Comparative Efficiency Of Routine Identification Methods With Molecular Technique (Pcr) For Detection Of Caecal Eimeria Species in Broilers
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Caecl coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix and poultry industry is facing huge economic losses due to this infection world wide. Eimeria tenella is the most common cause of caecal coccidiosis but E. necatrix is also isolated rarely. In the present study, 400 caecal samples suspected for coccidiosis were collected from two districts (Lahore and Gujranwala). Ten samples from twenty farms of each district were collected and examined for coccidiosis and species identication. Prevalence of coccidiosis was found 68%. It was more prevalent in district Gujranwala (71.5%) as compared to Lahore (64.5%). Eimeria species were identified by conventional (Direct Microscopy, Sedimentation technique, Floatation Technique and Sporulation) and molecular technique (PCR). Polymerase chain reaction was found the most sensitive ands accurate technique for species identification as compared to all conventional techniques. The prevalence percentage of E.tenella and E,necatrix was found 68% and 12.5% respectively. E.tenella was more prevalent in district Gujranwala (71.5%) as compared to district Lahore (64.5%). E.necatrix was also more prevalent in district Gujranwala (13.5%) than district Lahore (11.5%). The difference in percent prevalence of coccidiosis and species of Eimeria may be due to difference in farm management, farming type, biosecurity measures.
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Epidemiology, Zoonotic Potential, Molecular Diagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Cryptosporidiosisin Bovine
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Cryptosporidiosis is an important parasitic infection of cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep, horses, cats, human beings and other vertebrates. Prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in selected animals and human beings carried out on the basis of microscopic examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis determined on the basis of conventional identification method was highest in calves (23.1) followed by cattle (10.5) and buffaloes (8.47). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in calves, cattle and buffaloes was higher at Government dairy farm (38.33, 20.55 and 16.66) followed by Gawala colonies (26.1, 12.77 and 9.44), Military dairy farm (18.3, 6.11 and 4.44) and then House hold dairies (10, 3.88 and 3.34). Percent prevalence recorded in calves having age less than six months was higher (26.45) than those with 7-12 months of age (16.6). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in cattle having age of 2-3 years was higher than those cattle having 3-7 years of age. Similarly, infection rate was higher in buffaloes with 2-3 years age (11.8) than 3-7 years (9.8). Cryptosporidiosis percent prevalence recorded in female calves was higher (24.04) than male calves (18.2). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts observed in feces of male cattle was little higher (11.25) than female cattle (10.4). Cryptosporidiosis percent prevalence recorded in female buffaloes was higher (13.3) than male buffaloes (8.3).
The data was analyzed monthly for the purpose to trace out the specific period of the year having the highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium infection. The highest percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis recorded in fecal samples of calves was during summer (27.5) followed by autumn (25.8), spring (20.3) and the lowest in winter season (14.5). Overall the highest percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in cattle recorded was during summer (15), followed by spring/autumn (10.88) and the lowest in winter (6.6%). The highest percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis recorded in buffaloes was during summer (12) followed by autumn (20), spring (7.5) and the lowest in winter season (4.5). In human beings patients suffering from diarrhea were examined by microscopy and percent prevalence calculated was 40 in present study.
Molecular percent prevalence rate determined was 12.22 in cattle. Percent prevalence recorded using PCR was the highest at Government dairy farm (22.7), followed by Gawala colonies (14.41), Military dairy farm (7.7) and the lowest at House hold dairies (5). The highest season wise percent molecular prevalence was observed during summer (16.6) followed by autumn/spring (13.3), the lowest in winter (7.7). The higher molecular percent prevalence in young cattle (2-3 years) was higher (23.7) than those having age between 3-7 years (10.7). Molecular percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in selected cattle was lower in females (13.6) than males (15).
The efficacy of albendazole observed was 43.05, 58.7 and 64.6 percents on 13th, 20th and 27th day post treatment. The efficacy of albendazole determined on this dose was 34.8, 57.1 and 62.9 percents on days 13, 20 and 27 post therapy. Efficacy of drug calculated on days 13, 20 and 27 was 32.8, 53.3 and 56.6 percent, respectively. Percent efficacy of used drug was 55.04, 68.5 and 79.4 on days 13, 20 and 27 post treatment, respectively. At 50mg/kg body weight dose rate of paromomycin significant decrease in OPG count was recorded from 6th day post treatment and onward (P<0.05). On days 13, 20 and 27 percent efficacy of used drug determined was 48.1, 65 and 69, respectively.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Different Diagnostic Techniques For Ovine Haemonchosis Through Faecal
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Livestock plays pivotal role in the economy of country and small ruminants are the major source of food products for human. Haemonchus contortus is the most significant parasite of small ruminants and cause heavy production losses by causing reduction in meat and wool production. The parasite directly affects the health of an animal and causes anemia, hemorrhages, anorexia, weight loss and death of affected animal.
This study was designed to diagnose the Haemonchosis in sheep in and around Lahore. The accurate diagnoses of the parasite are important for its control and treatment. Direct smear, floatation technique and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were applied to check the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing Haemonchosis in sheep. For this purpose 100 faecal samples were collected randomly from different areas of Lahore. Each faecal sample was examined by direct smear method and floatation technique. Out of 100 faecal samples 44 were microscopically positive. 30 by direct smear method and 44 by floatation technique.
Specific primers were designed to diagnose Haemonchosis in sheep by using ITS-2 Region. 44 microscopically positive samples were confirmed by PCR. 29 (66%) samples were found to be PCR-positive and 15 (34%) were found to be PCR-negative.
Several other species of parasites were also found during microscopic examination of faecal samples. Two samples wetre found positive for coccidial oocyst and seven samples were also positive for other nematodes along with Haemonchus spp.
Flotation technique was found to be superior in diagnosis of Haemonchosis as compared to direct smear.
From current study it is concluded that Haemonchosis is widely prevalent in ovines. Its accurate diagnosis is essential for the treatment of infectious diseases and control of this parasite. Molecular technique has the advantage over conventional diagnostic techniques because PCR is more specific than conventional methods of diagnosis. According to the present study by conventional method there is 34% error chances to diagnose other Trichstrongylid eggs as Haemochus spp. The main advantage of using PCR as diagnostic test, are an increased speed of diagnosting the disease and its capability to notice low worm burden in small volume of faeces from individual animals.
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