Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Gastro- Intestinal Helminths In Camels Of Cholistan Area Of Bahawalpur
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal helminths are responsible for wide range of health problems, economic losses in camels and are characterized by impaired milk, meat, infertility, low calving rates, decreased working efficiency and even death of the camel.
To study the gastrointestinal helminths, 384 camels of different age, sex and breed was examined coprologically. For this, five gram of fresh fecal sample was carefully collected into a sealed container from each camel and was transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Fecal samples were scored 1-3 based on the consistency. The individual samples was triturated in saturated salt solution, sieved and examined for helminths eggs by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method, Sedimentation technique and Floatation technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. Among the camel population, the current study indicates that in Marrecha breed the prevalence of Nematodes was Trichostrongylus 1.77%, Haemonchus 8.44%, Nematodirus 3.11% and Trichuris 7.11% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 26.66% in infested camels, while the prevalence of Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris in Barella breed was 4.40%, 1.88%, 2.51%, 6.91%, 2.51% and 7.54% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 25.78% in infested camels. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Berrela breed. It was 18.66% in Marrecha breed and 14.46% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 16.93%. While the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Marrecha breed than Barella breed. It was 16% in Marrecha breed and 10.69% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 13.80%. The overall prevalence of fascioliosis in camel is 30.31. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Barella breed. It was 10.22% in Marrecha breed and 8.80% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 9.63%. The sex wise prevalence of gastrointestinal Nematodes in males was 39.28% which includes Camelostrongylus 8.03%, Trichostrongylus 3.57%, Strongyloides 6.25%, Haemonchus 11.60%, Nematodirus 4.46% and Trichuris 5.35% respectively while in the female it was 25.37% which includes Camelostrongylus 4.41%, Trichostrongylus 2.20%, Strongyloides 2.94%, Haemonchus 6.25%, Nematodirus 2.57% and Trichuris 6.98%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in Male was found higher as compared to Female which was 39.28% and 25.37% respectively. Sex wise prevalence of GI Trematodes in Camels was determined through collected samples. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 16.91% in Female and 15.18 % in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 19.53%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Female than Male. It was 12.13% in Female and 11.61% in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 11.98%. Sex wise prevalence of GI Cestodes in Camels was determined. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 14.34% in Female and 13.39% in Male while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the sex was 14.06%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in age group >10 yrs. was higher 30.25% as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. 20% which includes Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris 3.36%, 2.52%, 6.72%, 5.88% 4.20% and 7.56 in age group >10 yrs and 1.88%, 1.51%, 1.88%, 4.90%, 2.64% and 7.16 respectively, in age group 5-10 yrs.
The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 30% in age group 5-10 yrs and 16.99% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 18.75%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 9.33% in age group 5-10 yrs and 7.55% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 8.59%.
The prevalence of Moniezia expansa in age group >10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. It was 10.92% in age group >10 yrs and 10.18% in age group 5-10 yrs while the overall prevalence of in Moniezia expansa the camels irrespective of the age groups was 7.81%.
To study the effect of gastrointestinal helminths on various blood parameters of camels, blood samples were collected from 5 infected and 5 healthy camels. Samples were analyzed using Hematology Analyzer and results were compared.
For therapeutic trials, a total of 30 camels positive for helminths was taken and divided into three groups A-C each group comprising of 10 animals. A fourth group D was selected comprising of 10 uninfected camels. The camels of group A were treated with dry Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder at a daily oral dose of 100 gm/camel for five days, group B was treated with Albenzole granules® (Albendazole) at a dose rate of 15mg/kg bd. wt. PO once. Group C (untreated) was designated as positive control, and the camels in Group D as negative control. Efficacy was determined on the reduction of eggs in feces at day 3, 7 and 14 (post-treatment). In the current study Neem leaves and Albendazole gave following results in the camels affected with Helminths. Neem leaves cured 20% of the animals on day 3rd after the drug administration while 40% and 60% of the animals cured on the day 7th and 14th respectively. Albendazole also gave good results against helminths affected camels. On the day 3rd of the treatment 30% animals cured while 60% animals were cured on the 7th day and on 14th day 80% animals recovered.
Data regarding prevalence was measured by non-parametric, chi-square (χ2), while therapeutic trails were analyzed by repeated measures one way ANOVA, using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences), P < 0.05 was considered significant.
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Clinico-Epidemiological And Experimental Observations On Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease Among Domesticated Cats
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Idiopathic Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (iFLUTD) has been known as a major as well as important problem throughout the world especially the veterinary profession. Nicks of this problem also found in Pakistan, however the veterinarians are usually unable to properly diagnose this disease due to lack of knowledge as well as the ancillary diagnostic equipment availability for this disease. Present study was divided into two phases. Phase – 1 included clinico-epidemiological data. To this end, target of more than 502 domesticated client-owned cats of either sex, age, breed, etc showing signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) as per Buffington (1994) were examined accordingly from 3 different cities (Lahore, Faisalabad, and Islamabad) of Pakistan). All data collected was based on a predesigned proforma by using structured interview of the owners. Diagnosis was solely based on serum-cortisol levels, urinalysis, radiography and ultrasonography. Phase II involved experimental trial. The data obtained from whole of the study was then presented in tabulated form as frequencies and percentages. Treatment and outcome of the disease were also analyzed accordingly.
According to the present study conducted it is proved that iFLUTD is present among the cats in Pakistan. Its proper cognizance among the Pakistani veterinarians is still non-existent and is misdiagnosed as colic or constipation issues in cats. The present study was undertaken to bring iFLUTD into the reportive of small animal practitioners working in Pakistan. The present study debunked various previous notions like iFLUTD is associated with commercial diets and canned foods only if we talk about this region majority of cases were noticed that had home-cooked food given by the owner. Moreover, cases in Siamese breed are larger than Persian breed. It has been strongly associated with Indoor housing management. Additional work is still needed to explore untouched areas of epidemiology including factors other than those being studied in the previous literature. Academicians in veterinary pathology and veterinary medicine of Pakistani universities should embrace this malady in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) curricula.
According to the present study results it is concluded that two factors like stress and pain accelerate the sympathetic nervous system outflow compared to normal felines leading to the inflammatory response. Thus the stress factor must be reduced in the form of making hiding places for cats at home to reduced down the fear factor along with enhancing the feeling of owes for that particular place. Moreover, some more practices should be performed by the owner to reduce down the stress factor like playing with the pet, giving full attention, placing toys and other attractive things like yarn balls at the feline places (where they live/placed). There was no significant difference found between the groups based on the food with health score along with the therapeutic judgment. Hence, it is recommended that more experiments should be performed on larger scale to assess GAG therapy on increased number of felines and need of hour is to conduct more veterinary studies to get information and authenticity for its use against iFLUTD.
From this study conducted, I recommend to the owners that the cats must be provided with the indoor hiding places and play with their pets in order to reduce the stress factor that increases the risk of idiopathic lower urinary tract disease. Moreover, the trend of home-cooked diet should be reduced along with increase in water intake by the cat.
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Evaluation Of Risk Factors And Molecular Diagnosis Of Dermatophytosis In Dogs
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Dogs are most kept and beloved pets in Pakistani society. Dermatophytosis is among the common disease of the pets. Many predisposing factors are involved in development of clinical cases of dermatophytosis including climatic conditions, housing condition of dogs and physical attributes such as coat hair size. Dermatophytosis is not only of concern as being infection of pets but also of its zoonotic importance hence it is very crucial to diagnose dermatophytic infection well in time. Dermatophytosis is caused by Dermatophytes,Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, the fungal species. It is difficult to diagnose the Dermatophytosis from other skin infections by routine tests in most of the cases especially subclinical. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is advanced and the most reliable technique to detect genome of Dermatophytes even in minute quantities specifically and can efficiently detect the presence of any Dermatophyte specie on the skin of dog. The current study was planned to develop and validate a diagnostic assay which could be able to detect and distinguish tree important dermatophytes species including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophytonby a uniplex PCR reaction. Analysis of involvement of certain predisposing factors in dermatophytosis was second goal to be worked on in this study. Samples of suspected pet dogs (n=50) were collected by scraping the skin at affected areas over skin. DNA was extracted from the skin scraping samples by organic Phenol Chloroform Isoamyle Alcohol method. Primers, specific to the 18-S ribosomal RNA region of genomes of the Dermatophytes, were designed after alignment of available sequences of Microsporum,Trichophyton and Epidermophyton at NCBI. Annealing temperature and recipe of PCR reaction was optimized by gradient PCR in BIO-Rad thermal cycler. Amplification reaction of all samples collected was carried out as per optimized reaction conditions, afterwards. Amplified products obtained were subjected to genotyping by agarose gel electrophoresis for size based separation of the amplified products. The specific amplified bands of desired genomic region of dermatophytes were seen in UV light transilluminator. The data of results of predisposing factors involved in dermatophytosis wasanalysedby using Pearson’s chi squared test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) Program.
Genome specific product sizes of Microsporum and Trichophyton i.e. 366 bp and 351 bp in respective positive samples were observed. Out of 50 suspected samples 46 samples were positive for dermatophytosis out of which 38 samples (82.6%) were positive for Microsporum, 6 samples (13%) for Trichophyton and 2 samples (4.4%) were positive for both Microsporumand Trichophyton.
This study will help to validate a diagnostic technique for Dermatophytosis with greater efficacy and reliability. Moreover, this investigation may become basis for the future research activities in this field in Pakistan.
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