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1. Prevalence, Serodiagnosis And Zoonotic Importance Of Hydatidosis In Small Ruminants And Humans

by Hafiz Javed Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Hydatidosis is a world-wide zoonotic parasitic disease which is caused by the larval stage of tape worm Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. It is highly endemic in some regions of the world. Keeping in view the importance of the disease, the present study was conducted to record the age, sex, species and season wise prevalence of hydatidosis in small ruminants. The study also includes comparison of the two serological tests used for the diagnosis of this disease and efficacy of mebendazole was aIso evaluated. Prevalence and organ specificity of hydatidosis was studied in 2400 sheep and 2400 goats of different age and sexes. The overall prevalence of hydatidosis in sheep and goats was 8.25 and 6.21 percent respectively. Sex wise prevalence indicated that it was 9.85 and 7.85 percent in female and male sheep respectively whereas in female and male goats it was 5.83 and 7.23 percent respectively. A reasonably higher prevalence of hydatidosis was observed in female animals as compared with males. In adult animals hydatid cysts were present in 11.38 and 7.77 percent in sheep and goatsrespectively while in lambs and kids it was 1.79 and 1.06 percent respectively. Statistically no significant difference was observed in any season through out the year in both the species. In the present study, lungs were found to be most commonly infected organ in sheep andliver in goats. Out of 198 infected sheep, 45.45 percent had cysts in lungs, 33.84 percentin liver, 10.10 percent in both liver and lungs, 2.53 percent in spleen, 2.02 percent in heart and 6.06 percent in abdomen and thoracic cavity whereas in goats organs specificity was 34.23, 40.27, 16.78, 0.67, 8.05 percent respectively for lungs, liver, lungs & liver both, spleen and abdomen and thoracic cavity. A total of 60 cysts in sheep were examined for fertility and it was found that out of 18 cysts of less than two centimeter size, maximum (50 percent) were suppurative orcalcified and minimum (16.7 percent) were fertile in nature. Of 30 cysts of 2-4 em size, 40 percent were suppurative and 40 percent were fertile and from 12 cysts of more than four centimeter size, maximum (66.7 percent) were fertile and only 16.7 percent were sterile in nature. In goats, of 15 cysts of less than 2cm size, maximum (46. 7percent) were suppurative, and minimum (13.3 percent) were fertile. Of 7 cysts, belonging to the group of more than four centimeter seize, 71.4 percent were fertile in nature and only 14.3 percent were sterile. Overall fertility rate in sheep and goats was 38.33 and 36.96 percent respectively whereas overall sterility rate was 23.3 and 32.60 percent in sheep and goats respectively. In sheep, total number of protoscolices found in 23 cysts was 936 of which 72.65 percent were fertile in nature. The mean of total proto scolices was 40.70 with standard deviation of 23.05 whereas the mean number of viable protoscolices was 29.57 percent with a standard deviation of 18.92. In goats, total number of protoscolices observed in 17 cysts was 719 whereas only 52.71 percent were fertile in nature. The mean of total protoscolices was 42.30 with a standard deviation of 17.13 whereas mean of viable protoscolices was 22.30 with standard deviation of 17.10. Blood samples of 40 positive and 40 negative sheep for hydatid disease were collected from slaughter house and serum was separated. ELISA and IHA test were applied on these samples. The sensitivity, specificity, efficacy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of ELISA were 92.5 percent each whereas these values for IHA were 80 percent, 97.5 percent, 88.75 percent, 96.96 percent and 82.98 percent respectively. In goats, blood samples from 40 positive and 40 negative cases of hydatidosis were collected from slaughter house before slaughtering and ELISA and IHA were applied on all of these samples. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA was 90 percent and 95 percent respectively whereas the sensitivity and specificity of IHA was 75 percent and 97.5 percent respectively. A total of 12 i.e. 6 sheep and 6 goats (healthy) were purchased and kept at Ravi campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. These were divided into experimental (4 sheep and 4 goats) and control group (two sheep and two goats). In experimental group, 100 eggs of Echinococcus granulosus were given orally to all animals and then mebendazole was given to two sheep and two goats on zero day and then after two months intervals. Blood samples were collected from all animals on zero day, 90 days and 180th day and serum was separated. ELISA and IHA were applied to all samples. Mebendazole was not found completely effective and ELISA detected the infection earlier than IHA. On postmortem examination, multiple cysts were found in all animals of group A and no cyst was found in group B. Eighty blood samples of humans i.e. 40 positive and 40 negative for hydatidosis were coilected, serum was separated and ELISA and IHA test were applied to all the samples. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA was 95 percent and 97.5 percent respectively whereas the sensitivity and specificity of IHA was 82.5 percent and 97.5 percent respectively. The present study will be helpful in disseminating the informations regarding the prevalence, zoonotic importance, effect of mebendazole in animals and the use of immunodiagnostic tests for the diagnosis of hydatidosis in small ruminants and human beings. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1405,T] (1).

2. Epidemiological Investigation About The Risk Factors Associated With Newcastle Disease Outbreaks During Period Of 2011-2012 in commercial broilers in Lahore.

by Rubab Maqsood | Prof. Dr. Athar Khan | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The poultry sector is one of the most systematized and vibrant divisions of the agriculture industry of Pakistan. The poultry sector has shown a vigorous growth of 8 to 10 percent annually, which reveals its distinctive potentialNewcastle disease, is an acute, contagious rapidly spreading viral disease of domestic poultry and wild bird of all ages with mortality up to 100% in the infected flocks. It is caused by avian Paramyxovirus serotype-I. This disease is major restraint to attain acceptable production levels in commercial broiler. In Pakistan ND is commonly reported disease in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated flocks. In the current study risk factors which were associated with the outbreak of Newcastle Disease regarding farm practices were identified and recommendations can be given for the control of ND on the basis of comparing current and previous (2011-2012) farm practices in environmentally controlled commercial broiler houses. The results of this study are applicable on all the commercial broiler population which is being reared in environmentally controlled houses in Lahore District.Number of environmentally controlled houses was 128 environmentally control sheds in Lahore District. But only 96 farm managers guven consent for the visit of their farm so the sample was n= 96 environmentally controlled houses. Sampling unit was one environmentally controlled house. A questionnaire was developed about the risk factors which were considered to be associated with ND outbreak. A total n= 96 Environmentally controlled houses of commercial broiler affected and not affected by the ND outbreaks in and around Lahore District were selected with the help of convenient sampling method and their owner/manager were interviewed face to face and information was also collected from the farm record. Out of 96 ECH(Environmentally Controlled Houses) of commercial broiler 79 suffered from newcastle disease outbreak while only 17 ECH were non-infected during period of 2011-2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and odds ratio was calculated for the studied and supposed risk factors. Distance between farms less than 5Km, feed transporting vehicle, method of dead infected birds' disposal and type of labor on the farms were found as risk factors for the newcastle disease out breaks. Water quality, biosecurity, feed storage method, heat source used, farms managers, litter disposal methods showed a negative association with the spread of disease. E. coli and salmonella infection were mostly observed as secondary infections among the ND affected flocks. Avian influenza showed an association with newcastle disease. Infectious bursal disease and hydro pericardium syndrome showed no association with ND epidemics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1628,T] (1).

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