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1. Serofpidemiology, Zoonotic Potential And Chemotherapy Of Neosporosis In Dogs And Cattle

by Muhammad Mudasser Nazir | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad Lateef | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The aim of current study was to demonstrate the most important features of Neospora caninum infection in Pakistan. In the present study, I examined the prevalence of N. caninum in 7 districts of the country and to accessed the efficacy of various drugs against the parasite in cell culture. For the achievement of this purpose, the core objectives were, To have an overview on the overall seroprevalence of neosporosis throughout the country by means of cELISA in aborting, at risk and clinically healthy cows. To check the correlation of Iscom ELISA and cELISA, and determination of prevalence of N. caninum by means of Iscom ELISA on milk samples. To identify the transmission of disease towards human. To determine the efficacy of various drugs against N. caninum. In phase 1, overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle (detected by means of cELISA, VMRD, Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) was found to be 43.4% with a significant difference (P < 0.05) of seropositivity among all 18 herds (n = 5 aborting herds, n = 13 non-aborting/clinically healthy herds) selected from 7 districts of Pakistan. The seropositivity of cattle to N. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in aborting animals (52.7%) as compared to non-aborting cows ( 41.5%), indicating a significant difference between aborting and non-aborting cattle. In case of pregnant and non-pregnant animals, similar findings were recorded in our study. A significantly higher rate of seroprevalence was observed in pregnant dams (59.8%) than non-pregnant cattle (35.2%). Overall, higher serological prevalence was evaluated during the summer season (61.1%) in all areas followed by autumn (46.9%), spring (34.9%) and least seropositivity was observed in winter season (26.6%). The difference in seropositivity was significantly different among all age groups, greater in animals older than 2 years of age. Furthermore, the prevalence was statistically significant (P < 0.05) among cattle of different breeds. Seroprevalence in cases of crossbred animals were higher followed by exotic and indigenous breeds. Phase 2, describes the seroprevalence of N. caninum in clinically healthy dairy cows. A selection of 760 animals from 13 dairy herds located in Punjab and Sindh Province, Pakistan to demonstrate the presence or absence of the Neospora caninum infection in commercial dairy cattle. The serostatus of the cows towards N. caninum was detected by cELISA (VMRD, Pullman, WA). Out of 760 animals, (43.2%) were seropositive to N. caninum. A significant difference of positivity was recorded among all 13 dairy herds. Age wise prevalence though not statistically significant among all age groups, was greater in animals over 2 years of age and least in heifers. Variation was also observed in samples from cattle of different breeds. A significantly higher prevalence was observed in crossbred animals than in purebred and nondescript cattle. Seasonal prevalence was higher during summer season than rest of the seasons. The seroprevalence of N. caninum in pregnant cows was significantly greater than in non-pregnant animals. Second experiment of this phase describes the seroprevalence of 240 animals from 5 herds with a high rate of abortion, the percentage of seropositivity observed in these herds was 43.8%, slightly higher than the clinically healthy and non-aborting cattle. No significant difference was observed among all sample locations in this experiment. However, significant difference of positivity was recorded among different breeds of cattle. Age wise prevalence, though not statistically significant (P > 0.05), was greater in animals older than 2 years of age. The assessment of milk samples from lactating cows were also determined for Neospora caninum antibodies by means of Iscom ELISA (SANOVIR® Sanova Biotech AB, Uppasala, Sweden) and showed a good level of agreement (r² = 0.9959) between the two tests (cELISA and Iscom ELISA). Although, the cELISA (VMRD, Inc., Pullman, USA) expressed a higher seropositivity and sensitivity than Iscom ELISA (Sanova Biotech AB, Uppasala, Sweden). Therefore, both of the ELISA tests (cELISA and Iscom ELISA) for the detection of N. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle can perform better in lactating animals. The Iscom ELISA has some advantages over cELISA as it's easy to collect milk samples than serum samples, moreover Iscom ELISA is cheaper and easy to use but has low sensitivity than cELISA and cannot be used in dry animals. The percentage of positivity detected through Iscom ELISA on individual milk samples were 61.4% and 76.6% by cELISA. In phase 3, an epidemiological study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs of different breeds and age groups. The serum samples of dogs were analyzed by cELISA (VMRD, Pullman, USA) showed a seropositivity of 23.5%. There was no significant difference of seropositivity among various sample locations, highest prevalence was observed in Muzaffar Garh (31.9%), followed by Gujranwala (27.9%), Lahore (25.1%), Hafizabad (20.2%) and least prevalence was recorded in district Okara (14.6%). A significant difference in prevalence of N. caninum antibodies between male (26.1%) and female (18.8%) dogs were recorded. The difference in seroprevalence was not significant among all age groups. The samples with no age record showed a highest prevalence (29.5%) and least seropositivity was observed in adult dogs of 3-6 years of age (18.7%). During Summer season, highest positivity to N. caninum was (31.0%) recorded while the lowest prevalence (16.0%) was observed in Winter season. Phase 4, describes the seroprevalence and transmission of N. caninum in humans. A selection of 52 serum samples from humans was analyzed for the presence of N. caninum antibodies. The serostatus of the humans towards N. caninum antibodies (IgG) was determined by using commercially available antigen coated IFAT slides (VMRD, Inc., Pullman, Washington USA) and human conjugate. Overall very low prevalence (1.9%) of N. caninum antibodies was reported in this study. Only one case was found to be positive, these findings indicate that no strong evidence of N. caninum infection in humans. In phase 5, in vitro drug trials was conducted to access the best efficacy of three commercially available drugs. We found that among three anticoccidial drugs i.e Clindamycin, Diclazuril and Sulfadiazine, Diclazuril has best inhibitory effect against N. caninum tachyzoites in cell culture followed by Clindamycin and sulfadiazine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1575,T] (1).

2. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Diagnostic Techniques For Ovine Haemonchosis Through Faecal

by Sadaf Anwar | Dr. Muhammad Lateef | Dr. Aftab | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Livestock plays pivotal role in the economy of country and small ruminants are the major source of food products for human. Haemonchus contortus is the most significant parasite of small ruminants and cause heavy production losses by causing reduction in meat and wool production. The parasite directly affects the health of an animal and causes anemia, hemorrhages, anorexia, weight loss and death of affected animal. This study was designed to diagnose the Haemonchosis in sheep in and around Lahore. The accurate diagnoses of the parasite are important for its control and treatment. Direct smear, floatation technique and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were applied to check the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing Haemonchosis in sheep. For this purpose 100 faecal samples were collected randomly from different areas of Lahore. Each faecal sample was examined by direct smear method and floatation technique. Out of 100 faecal samples 44 were microscopically positive. 30 by direct smear method and 44 by floatation technique. Specific primers were designed to diagnose Haemonchosis in sheep by using ITS-2 Region. 44 microscopically positive samples were confirmed by PCR. 29 (66%) samples were found to be PCR-positive and 15 (34%) were found to be PCR-negative. Several other species of parasites were also found during microscopic examination of faecal samples. Two samples wetre found positive for coccidial oocyst and seven samples were also positive for other nematodes along with Haemonchus spp. Flotation technique was found to be superior in diagnosis of Haemonchosis as compared to direct smear. Conclusion: From current study it is concluded that Haemonchosis is widely prevalent in ovines. Its accurate diagnosis is essential for the treatment of infectious diseases and control of this parasite. Molecular technique has the advantage over conventional diagnostic techniques because PCR is more specific than conventional methods of diagnosis. According to the present study by conventional method there is 34% error chances to diagnose other Trichstrongylid eggs as Haemochus spp. The main advantage of using PCR as diagnostic test, are an increased speed of diagnosting the disease and its capability to notice low worm burden in small volume of faeces from individual animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1809,T] (1).

3. Prevlence Zoonotic Potential Water Borne Transmission And Chemotherapy Of Cryptosporidiosis In Small Ruminants

by Muhammad Abubakar shafiq | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Lateef.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1910,T] (1).

4. Epidemiology Zoonotic Potential Haematology And Control Of Amoebiasis In Dogs And Humans

by Muhammad Azhar Alam | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad Lateef | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2130,T] (1).

5. Detection Of Falciparum Malaria And Its Control Under Local Climatic Conditions

by Muhammad Oneeb | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad Lateef | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2180,T] (1).

6. Efficacy Of Chenopodium Album As Anthelmintic Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep Dr. Muhammad Lateef

by Waseem Ahmad (2007-VA-74) | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Helminthiasis is among the most significant animal health harms, which inflicts heavy production and economy losses especially in small ruminants. The helminth problem is highly common mainly in developing countries like Pakistan (Dhar et al. 1982). Small ruminants have much importance in meat and leather industry of Pakistan. Sheep play a vital role in producing income and provide financial support for poor farmers in developing countries. Endo-parasites represent a major constraint to the production and growth of small ruminants (Babar et al. 2013). Pakistan has been reported to problem of helminths in sheep and goat (Raza et al. 2009) and cattle and buffalo (Athar et al. 2011). Mainly infection is generally controlled by allopathic drugs and vaccination (Behnke et al. 2008). Parasitic diseases are a major threat in efficiency, the most widespread helminth parasites being Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum columbianum. Liver flukes and paramphistomes (Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum microbothrium) occasionally cause heavy mortality in animals grazing swampy areas (Akerejola et al. 1979). The adverse effects of nematode infections include: loss of weight, anorexia, anaemia, retarded growth, delayed sexual maturity, decrease in milk and meat production (Saddiqi et al. 2012). Indigenous knowledge of herbal medicine is a big source of the modern knowledge. Today, thousands of plants, traditionally used as medicines are being explored (Kakar, 2012). Chemical control of helminths coupled with improved management has been an important worm control approach throughout the World. However, increasing problems of development of resistance in helminths rise in price of drugs contributing factor for traditional plant used (Coles et al. 1997) against anthelmintics have led to the proposal of screening medicinal 1 Introduction plants for their anthelmintic activities. Reports of drug resistance have been made in every livestock host and to every anthelmintic class. In some regions of world, the extremely high prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in nematodes of sheep and goats threatens the viability of small-ruminant industries. Many parasitic nematodes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor the development of anthelmintic resistance (Kaplan et al. 2004). The plants are known to provide a rich source of botanical anthelmintics (Lewis and Elvin Lewis 1977). There are many medicinal plants have been used to treat parasitic infections in man and animals (Iqbal et al. 2005). Various botanical plants have been possessed anthelmintic activity against helminth e.g Chenopodium album (Eguale & Giday, 2009). It has been expected that there are around 250,000 plant species present throughout the world. Plants, from ancient, have served human beings as sources of food, shelter, clothing and medicines. Before the advent of modern allopathic medicine and synthetic drugs, plants and to a certain extent, animals and minerals were used in various formulations for treatment of diseases by traditional medicinal practitioner (Rahmatullah et al. 2011). Plant medicine is very important from ancient to present daytime. The uses of biologically different plant assets for various ailments are the lifelong struggle of humankind (Hussain et al. 2008). In Indo-Pak subcontinent, Ayurvedic and Unani therapeutic systems are very popular and people have been using plants not only for the treatment of their own ailments but also for their domesticated animals. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae) commonly known as “Bathu” is important medicinal plants in Pakistan and their different parts are utilized in the traditional system of medicine (Said et al. 1970). Chenopodium album usually recognized as “Bathua” is a familiar food as well as a medicinal plant. In traditional system of medicine, it is used as an anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, contraceptive, laxative, cardiotonic, antiscorbutic, 2 Introduction and blood purifier & also in management of hepatic disorder, spleen enlargement, intestinal ulcers, digestive, carminative, seminal weakness, pharyngopathy, splenopathy, hemorrhoids, cardiac disorder (Panigrahy et al. 2012). The seeds of the plant are known to possess anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. A compound C37- trihydroxy adjacent bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin, present in the seeds, is responsible for inhibition of the egg hatching of gastrointestinal nematodes (Saha et al. 2011). Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae) is a rapid rising fragile annual plant and it is found in Bangladesh. In English plant known as Lamb’s quarters and in Bengali as Buthiya shak. Both in vitro and in vivo activity of plant as anthelmintic has been reported (Jain and Singhai 2012). Chenopodium album was found to be one of the initial plant species colonizing a heavy metal-contaminated site, polluted by pyritic (sulphide-rich) waste from the Aznalcóllar Mine spill (South-western Spain). This shows its importance in the re-vegetation of this soil (Walker et al. 2004). In vitro experiments were arranged to conclude the possible anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous extracts and powder of the whole of Chenopodium album (Eguale et al. 2009). Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium album and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with substantial success in mass treatment campaigns (Kliks et al. 1985). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2203,T] (1).

7. Optimization Of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) For The Molecular Diagnosis Of Feline Babesiosis

by Muhammad Awais Salim (2012-va-606) | Dr. Muhammad Lateef | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad Nauman Zahid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Babesia is a worldwide tick borne hemoparasite causing Babesiosis, an important disease affecting a number of animals and attracting the researcher’s attention due to its zoonotic potential.Babesiosis in cats often presents as a chronic and low grade disease, however most common symptoms include anaemia, lethargy, weakness and rarely icterus and fever. Blood samples were collected from 100 domestic cats at Pet Center, UVAS, Lahore,from their ear tips and cephalic/saphenous vein. The blood will be immediately transferred to EDTA coated vacutainers. Stained thin blood smears were observed for intra-erythrocytic bodies and 45 samples were selected after screening. Blood in EDTA were tested for PCR (already optimized) in the Molecular Parasitology laboratory at UVAS, Lahore, to screen for B. felis. ExtractedDNA of confirmed B. felis samples were further processed forLoop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). LAMP primers weredesigned recognizing four sections of the B. felis gene. LAMP reactions of 25µL were standardized at 60°C temperature for 1 hour time using DNA extracted from blood samples of cats found positive on PCR. Briefly, the concentration of FIP and BIP were varied from 0.8µM to 2.4µM, Mg2+from 2mM to 4mM, betaine from 0.2 to 0.8M and dNTPs from 1mM to 4mM.The LAMP reaction was optimized at the final concentration of 0.2µM F3 and B3, 2.0µM of each of the FIP & BIP, 2mM for each dNTPs, 0.8M betaine, 1X reaction buffer, 1µl bst polymerase and 2µl DNA templates at 60°C. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2374-T] (1).

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