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1. Isolation Characterization And Growth Optimization Of Starch Hydrolyzing Fungi From Soil Of Livestock Farms

by Saba Sana | Prof. Dr. Aftab ahmad anjum | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1898,T] (1).

2. Plasmid Mediated Analyses And Plasmid Curing Of Previously Isolatedmulti-Drug Resistant Eschetichia Coli From Retail

by Mawra gohar | Dr. Ali ahmad sheikh | Dr.Tanveer | Prof, Dr. Aftab ahmad anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1923,T] (1).

3. Isolation Characterization And Optimization Of Potential Probiotic Bacteria From Poultry Droopings

by Muhammad Hashim khan | Prof. Dr. Aftab ahmad anjum | Dr. Jawad nazir | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1991,T] (1).

4. Prevelance Of Brucellosis In Aborted Women Visiting Tertiary Care Hospitals Of Lahore City

by Saba Yasmin (2009-VA-211) | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr. Tayyaba Ijaz (Co Supervisor) | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Pakistan is an agriculture based country whose rural population depends upon livestock for livelihood. Contribution of livestock to agriculture sector is 55.9 percent while 11.8 percent to the national GDP during 2013-14 (GOP 2013-2014). A number of infectious diseases hamper the growth of livestock sector. Some of the livestock diseases are zoonotic in nature and threat to human health. Brucellosis is considered among major zoonotic diseases throughout the world. The Mediterranean Basin, south and Central America, Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and the Middle East are considered as high-risk countries (Memish 2001). Brucellosis in human beings is a major concern of community health. It causes acute and chronic illness, physical incapacity and loss of health. Bacterial species involved include Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis or Brucella suis. Brucellosis is acquired by human beings from infected animals by close contact with vaginal secretions, urine, feces, blood, aborted fetus, or consumption of unpasteurized milk or other raw milk products. Shepherds, milkmen, butchers, knackers, veterinary assistants and abattoir workers are at high risk (Agasthya et al. 2007). Prevalence of brucellosis recorded by Mukhtar and Kokab (2008) in abattoir workers of Lahore Pakistan was 21.7 percent. Higher prevalence of brucellosis was observed in females (37.06%) than males (24.2%) in patients admitted at Peshawar, Pakistan (Shahid et al. 2014). Symptoms of disease vary among human patients, ranging from non–specific, flu-like symptoms (acute form) to undulant fever (chronic form). Some of the serious complications of skeletal system, cardiovascular and central nervous systems may develop. Other important signs observed include arthritis, orchitis, epididymitis, abortion, retained placenta and stillbirth (Baba et al. 2001; Grilló et al. 2006). In animals, brucellosis in most of the cases results in abortion, birth of weak calves, death of young stock, infertility in males and reduced milk yield in females (Maadi et al. 2011; Abubakar et al. 2012). There is actual need for teamwork between public health officials and veterinary officers to reduce communication of brucellosis between animals and human in endemic areas (Jelastopulu et al. 2008; Makis et al. 2008). Clinical picture of brucellosis is nonspecific and may vary from patient to patient. Therefore, laboratory diagnosis by isolation and culture or recognition of specific anti–Brucella antibodies is essential for confirmation of brucellosis (Al-Attas et al. 2000). Diagnosis of brucellosis by culture and phenotypic description is time-consuming. Furthermore, risk of infection to worker is always there. Serological tests are commonly preferred for brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants, especially at farm level screening. Chance of cross-reactions with other gram negative bacteria is a major problem. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT) and Slow Agglutination Test (SAT) are extensively used for detection of anti-Brucella antibodies (Halling et al. 2005). Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) have been developed to resolve suspected samples by RBPT. ELISA is more sensitive, so it can detect Brucella carriers which are negative by RBT, SAT and CFT (Aert et al. 1984). Molecular techniques are more reliable and specific than serological tests. Final confirmation of brucellosis is carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a molecular technique. Real-time PCR offers enhanced sensitivity, specificity and rapidity of performance when compared to conventional PCR (Gwida et al. 2012). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2225-T] (1).

5. Occurrence Of Bacterial Contaminants In Poultry Meals And Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern

by Nayyab Tariq (2009-VA-207) | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry is the second largest industry after textile industry in Pakistan. Its consumption rate is very high as compared to other animal protein sources, as it is cheaper as compared to red meat. To fulfill increasing demand of poultry, poultry production quality must be improved. Many factors affect poultry production. One factor is feeding process. Efficiency of poultry production depends mainly on feeding process which influences both the quality and quantity of the poultry production (Grepay 2009). The rearing of poultry birds on commercial level requires use of bulk quantities of poultry feed. Poultry feed costs 60-70% of total cost for production (Sahraei et al. 2012). The main purpose to increase poultry production is to fulfill nutritional requirements of human population that largely rely on poultry and poultry by products as a source of protein(Obi and Ozugbo 2007). Poultry feeds are food materials designed to contain all necessary feed ingredients for proper growth, meat and egg production in birds (Obi and Ozugbo 2007). It is a mixture of various components including plant proteins (cereals and by products, grains etc), animal byproducts, fats, vitamins and minerals (Ravindran 2013). The major component of poultry feed is protein which is the key component of eggs and meat. Protein sources in poultry feed are of plant, marine and animal origin. Plant proteins may lack some of the essential amino acids, thus are incomplete protein. Proteins of animal origin are better growth promoter than protein of plant origin, but their safety is a concern. Among plant based proteins, soybean and canola meal are produced in higher amounts worldwide (Alali et al. 2011). The animal protein sources include poultry, fish, meat bone and poultry by products meal. Poultry meal is derived from clean tissues Introduction 2 of slaughtered poultry including bone after the moisture and fat have been extracted in the rendering process. It may contain whole birds excluding feathers (Anonymus 2014). Among all protein based meals, poultry meals and poultry by products meal are of superior quality and provide higher protein content than plant, marine and meat based meals (Samli et al. 2006). Quality of animal feed has gained importance worldwide. The feeds are found to be associated with infectious or non-infectious hazards, thus influence human health (Sherazi et al. 2015). Poultry feed can act as carrier of animal and human pathogens (Aliyu et al. 2012). Poultry feed can get contaminated at any point of harvesting, processing, storage or dispersal of feed. Primary mode of poultry feed contamination is by dust, soil, water and insects. Poultry meals can be another source of feed contamination. Poultry meals are added in feed as a source of protein. Feeds of animal origin like poultry meals are richer in nutrients and water as compared to feed of plant origin thus are found to have higher microbial load, facilitating the multiplication of bacteria (Kukier and Kwiatek 2011). Inclusion of contaminated meals in feed increases microbial load of poultry feed. The contamination of poultry feed not only influences appearance and nutritional value of feed, but also affects animals and human who consumes it (Maciorowski et al. 2007). The profitability of poultry production can be greatly affected due to the frequency of feed contamination and the detrimental effects of the aflatoxins on performance of chickens (Anjum et al. 2011). Poultry feeds have been implicated in several poultry diseases of viral (Avian Influenza, Newcastle disease), bacterial (Salmonellosis, Infectious Coryza) and fungal origin. Many human diseases like Traveler’s Diarrhea and Salmonella Paratyphoid fever have been associated with consumption of poultry birds that contracted infections from poultry feed (Obi and Ozugbo 2007). Introduction 3 The poultry industry relies on ready to use poultry feed prepared by feed mills (Arotupin et al. 2007). Both bacteria and fungi including mycotoxins usually contaminate feed at different stages of pre or post processing, depending upon the conditions under which it is handled or stored (D’Mello 2006). Poultry meals mostly get contaminated post rendering process. The cooking step in rendering process inactivates bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasites(Meeker and Hamilton 2006) . Still presence of contaminants in meals is attributed to post processing contamination. Many bacterial pathogens reported in feed are Escherichia coli, Erwinia herbicola, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Enterococcus fecalis, Cl. perferingens and Cl. botulinum (Aliyu et al. 2012; Lateef and Gueguim-Kana 2014) . The contaminated feed results in excessive activation of immune system and ultimately decreases poultry production and its profitability (Kukier et al. 2012). In addition to bacterial contaminants, toxigenic fungi have threatened quality and safety of feed and have caused severe losses to poultry industry in recent times. Cereals and grains based poultry feed mostly get contaminated with fungi (Kwiatek and Kukier 2008). Mycotoxin producing fungal genera that are reported in poultry feed are Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium (Greco et al. 2014). As Poultry feed is the first step of the food safety chain in "farm-to-fork" model. Contaminated feed can also serve as a source of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in poultry meat(da Costa et al. 2007). There are many evidences that pathogens in feed are transmitted to humans through animals and food of animal origin. It can also become source of some human pathogens in environment. Feed contamination by fungi is responsible for animal mycotoxicoses and through consumption of contaminated animal food, results in human intoxications (Kukier et al. 2012). Birds utilizing toxins containing feed are economical loss for farmers and also affects consumer Introduction 4 health through its residues (Alam et al. 2012). Poultry feeds containing antibiotic resistant bacteria results in loss of poultry productivity, making treatment of poultry diseases difficult. Thus quality of animal food directly depends on usage of nutritionally balanced and safe feed. Among many feed sources used, poultry meals are gaining importance for their higher nutritional value, but very less work has been done in world particularly in Pakistan to determine microbiological safety of poultry meals produced. There is the need to determine various quality parameters which should be followed to ensure production of safe meal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2252-T] (1).

6. In Process Quality Control Factors Affecting The Quality Of Locally Prepared Salmonella Gallinarum Antigen

by Zahra Malik (2009-VA-245) | Dr. Arfan Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Fowl typhoid is a septicaemic disease caused by S. gallinarum biovar gallinarum has major economic significance in many parts of the world. It is an acute or chronic septicaemic disease that usually affects the birds (mostly adult birds). Eradication of disease is normally done by identifying the infected flocks and eliminating the reactor birds by using serological tests, but diagnosis of the disease is much expensive because antigen used for this purpose is imported. The study, therefore, has been proposed to prepare and evaluate the stained antigen of S. gallinarum using local isolates. A total of 15 isolates were procured from Poultry Research Institute (PRI) Rawalpindi, University Diagnostic Lab (UDL) and Department of Microbiology, UVAS Lahore, which were identified by Biochemical testing and further confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Among all 15 isolates two isolates were confirmed as S. gallinarum and proceeded to prepare local antigen of S. gallinarum. Locally prepared antigen was checked with known positive and negative sera, Effect of different preservatives (Sodium azide and Thiomersal sodium) and different storage temperatures (4°C, 25°C and -20°C) was also studied after every fifteen days post storage upto 6 months to observe the stability and shelf life of local antigen. On the end of study both preservatives i.e. Sodium azide and Thiomersal sodium was found equally effective for antigen activity, whereas 4°C proved best storage temperature to be used for the antigen preservation. Activity of locally prepared antigens was also compared with the imported antigen (Charles, River, USA) stored at different temperatures regularly throughout the six months, which showed that local antigens was almost as good as the imported antigen. Summary 51 CONCLUSION Locally prepared S. gallinarum antigen was found as effective as imported antigen. Both the test preservatives (Sodium azide and Thiomersal Sodium) had the same effect on antigen preservation. Among all three test temperatures, 4°C was accepted as best storage temperature for the long term preservation of local antigen with either of the preservative. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2278-T] (1).

7. Genetic Diversity Among Different Isolates Of Pasteurella Multocida From Poultry

by Arslan Sardar (2013-VA-282) | Dr. Imran Altaf | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Fowl cholera is an acute bacterial disease of broiler breeders and layer breeders caused by Pasteurella multocida. In the present study, 10 isolates from different areas of Punjab were purified. These samples were confirmed by API Kit. Different molecular techniques like PCR and RFLP were used to investigate variation at the molecular level among 10 isolates collected from different areas of Punjab. Different mutations were observed among 10 field isolates at different mutation sites by sequencing. Phylogentic tree was also made using MEGA6 software that supported the sequencing results. ‘Msp1’ endonuclease cleaved bacterial whole genome at different cutting sites, all 10 isolates collected from different districts of Punjab cleaved into 3 to 5 fragments ranging from 600 to 10000 base pairs which showed the genetic variation among 10 isolates of P.mulocida. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2315-T] (1).

8. Characterization And Thermostability Of Phytase Produced By Indigenous Aspergillus Niger Isolates

by Madeeha Tariq (2010-VA-293) | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Wasim Shehzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Phytase enzyme now becomes more important commercially. Presence of phytate in food and feed make them less nutritive due to phytate complexes mainly with mineral ions and proteins. Phytase in monogastric animals and human stomach either produced in small amount or not. This leads to phosphorous Pi deficiency. Supplementation of food and feed with phytase enzyme full fill this deficiency through degradation of phytate complexes and release of Pi. Degradation of phytate complexes makes phosphorous other mineral ions and amino acids available for growth and development. It was proved that feed conversion rate in poultry increased due to supplementation of phytase in poultry feed. Feed of monogastric animals mostly at industrial level pelleted to give it a shape or to kill microorganisms (sterility). At industrial level enzyme production and processing cost about 2 billion. So this demands a thermostable phytase to use at industrial level or its cost effective production. Aspergillus niger have been used industrially for production of beneficial enzymes. A. niger isolates procured from department of microbiology were confirmed through macro and microscopic characteristics as A. niger. These isolate were screened for phytase production on phytase screening medium PSM agar. Positive isolates identified through noval staining using 2% cobalt chloride, 6.25% ammonium molybdate and 0.42% ammonium vanadate for contrast. Positive isolates next proceeded for phytase enzyme production in broth media (pH 5.6) using 0.5% sodium phytate as substrate. Incubation was done at 30oC for 5-7 days in shaking incubator 150rpm. After production quantification of enzyme was carried out through enzyme activity assay. There maximum (274.99±10.14 FTU/ml) and minimum (68.88±2.55 FTU/mL) activity of phytases from isolate PASN01 and PASN08 was observed. Phytases characterized through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) to know protein molecular weights. Highest molecular weight 107.82kDa was PASN06 and lowest was 35.21kDa of PASN 01. Aspergillus niger spores subjected to steam heat treatment at 30oC, 45oC, 60oC, 75oC and 90oC for 15, 30, 45, 60minutes to identify thermostability. At 30oC and 45oC temperature, spores of A. niger isolates found to be thermostable. But at 60oC, 75oC, or 90oC treatment spores become inactivated or there 6.0 logarithmic reduction in spore count was observed. Thermostability of phytases was found at 60oC, 75oC, 90oC for 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes treatments. Enzyme from A. niger PASN01 and PASN08 observed as thermostable at 60, 75 and 90oC. Phytases from PASN01 and PASN08 showed 160.55±42.96 and 00±.00 FTU/mL decreased in activity after 45 minutes of treatment at 60oC temperature, respectively. PASN01 phytase displayed 163.88±23.35, 172.77±7.52 and 171.66±7.26 FTU/mL decreased in activity after 60minutes treatment at 60, 75 and 90oC. In case of PASN08 phytase at 60, 75 and 90oC temperature after 60minutes treatment, 13.33±10.41, 16.66±6.00 and 23.88±41.37 FTU/mL decreased in activities were observed, respectively. PASN08 phytase observed more thermostable than other phytases of A. niger isolates. Enzyme can bear pelleting and pre pelleting temperatures. Enzyme from PASN08 also observed stable during storage at room temperature. Conclusion: A. niger PASN08 spores inactivated or killed and phytase observed stable at 60oC temperature, after 60mins treatment. Temperature 60oC may be used industrially for cost effective thermostable phytase production from indigenous A. niger isolate PASN08. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2475-T] (1).

9. Isolation And Antibiotic Resistance Profiling Of Enterococcus Faecium Recovered From Retail Fish In Lahore City

by Maria Butt (2010-Va-281) | Dr. Ali Ahmad Sheikh | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr. Wasim Shehzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Enterococcus faecium is an enteric, gram positive and lactic acid bacteria which belongs to genus enterococcus and inhabit the intestinal tract of human, fish and other warm blooded animals. Due to irrational use of antibiotics in human and veterinary sector, antibiotic resistance has been developed in commensal bacteria including Enterococcal species. These resistant bacteria are released in environment through human and animal waste and transfer resistant genes to susceptible bacteria present in wetlands making them antibiotic resistant. E. faecium is considered to be involved in transmission of resistance genes, present on mobile genetic elements through conjugation to other bacteria. The resistant bacteria can be transferred to human through food chain. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of E. faecium recovered from retail fish samples collected from various areas of Lahore city. Antibiotic resistance profiling of the isolates against commonly used antibiotics was also determined. In current study 65 fish samples (intestinal swabs) were processed for isolation of E. faecium through standard culturing and biochemical reactions. Out of 65 swab samples, 30 samples (47.69%) were found positive for Enterococcus faecium. Antibiotics resistance profiling showed that the isolates were resistant to antibiotics mentioned as below: Ampicillin (100%) > erythromycin (56.6%) > rifampicin (53.3%) > Chloramphenicol (30%), ciprofloxacin (30%) > tetracycline (20%), vancomycin (20%) > Teicoplanin (13.3%) > Doxycyclin (6.6%) > Fosfomycin (0%). E. faecium isolates showed resistant to at least 2 or 3 antibiotics of different group. In conclusion it is observed that retail fish is the carrier of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecium and Summary 51 could transfer resistant genes to wetlands and other aquaculture from where it could be transferred to human body. Efforts should be made to use antibiotics wisely and hygienic practices should be followed during slaughtering and processing of fish meat to avoid bacterial spread from animal source to human beings. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2493-T] (1).

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