Efficacy Of Chenopodium Album As Anthelmintic Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep Dr. Muhammad Lateef
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Helminthiasis is among the most significant animal health harms, which inflicts heavy
production and economy losses especially in small ruminants. The helminth problem is
highly common mainly in developing countries like Pakistan (Dhar et al. 1982). Small
ruminants have much importance in meat and leather industry of Pakistan. Sheep play a vital
role in producing income and provide financial support for poor farmers in developing
countries. Endo-parasites represent a major constraint to the production and growth of small
ruminants (Babar et al. 2013). Pakistan has been reported to problem of helminths in sheep
and goat (Raza et al. 2009) and cattle and buffalo (Athar et al. 2011). Mainly infection is
generally controlled by allopathic drugs and vaccination (Behnke et al. 2008). Parasitic
diseases are a major threat in efficiency, the most widespread helminth parasites being
Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum columbianum. Liver
flukes and paramphistomes (Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum microbothrium)
occasionally cause heavy mortality in animals grazing swampy areas (Akerejola et al. 1979).
The adverse effects of nematode infections include: loss of weight, anorexia, anaemia,
retarded growth, delayed sexual maturity, decrease in milk and meat production (Saddiqi et
Indigenous knowledge of herbal medicine is a big source of the modern knowledge.
Today, thousands of plants, traditionally used as medicines are being explored (Kakar, 2012).
Chemical control of helminths coupled with improved management has been an important
worm control approach throughout the World. However, increasing problems of development
of resistance in helminths rise in price of drugs contributing factor for traditional plant used
(Coles et al. 1997) against anthelmintics have led to the proposal of screening medicinal
plants for their anthelmintic activities. Reports of drug resistance have been made in every
livestock host and to every anthelmintic class. In some regions of world, the extremely high
prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in nematodes of sheep and goats threatens the
viability of small-ruminant industries. Many parasitic nematodes of veterinary importance
have genetic features that favor the development of anthelmintic resistance (Kaplan et al.
The plants are known to provide a rich source of botanical anthelmintics (Lewis and
Elvin Lewis 1977). There are many medicinal plants have been used to treat parasitic
infections in man and animals (Iqbal et al. 2005). Various botanical plants have been
possessed anthelmintic activity against helminth e.g Chenopodium album (Eguale & Giday,
2009). It has been expected that there are around 250,000 plant species present throughout the
world. Plants, from ancient, have served human beings as sources of food, shelter, clothing
and medicines. Before the advent of modern allopathic medicine and synthetic drugs, plants
and to a certain extent, animals and minerals were used in various formulations for treatment
of diseases by traditional medicinal practitioner (Rahmatullah et al. 2011).
Plant medicine is very important from ancient to present daytime. The uses of
biologically different plant assets for various ailments are the lifelong struggle of humankind
(Hussain et al. 2008). In Indo-Pak subcontinent, Ayurvedic and Unani therapeutic systems
are very popular and people have been using plants not only for the treatment of their own
ailments but also for their domesticated animals.
Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae) commonly known as “Bathu” is important
medicinal plants in Pakistan and their different parts are utilized in the traditional system of
medicine (Said et al. 1970). Chenopodium album usually recognized as “Bathua” is a familiar
food as well as a medicinal plant. In traditional system of medicine, it is used as an
anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, contraceptive, laxative, cardiotonic, antiscorbutic,
and blood purifier & also in management of hepatic disorder, spleen enlargement, intestinal
ulcers, digestive, carminative, seminal weakness, pharyngopathy, splenopathy, hemorrhoids,
cardiac disorder (Panigrahy et al. 2012). The seeds of the plant are known to possess
anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. A compound C37- trihydroxy adjacent
bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin, present in the seeds, is responsible for inhibition of the egg
(Chenopodiaceae) is a rapid rising fragile annual plant and it is found in Bangladesh. In
English plant known as Lamb’s quarters and in Bengali as Buthiya shak. Both in vitro and in
vivo activity of plant as anthelmintic has been reported (Jain and Singhai 2012).
Chenopodium album was found to be one of the initial plant species colonizing a heavy
metal-contaminated site, polluted by pyritic (sulphide-rich) waste from the Aznalcóllar Mine
spill (South-western Spain). This shows its importance in the re-vegetation of this soil
(Walker et al. 2004). In vitro experiments were arranged to conclude the possible
anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous extracts and powder of the whole of Chenopodium
album (Eguale et al. 2009). Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium album and its
active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be,
used with substantial success in mass treatment campaigns (Kliks et al. 1985).
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Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Gastro- Intestinal Helminths In Camels Of Cholistan Area Of Bahawalpur
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal helminths are responsible for wide range of health problems, economic losses in camels and are characterized by impaired milk, meat, infertility, low calving rates, decreased working efficiency and even death of the camel.
To study the gastrointestinal helminths, 384 camels of different age, sex and breed was examined coprologically. For this, five gram of fresh fecal sample was carefully collected into a sealed container from each camel and was transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Fecal samples were scored 1-3 based on the consistency. The individual samples was triturated in saturated salt solution, sieved and examined for helminths eggs by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method, Sedimentation technique and Floatation technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. Among the camel population, the current study indicates that in Marrecha breed the prevalence of Nematodes was Trichostrongylus 1.77%, Haemonchus 8.44%, Nematodirus 3.11% and Trichuris 7.11% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 26.66% in infested camels, while the prevalence of Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris in Barella breed was 4.40%, 1.88%, 2.51%, 6.91%, 2.51% and 7.54% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 25.78% in infested camels. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Berrela breed. It was 18.66% in Marrecha breed and 14.46% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 16.93%. While the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Marrecha breed than Barella breed. It was 16% in Marrecha breed and 10.69% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 13.80%. The overall prevalence of fascioliosis in camel is 30.31. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Barella breed. It was 10.22% in Marrecha breed and 8.80% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 9.63%. The sex wise prevalence of gastrointestinal Nematodes in males was 39.28% which includes Camelostrongylus 8.03%, Trichostrongylus 3.57%, Strongyloides 6.25%, Haemonchus 11.60%, Nematodirus 4.46% and Trichuris 5.35% respectively while in the female it was 25.37% which includes Camelostrongylus 4.41%, Trichostrongylus 2.20%, Strongyloides 2.94%, Haemonchus 6.25%, Nematodirus 2.57% and Trichuris 6.98%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in Male was found higher as compared to Female which was 39.28% and 25.37% respectively. Sex wise prevalence of GI Trematodes in Camels was determined through collected samples. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 16.91% in Female and 15.18 % in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 19.53%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Female than Male. It was 12.13% in Female and 11.61% in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 11.98%. Sex wise prevalence of GI Cestodes in Camels was determined. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 14.34% in Female and 13.39% in Male while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the sex was 14.06%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in age group >10 yrs. was higher 30.25% as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. 20% which includes Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris 3.36%, 2.52%, 6.72%, 5.88% 4.20% and 7.56 in age group >10 yrs and 1.88%, 1.51%, 1.88%, 4.90%, 2.64% and 7.16 respectively, in age group 5-10 yrs.
The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 30% in age group 5-10 yrs and 16.99% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 18.75%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 9.33% in age group 5-10 yrs and 7.55% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 8.59%.
The prevalence of Moniezia expansa in age group >10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. It was 10.92% in age group >10 yrs and 10.18% in age group 5-10 yrs while the overall prevalence of in Moniezia expansa the camels irrespective of the age groups was 7.81%.
To study the effect of gastrointestinal helminths on various blood parameters of camels, blood samples were collected from 5 infected and 5 healthy camels. Samples were analyzed using Hematology Analyzer and results were compared.
For therapeutic trials, a total of 30 camels positive for helminths was taken and divided into three groups A-C each group comprising of 10 animals. A fourth group D was selected comprising of 10 uninfected camels. The camels of group A were treated with dry Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder at a daily oral dose of 100 gm/camel for five days, group B was treated with Albenzole granules® (Albendazole) at a dose rate of 15mg/kg bd. wt. PO once. Group C (untreated) was designated as positive control, and the camels in Group D as negative control. Efficacy was determined on the reduction of eggs in feces at day 3, 7 and 14 (post-treatment). In the current study Neem leaves and Albendazole gave following results in the camels affected with Helminths. Neem leaves cured 20% of the animals on day 3rd after the drug administration while 40% and 60% of the animals cured on the day 7th and 14th respectively. Albendazole also gave good results against helminths affected camels. On the day 3rd of the treatment 30% animals cured while 60% animals were cured on the 7th day and on 14th day 80% animals recovered.
Data regarding prevalence was measured by non-parametric, chi-square (χ2), while therapeutic trails were analyzed by repeated measures one way ANOVA, using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences), P < 0.05 was considered significant.
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