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1. Efficacy Of Chenopodium Album As Anthelmintic Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep Dr. Muhammad Lateef

by Waseem Ahmad (2007-VA-74) | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Helminthiasis is among the most significant animal health harms, which inflicts heavy production and economy losses especially in small ruminants. The helminth problem is highly common mainly in developing countries like Pakistan (Dhar et al. 1982). Small ruminants have much importance in meat and leather industry of Pakistan. Sheep play a vital role in producing income and provide financial support for poor farmers in developing countries. Endo-parasites represent a major constraint to the production and growth of small ruminants (Babar et al. 2013). Pakistan has been reported to problem of helminths in sheep and goat (Raza et al. 2009) and cattle and buffalo (Athar et al. 2011). Mainly infection is generally controlled by allopathic drugs and vaccination (Behnke et al. 2008). Parasitic diseases are a major threat in efficiency, the most widespread helminth parasites being Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum columbianum. Liver flukes and paramphistomes (Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum microbothrium) occasionally cause heavy mortality in animals grazing swampy areas (Akerejola et al. 1979). The adverse effects of nematode infections include: loss of weight, anorexia, anaemia, retarded growth, delayed sexual maturity, decrease in milk and meat production (Saddiqi et al. 2012). Indigenous knowledge of herbal medicine is a big source of the modern knowledge. Today, thousands of plants, traditionally used as medicines are being explored (Kakar, 2012). Chemical control of helminths coupled with improved management has been an important worm control approach throughout the World. However, increasing problems of development of resistance in helminths rise in price of drugs contributing factor for traditional plant used (Coles et al. 1997) against anthelmintics have led to the proposal of screening medicinal 1 Introduction plants for their anthelmintic activities. Reports of drug resistance have been made in every livestock host and to every anthelmintic class. In some regions of world, the extremely high prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in nematodes of sheep and goats threatens the viability of small-ruminant industries. Many parasitic nematodes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor the development of anthelmintic resistance (Kaplan et al. 2004). The plants are known to provide a rich source of botanical anthelmintics (Lewis and Elvin Lewis 1977). There are many medicinal plants have been used to treat parasitic infections in man and animals (Iqbal et al. 2005). Various botanical plants have been possessed anthelmintic activity against helminth e.g Chenopodium album (Eguale & Giday, 2009). It has been expected that there are around 250,000 plant species present throughout the world. Plants, from ancient, have served human beings as sources of food, shelter, clothing and medicines. Before the advent of modern allopathic medicine and synthetic drugs, plants and to a certain extent, animals and minerals were used in various formulations for treatment of diseases by traditional medicinal practitioner (Rahmatullah et al. 2011). Plant medicine is very important from ancient to present daytime. The uses of biologically different plant assets for various ailments are the lifelong struggle of humankind (Hussain et al. 2008). In Indo-Pak subcontinent, Ayurvedic and Unani therapeutic systems are very popular and people have been using plants not only for the treatment of their own ailments but also for their domesticated animals. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae) commonly known as “Bathu” is important medicinal plants in Pakistan and their different parts are utilized in the traditional system of medicine (Said et al. 1970). Chenopodium album usually recognized as “Bathua” is a familiar food as well as a medicinal plant. In traditional system of medicine, it is used as an anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, contraceptive, laxative, cardiotonic, antiscorbutic, 2 Introduction and blood purifier & also in management of hepatic disorder, spleen enlargement, intestinal ulcers, digestive, carminative, seminal weakness, pharyngopathy, splenopathy, hemorrhoids, cardiac disorder (Panigrahy et al. 2012). The seeds of the plant are known to possess anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. A compound C37- trihydroxy adjacent bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin, present in the seeds, is responsible for inhibition of the egg hatching of gastrointestinal nematodes (Saha et al. 2011). Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae) is a rapid rising fragile annual plant and it is found in Bangladesh. In English plant known as Lamb’s quarters and in Bengali as Buthiya shak. Both in vitro and in vivo activity of plant as anthelmintic has been reported (Jain and Singhai 2012). Chenopodium album was found to be one of the initial plant species colonizing a heavy metal-contaminated site, polluted by pyritic (sulphide-rich) waste from the Aznalcóllar Mine spill (South-western Spain). This shows its importance in the re-vegetation of this soil (Walker et al. 2004). In vitro experiments were arranged to conclude the possible anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous extracts and powder of the whole of Chenopodium album (Eguale et al. 2009). Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium album and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with substantial success in mass treatment campaigns (Kliks et al. 1985). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2203,T] (1).

2. Conventional And Molecular Characterization Of Theileria Species Prevalent In Cattle

by Fafiz Muhammad Nadeem (2003-VA-77) | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theileriosis is the destructive disease caused by the protozoan in cattle. It is major cause of huge losses in production of cattle. It is a wide spread protozoan syndrome of cattle playing foremost role in production losses. Early and exact diagnosis of theileriosis can be helpful in reducing production losses. Early and exact diagnosis of theileriosis can be helpful in the control of disease.( Hypothesis ) Incidence of different Theileria species was recorded. Blood samples was collected in sterilized vacutainers. The samples were examined by preparing fresh blood smears followed by Giemsa staining and observing under microscope. Identification on preliminary basis was done by morphological characters of Theileria. In order to find the harmful effect of the theileriosis, blood hematology and biochemistry values were also be determined in both healthy and infected cattle. The samples from theileriosis positive animals were used for nucleic acid extraction. The extracted nucleic acid was amplified using Species specific primers.Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to visualize the amplified DNA. Amplicons of nucleic acid was treated with different restriction enzymes and pattern was visualized to find differences among different species of Theileria. Suitable statistical tool was used to analyze the data collected. Chi was applied on data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0. This research will help to confirm for the conventional and molecular diagnosis of theileriosis in dairy animals. Also genetic variation in Theileria species will be determined. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2436-T] (1).

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