safety profile so it must be further studied, characterized, purified and chemically isolated so that may be converted to proper dosage form and this miracle plant may be used therapeutically to cure various ailments including bacterial infections especially poultry infections.
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