Assessment Of Afflatoxins Contamination In Peanuts
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Peanut is the most important agricultural crop of Pakistan. Peanut is a dicotyledonous, herbaceous, pubescent, rigid or low growing plant and the only species cultivated is (Arachishypogaea L.). Peanut is rich in protein, fat and carbohydrates, some percentage of Ca, K, P, Mg and vitamin E is also present. Peanut is an excellent source of edible oil as it contains about 50 to 53 percent good quality oil used in ghee, margarine and salad. There is high risk of contamination of peanuts with aflatoxins(AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) because of fungal attack during the drying of peanut pods. Out of all these aflatoxins AFB1 is most important. Aflatoxins are toxic, carcinogenic secondary metabolites of Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillusparaciticus and Aspergillusnomius. Aflatoxins can cause illness to human results in Aflatoxicosis. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds that are causative agents in human hepatic and extra hepatic carcinogenesis. The chief attacking organ for aflatoxins B1 toxicity and carcinogenicity is liver. From the safety point of view aflatoxin management is important for the production of safe and excellent quality peanuts.
For this purpose present study was conducted to determine the level of aflatoxins in peanuts (roasted, un-roasted). Samples will be collected/purchased by simple random collection technique from local markets and vendors from different areas ( Sabzazar, Wahdat road , Shad bagh, Data darbar, Akbarimandi, Beaden road, Lohari gate, Ek-moria pull, Liberty, Firdous market, Siddiqiacoloney, Mughal pura, Faizbagh, Rehmanpura, Gulberg, Model town, Islam pura, Shahdara, Rang mahal, Muslim town, Township, Iqbal town, Awan town, Niazbegh, Mozang, Outfall road, Sanatnagar, Cantt, Secretriate and Shad man) of Lahore. The samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) to check the presence of aflatoxins (B1, B2,
G1 and G2). TLC analyses were further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to verify the accuracy of TLC. These analyses were performed in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and WTO labs, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. As out of 120 total samples of peanuts 60 samples were taken from vendors with 2 categories of roasted and unroasted while 60 samples were collected from shops with the same categories. Out of 120 samples, 55 (45.8%) were contaminated. In these 55 samples 48 (87.2%) samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1.Aflatoxin G1 is also present in 3 samples (5.45%), aflatoxin B2 in 3 (5.45%) samples and Aflatoxin G2 is present only in one samples collected from vendors, and we can say that 1.8% samples were contaminated with aflatoxin G2.
Present study will be supportive for the investigation of aflatoxins in peanuts. Peanuts are widely consumed all over the world and occurrence of aflatoxins in this commodity is a major concern to human health. The present situation is too much worse about the levels of aflatoxins which are higher than the prescribed limit by the regulatory authorities. It was observed that TLC technique is good for the determination of aflatoxins in developing countries where the facilities of sensitive instruments are not accessible. Furthermore to quantify levels of aflatoxins by using sensitive instruments like HPLC, GC-MS and LC-MS is required for accurate detection of Aflatoxins in peanuts in markets to protect the consumers from exposure of aflatoxins high level which are carcinogenic and hepatotoxic.
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Effect Of Garlic And Ginger Extract On The Shelf Life Of Fish
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The fish is highly perishable food which contains high protein and omega3 fatty acids. It contain enzyme which cause autocatalysis of muscles after harvesting. Due to lack of Knowledge and poor storage and handling practices cause fish spoilage and deterioration of fish.
Ginger and garlic are spices, also contain a variety of bioactive substances which are of considerable use from the standpoint of food science and technology. Ginger and garlic shows excellent inhibition against food pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.
Antimicrobial properties of garlic and ginger may control the microbial growth of fish and is able to minimize fish spoilage. Fish was taken from fish farm then washed and cleaned, cut the fish and left at room temperature for water dropping then weighed it. Each sample was containing 20gm weight.
Then dipped samples in extract of ginger and garlic that have doses 15%, 20 %, 25%for ninety minute, then was wrapped in polythene bag and put in refrigerator for 5 months.
Aerobic plate count was performed after fortnightly by the method of standard plate count and assessed sensory condition of fish by sensory evaluation after one month.
In control group, the Bacillus cereus significantly increased with time (during storage) While, in all other treatments both garlic and ginger treatment prove effective to increase shelf life and Bacillus cereus significantly decreased with time (during storage). The apparently huge decreased was observed in combined form of ‘25% Garlic & Ginger’ treatment group. Garlic was more effective then ginger in separately treatment.
In control group, staphylococcus significantly increased with time (during storage). While, in all other treatments both garlic and ginger treatment prove effective to increase shelf life of staphylococcus significantly decreased with time (during storage). The apparently huge decreased was observed in combined form of ‘25% Garlic & Ginger’ treatment group. In comparison to garlic, ginger was observed most efficient in controlling staphylococcus growth in fish samples.
In control group, Salmonella significantly increased with time (during storage). While, in all other treatments both garlic and ginger treatment prove effective to increase shelf life and Salmonella significantly decreased with time (during storage). The apparently huge decreased was observed in combined form of ‘25% Garlic & Ginger’ treatment group. Seprately20 % garlic and ginger show same result.
In control group, Streptococcus significantly increased with time (during storage). While, in all other treatments both garlic and ginger treatment prove effective to increase shelf life and Streptococcus significantly decreased with time (during storage). The apparently huge decreased was observed in combined form of ‘25% Garlic & Ginger’ treatment group. But garlic showed better results as compared to the ginger in respective concentrations.
In control group, Shigella significantly increased with time (during storage). While, in all other treatments both garlic and ginger treatment prove effective to increase shelf life Shigella significantly decreased with time (during storage). The apparently huge decreased was observed in combined form of ‘25% Garlic & Ginger’ treatment group.
The sensory evaluation results showed that with increasing concentration of ginger and garlic separate and in combination of both have profound effects on sensory parameters. It is evident
from the results after five months of trial that garlic and ginger can be used to control microbial growth in fish samples and their acceptability on sensory scale is better than the control samples. Treated samples were more liked and observed acceptable according to grading scale. By comparing the whole results of sensory evaluation it has become very easy to access the positive outcomes of the applications of ginger and garlic in different concentrations and in combination. Ginger and garlic in combination were more liked and maintained their color, juiciness, flavor, tenderness and oiliness level.
Data was statistically analyzed by applying 2 Way ANOVA. There was mean score difference (p<0.05) among garlic treatment, ginger treatment and combination of garlic and ginger treatment with bacterial count. But ginger has least effect as compare to garlic but in combination they became more effective against bacterial count. There was mean score significant difference (p<0.05) among treatment and time with sensory evaluation.
This study shows that combination of both spices 25% ginger & garlic is more effective then separately ginger & garlic. Garlic shows better result against control of bacterial count Streptococcus and Bacillus cercus. Ginger shows better result against control of bacterial count in Staphylococcus and Shigella. Both spices show almost same control of bacterial count against Salmonella.
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Microbiological Analysis Of Food Contact Surfaces Used In Various University Cafeterias Of Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Personal hygiene and food contact surfaces are direct routes of cross contamination that can make food unsafe and are a major concern for food service facilities in controlling the spread of food borne pathogens. Good cleaning practices are particularly important in premises like cafeterias, preparing ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, as these foods are consumed without further cooking or processing to reduce or eliminate microorganisms. Lahore is educational capital of Pakistan where educational institutions are increasing and therefore number of students, eating meals from university cafeteria is becoming more frequent. Despite the growth of this sector, there is no effective education or training of the food handlers or hygienic control of the food sold as many of these were sealed last year due to unhygienic conditions. This study aims to evaluate the microbial status of various food contact surfaces that are used in various university cafeterias of Lahore so that recommendations could be provided and therefore risk of food poisoning cases among youth could minimize. For this study (n=120) samples were collected from food contact surfaces i.e. work tops, equipments, tools, utensils and hands of food handlers working in cafeteria of various universities of Lahore. Each sample was analyzed for microbiological tests i.e. Total Aerobic Colony Count (ACC), Total Coliform Count, Staphylococcal count and Salmonella. The microbiological quality of various food contact surfaces of university cafeterias preparing ready to eat food was determined. Results highlighted poor hygienic status of FCSs in Universities. Among 120 samples 95.28% have been poor hygiene status according guidelines. Work tops and food handler’s hands had high total plate count value. Utensils was having low bacterial load than other two surfaces. Total Coliform count on utensils was lower than other two surfaces that are work tops and food handler’s hands.
Staphylococcus count on hands was abundant as compare to other two surfaces. In all the three microbiological tests Total Coliform Count was lower as compared to Total Plate Count and Total Staphylococcus Count. In sum the hygiene status of all the surfaces was highly unacceptable indicating that these surfaces are harboring many pathogenic bacteria that could be transferred to food that will come in contact in result of cross-contamination as food contact surfaces and one of three basic routes of cross contamination of food. It indicates that FCSs directly involve in food poisoning and food-borne outbreaks. Guidelines should be provided and implemented to reduce the risk of food contamination. Awareness and proper training and good hygiene practices are highly recommended in light of given results.
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Determination Of Tartrazine In Different Food Items Available In Lahore Pakistan
Material type: Book Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Synthetic dyes used in various food items like sweets, candies and beverages cause severe health hazards if they are not food grade and within the legally permitted limits. In Pakistan due to increased consumption of attractive colored food items, the use of dyes in every food product is also increasing. Already there is no study to appraise the nature and level of colorants. Therefore, this study focused on determination of synthetic dye (tartrazine) used in candies, sweets and beverages to determine its safer levels.
This research work was done in food science and nutrition lab of Food Science and Human Nutrition Department of UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan. Total 180 samples were collected from all 9 towns of Lahore plus Lahore Cantt. Samples included 30 candies purchased from local vendors and 30 candies from shops, 30 sweet samples (rasgulla) from local vendors and 30 sweet samples from sweet shops. Moreover, 30 slush samples locally available in streets and 30 slush samples from shops of posh areas in Lahore. The results were compared with the previous held researches in other countries.
The food samples were divided into two categories local shops and local vendors. Total six local shops and six vendors of each town of lahore were selected for the collection of samples in triplicate pattern. All the samples were evaluated for spectrophotometric determination of tartrazine by using Beer’s law. Abosrbtion peeks were checked at a wavelength of 421.6 and the mean values of concentration of tartrazine in slush ranged from 0.269 to 0.275 mg/g obtained from local vendors and shops respectively.Moreover, the mean values of tartrazine ranged from 0.258 to 0.309 mg/g for vendor sweet and shop sweet samples respectively and mean value for candies ranged from 0.200 -0.704mg/g. Data was analyzed through the Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 22.0. Mean values with standard deviation in percentages of results were analyzed by descriptive analyses. To examine the relationship among the variables of candies, sweets and slush samples chi-square test was used. Further to compare tartrazine levels in the local shops and foodstuff obtained from the common vendors of Lahore, independent “t” test was used. 2 way-ANOVA was applied to check the differences of all samples in 10 towns of Lahore.
According to my investigations the quality of foodstuff collected from local shops and from local vendors is almost same and both contain high amounts of tartrazine.I suggest consumers, they should prefer to buy branded foodstuff from superstores as compared to local shops and local vendors because the keeping quality and handling practices are good in superstores than local shops.
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