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1. Evaluation Of Risk Factors And Molecular Diagnosis Of Dermatophytosis In Dogs

by Muhammad Haseeb Saeed (2008-VA-241) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Dogs are most kept and beloved pets in Pakistani society. Dermatophytosis is among the common disease of the pets. Many predisposing factors are involved in development of clinical cases of dermatophytosis including climatic conditions, housing condition of dogs and physical attributes such as coat hair size. Dermatophytosis is not only of concern as being infection of pets but also of its zoonotic importance hence it is very crucial to diagnose dermatophytic infection well in time. Dermatophytosis is caused by Dermatophytes,Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, the fungal species. It is difficult to diagnose the Dermatophytosis from other skin infections by routine tests in most of the cases especially subclinical. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is advanced and the most reliable technique to detect genome of Dermatophytes even in minute quantities specifically and can efficiently detect the presence of any Dermatophyte specie on the skin of dog. The current study was planned to develop and validate a diagnostic assay which could be able to detect and distinguish tree important dermatophytes species including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophytonby a uniplex PCR reaction. Analysis of involvement of certain predisposing factors in dermatophytosis was second goal to be worked on in this study. Samples of suspected pet dogs (n=50) were collected by scraping the skin at affected areas over skin. DNA was extracted from the skin scraping samples by organic Phenol Chloroform Isoamyle Alcohol method. Primers, specific to the 18-S ribosomal RNA region of genomes of the Dermatophytes, were designed after alignment of available sequences of Microsporum,Trichophyton and Epidermophyton at NCBI. Annealing temperature and recipe of PCR reaction was optimized by gradient PCR in BIO-Rad thermal cycler. Amplification reaction of all samples collected was carried out as per optimized reaction conditions, afterwards. Amplified products obtained were subjected to genotyping by agarose gel electrophoresis for size based separation of the amplified products. The specific amplified bands of desired genomic region of dermatophytes were seen in UV light transilluminator. The data of results of predisposing factors involved in dermatophytosis wasanalysedby using Pearson’s chi squared test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) Program. Genome specific product sizes of Microsporum and Trichophyton i.e. 366 bp and 351 bp in respective positive samples were observed. Out of 50 suspected samples 46 samples were positive for dermatophytosis out of which 38 samples (82.6%) were positive for Microsporum, 6 samples (13%) for Trichophyton and 2 samples (4.4%) were positive for both Microsporumand Trichophyton. This study will help to validate a diagnostic technique for Dermatophytosis with greater efficacy and reliability. Moreover, this investigation may become basis for the future research activities in this field in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2528-T] (1).

2. Comparative Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Levamisole, Piperazine And Pineapple Leaves Extract(Ananascomosus)Against Ascaridiosis In Captive Java Sparrow (Lonchuraoryzivora)

by Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman Latif (2007-VA-26) | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Ascaradia galli imposes major health problems on pet birds including the java sparrows. It retards growth, decrease body condition, and lowers the clutch size which imparts huge economic losses to breeders and birds owner. Over dosage of frequently used anthelmintic increase the risk of adverse effects and stress on birds. So there arises a need to adapt alternative therapeutic approaches. The present study was designed to compare the anthelmintic activity of frequently used synthetic drugs levamisole and piperazine and herbal drug pineapple leave extracts against ascariasis in java sparrows.To study the comparative anthelmintic efficacy of levamisole, piperazine and pineapple leave extract against Ascaridia galli in captive java sparrows, fecal sample of (n=200) java sparrows captive for breeding purpose were screened for the Ascaridiagalli by direct fecal smear method. Among the all the infected birds 30 infected and 10 healthy birds were selected to conduct the study and divided into 4 groups and included in therapeutic trial.Birds were treated with levamisole, with piperazine and with pineapple leaves extract according to standard dose rate and route of administration in Group A, B & C respectively, Fourth group D comprising of 10 birds waskept as negative control. To evaluate the comparative efficacy of drugs, EPG will be calculated according to McMaster Technique post treatment at day 0 and after treatment on 7th, 14th and 21s. Results revealed that levimosle was the very effective against Ascaradia galli in java sparrows. Levaimsole decrease the average EPG of treated group to 50 from 600 and show 100 percent efficacy against Ascaradia galli and recovered all the infected birds of the group A. Piperazine was less effective as compare to the levamisole but show more effectiveness as compare to the pineapple leave extract. Piperazine reduced the average EPG of treated group B to 150 from 650 and show 70 percent and recovered 7 infected from 10. Pineapple leave extract showed least effectiveness and reduced the EPG of treated group C to 350. Pineapple showed 40 percent efficacy against Ascaradia galli and recovered only 4 infected birds of group C from Ascariasis.Pineapple leaves extract were effective against ascariasis in captive Java sparrows but least effective as compare to levamisole and piperazine having no adverse effects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2629-T] (1).

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