Status Of Brucellosis And Its Effect On Hemogram And Serum Biochemistry In Indigenous, Cross-Bred And Exotic Dairy Cattle Herds
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Brucellosis mainly infects food animals such as cattle, buffalo, goats and sheep. Brucella abortus is the principal cause of brucellosis in cattle and is shed from the infected animal at or around the time of calving or abortion. The present study was conducted on 450 animals on three different strains/breeds of cattle i.e. Exotic (150), Cross-bred (150) and local cattle (150) from 10 different privately owned livestock farms of varying holdings of district Lahore. An epidemiological questionnaire focusing on herd traits as well as husbandry and sanitary practices that could be associated with the risk of Brucellosis infection was completed. Serum samples were collected and analyzed using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). The serum samples positive for Brucellosis through RBPT further subjected to Serum Agglutination Test (SAT). To check the effect of Brucellosis on hemogram, blood samples from 18 cattle (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) positive for Brucellosis and 18 animals (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) negative for brucellosis were collected and processed for TLC, DLC, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCHC MCH and platelets using automated haematology analysed at UDL, UVAS, Lahore. Similarly, to see the effect of Brucellosis on Serum biochemistry, serum samples from 18 cattle (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) positive for Brucellosis and 18 animals (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) negative for brucellosis collected and analysed for glucose, total protein, albumin, Creatinine, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotranferase (AST) and Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SD) using commercially available kits.
RBPT revealed overall prevalence 17.7% higher than SAT 10.6%. Prevalence of brucellosis is higher in Cross-Bred (22.7%) followed by local cattle (18.9%) and exotic (12%).
Hemato-boichemical results showed that increase in TLC, MCV While slight changes in Hb, MCHC, RBC and values of MCV stays within normal range. On the other hand serum biochemistry increase in AST while decrease in ALT and SD found.
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Evaluation Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oil And Extracts Of Nigella Sativa Against Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella Enterica Isolates Of Human And Poultry Origin
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: The research was designed to evaluate the efficacy of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Nigella sativa, Black seed oil and thymoquinone against antibiotic resistant molecular characterized Salmonella enterica isolates of human and poultry origin (n=5 each). The compounds that have shown the antibacterial activity was also checked for their cytotoxicity by MTT assay.
Salmonella is causative agent of invasive diseases in poultry and humans, results in high mortality. Salmonellosis is a disease caused by Salmonella enterica with serious health issues related to food borne illness and most of world’s population is suffering from it. Mostly infections are treated by antibiotics but now a day’s resistance developed by Salmonella enterica. So it is need of time to develop some alternate ways to combat the problem caused by resistant bacterial pathogens. Use of essential oils and extracts of seeds are good weapons against resistant bacteria.
Salmonella enterica isolates of human and poultry origin (n=5 each) were taken from Department of microbiology UVAS Lahore and identified by colony morphology, microscopic characters, biochemical testing (Indole production test, Methyl red test, Voges Proskaeur test, Citrate utilization test and Urea utilization test) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For PCR product 1.5% agarose gel was run by gel electrophoresis. The biochemically identified and molecular characterized S. enterica isolates were screened for antibiotic susceptibility by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method against amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, co-trimoxazole, ofloxacin and tetracycline and resistant pattern was 100% against ampicillin and Nalidixic acid and isolates shown 60% resistant against co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin and tetracycline, 80% and 40% resistant found against ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin while all isolates sensitive to cefixime and ceftriaxone. Aqueous and methanol were
used as solvents for extraction from Nigella Sativa. Seeds were dried, mixed, centrifuged, filtered and filtrate evaporated to obtained extracts. Percentage yield of methanolic extract was more than aqueous extract. Commercially available black seed oil, thymoquinone, water and methanol extracts of black seed would be evaluated for antibacterial activity by well diffusion method. Zones were measured in millimeters. All compounds gave the zones of inhibition except aqueous extract against Salmonella enterica isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by micro broth dilution method and then methanolic extract, black seed oil and thymoquinone used in MTT assay to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Cell survival percentage was calculated by a formula.
Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range tests (DMRT) using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20.0). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils, thymoquinone, water and methanol extract would be compared by graph pad prism 5.0 statistical software.
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Acaricide Resistance Of Tick Population Infesting Buffaloes In District Narowal
Material type: Book Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note:
Tick imperviousness to acaricides is an expanding issue in Pakistan and represents a genuine financial danger to the domesticated animals and veterinary pharmaceutical enterprises. New acaricides are to a great degree costly to grow so the present acaricides ought to be viewed as a constantly decreasing asset, which ought to be ensured by all methods conceivable. The principle goal of the review was to distinguish the stages of tick imperviousness to acaricides at close business and collective ranges in District Narowal, Pakistan. Likewise to contrast the in vivo techniques and with explore acaricide administration procedures which may build the life expectancy by utilized acaricides.
To meet these points a field survey (February 2016 to March 2017) was carried out at 3 tehsils (Tehsil Narowal, Shakargharand Zafarwal cities of Pakistan to monitor levels of field tick resistance to acaricides. The larvae were originally obtained from engorged female A.hebraeum, Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, R. appendiculatusand R. evertsievertsi. The larvaewere tested against different concentrations of trichlorofon, ivermectin and cypermethrin using the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT). Mortality dose data were subjected to probit analysis using a BMDP statistical package. Factors of resistance (FOR) were calculated by comparing the larval response of ticks from the field.
On the communal farms high levels of tick resistance were detected to cypermethrin as well as partial resistance to ivermectin whilst no resistance was detected against trichlorofon. On the commercial farms, however, ticks were equally resistant to trichlorofon, cypermethrin and ivermectin. The populations of Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, on these farms had developed higher levels of resistance to the testacaricides than the equivalent R. evertsievertsi, R. appendiculatus and A.hebraeumpopulations. Higher levels of tick resistance to trichlorofonwas observed on3 tehsils (Tehsil Narowal, Shakarghar and Zafarwal)than on communal farms, however, there was no significant differences in tick resistance to ivermectin and cypermethrin at both the commercial and communal farms. It was surmised that inappropriate use of acaricides might have resulted in higher tick resistance to the currently available acaricides on the commercial as well as the communal farms. Correct acaricide usage may solve this problem to a limited extent.
Comparative in vivo tests were also carried out on the larvae and adults of Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, to determine the susceptibility of this tick to different concentrationsof the currently used acaricides, (amitraz, ivermectin and cypermethrin) at three commercial dairy farms, (“Brycedale”, “Sunny Grove” and “Welgevind”) in the areas of District Narowal, Pakistan. Resistance of field strains of Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, Dermacentor,were determined using the Adult Immersion Test (AIT) as the latter test took into account factors such as oviposition assessment and reproductive ability. At “Brycedale”, resistance to trichlorofon and ivermectin was detected with the AIT method. Emerging resistance to trichlorofon and resistance to ivermectin were also detected . At “Sunny Grove” resistance was detected to cypermethrin and at “Welgevind” resistance was detected to ivermectin with the SLIT whilst no resistance was detected using AIT. It would appear that the Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, populations tested on these dairy farms were more resistant toivermectin than to trichlorofon or cypermethrin.
Nearly 50% of the dairy farms sampled showed resistance to ivermectin and the majority had susceptible Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, populations to both amitraz and cypermethrin. In general there was a good correlation between the Cypermethrin and Trichlorofon whilst in many cases there was poor correlation between the Cypermethrin and Ivermectin.
From this study it would appear that the In vivo method was a reliable to detect resistance within seven days. In vitro method the ELT and the RET could possibly be used as screening methods to detect acaricide resistance on farms whilst the SLIT would remain the test of choice for National surveys. In addition the ELT is less costly and does not require sophisticated equipment for field testing if resistance development compared with other in vitro test methods. This method, however, still needs to be validated and standardized for use in Narowaland the rest of punjab where tick control is important.
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Determination Of Tartrazine In Different Food Items Available In Lahore Pakistan
Material type: Book Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Synthetic dyes used in various food items like sweets, candies and beverages cause severe health hazards if they are not food grade and within the legally permitted limits. In Pakistan due to increased consumption of attractive colored food items, the use of dyes in every food product is also increasing. Already there is no study to appraise the nature and level of colorants. Therefore, this study focused on determination of synthetic dye (tartrazine) used in candies, sweets and beverages to determine its safer levels.
This research work was done in food science and nutrition lab of Food Science and Human Nutrition Department of UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan. Total 180 samples were collected from all 9 towns of Lahore plus Lahore Cantt. Samples included 30 candies purchased from local vendors and 30 candies from shops, 30 sweet samples (rasgulla) from local vendors and 30 sweet samples from sweet shops. Moreover, 30 slush samples locally available in streets and 30 slush samples from shops of posh areas in Lahore. The results were compared with the previous held researches in other countries.
The food samples were divided into two categories local shops and local vendors. Total six local shops and six vendors of each town of lahore were selected for the collection of samples in triplicate pattern. All the samples were evaluated for spectrophotometric determination of tartrazine by using Beer’s law. Abosrbtion peeks were checked at a wavelength of 421.6 and the mean values of concentration of tartrazine in slush ranged from 0.269 to 0.275 mg/g obtained from local vendors and shops respectively.Moreover, the mean values of tartrazine ranged from 0.258 to 0.309 mg/g for vendor sweet and shop sweet samples respectively and mean value for candies ranged from 0.200 -0.704mg/g. Data was analyzed through the Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 22.0. Mean values with standard deviation in percentages of results were analyzed by descriptive analyses. To examine the relationship among the variables of candies, sweets and slush samples chi-square test was used. Further to compare tartrazine levels in the local shops and foodstuff obtained from the common vendors of Lahore, independent “t” test was used. 2 way-ANOVA was applied to check the differences of all samples in 10 towns of Lahore.
According to my investigations the quality of foodstuff collected from local shops and from local vendors is almost same and both contain high amounts of tartrazine.I suggest consumers, they should prefer to buy branded foodstuff from superstores as compared to local shops and local vendors because the keeping quality and handling practices are good in superstores than local shops.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2886-T] (1).