Differntial Diagnosis Of Malaria And Dengue Fever On The Basis Of Clinical Findings And Laboratory Investigations
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: I took two hundred (200) patients in total for purpose of my study. I included all cases with pyrexia of unknown origin with chills and rigors with 6-7 days history. These cases were first evaluated for Malaria by making their thin and thick films for malarial parasites.
There were thirty patients out of two hundred who were positive for malarial parasites. There complete blood picture was done that is RBC count, Heamogolobin percentage, platelet count, WBC count and ESR. The cases who were negative from malaria were further evaluated for dengue viral infection by doing capture ELISA 1gM. Before doing ELISA 1gM dengue strip method test was done and the cases who were positive on strip (Paper Chromatography) were included in 1gM ELISA study. The cases that were positive for 1gM ELISA were studied for same blood investigation which was mentioned earlier. It was also found that there had been some incidence of dual dengue infection and malaria and the incidence rate was 2%.
Now after collecting the data it was analyzed by SPSS. It was inferred afterwards from the data that all the patients +ve for dengue 1gM had been facing with low platelet count increased reticulocyte count, increased hemoglobin, decreased WBC and no significant effect on ESR had been seen. About 83% of dengue 1gM patients were having decrease platelet count. This thrombocytopenia varies from person to person and an inverse relationship has been found between dengue 1gM and platelet of the patients.
The intensity of thromobocytopenia was more in old age patients or in patients with poor health status or in those patients in which tire of anti dengue 1gM was very high. This thromobocytopenia can be used as a diagnostic tool in addition to clinical history in patients who live in periphery where the facility of ELISA is not available. The rise in platelet number indicates recovery of the patients and it should be monitored daily till the complete recovery of patients is achieved.
The rise in hemoglobin concentration has also been noticed due to hemo concentration about 76% of patients with anti dengue 1gM positive were having elevated level of hemoglobin that is ranging from 17-19 gram/dl. The increase in RBC count has also been noticed in association with increased hemoglobin concentration a mild fall in WBC count has also been noticed i-e upto 4000 in 76% of the patients. In those patients who were +ve for malarial parasites and negative for dengue 1gM, such changes in blood pictures were not appreciated although the vector of both diseases is same but AD's mosquitoes which is the carrier of dengue virus (an ARBO virus) causes more severe form of disease.
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Study Of Hepatic Dysfunction In Patients Infected With Dengue Virus
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Dengue is the mosquito born viral illness which causes a broad spectrum of disease ranging from in apparent infection, flu like mild undifferentiated fever and classical DF to the most severe form DHF and DSS in which rate of morbidity and mortality is very high. Dengue infection also causes liver damage and this liver impairment is more marked in case of DHF. My study was also aimed at depicting the fact that dengue infection also causes hepatic impairment which is directly related.to the level of dengue 1gM in the body. The serum liver enzyme level rises as the infection progress.
I conducted my study over 200 patients of different age groups including both sexes. All of the patients were having history of pyrexia of unknown origin for the last 7-lO days not subsiding inspite of taking treatment. Some of them presented with mild to moderate petechiae rashes on their body. I categorized the patients into two categorize according to the WHO criteria that is the patients having high grade fever with rash and thrombocytopenia were designated as dengue hemorrhagic fever while those without rash and hemorrhagic manifestations were said to be dengue fever group. Firstly I screened all patients for anti dengue 1gM by rapid strip testing method which shows dark pink line in addition to control line in positive cases within few minutes. The strip +ve cases were further confirmed by using capture ELISA, The Dengue 1gM Capture ELISA (MACELISA) is the immunoenzymatic system recommended by the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization for the serological diagnosis of dengue virus infection due to its high sensitivity, ease of performance, and use of a single acute- phase serum sample. Then all the ELISA +ve cases were estimated for hepatic dysfunction by performing their liver function test. For performing liver function test the serum was obtained by centrifuge machine and enzyme including AST, ALT and Alkaline phosphatase were done by using Merck biochemistry Analyzer which calculated the enzyme itself and displayed the reading in U/L. The analysis established that DF is more common in 21-30 years of age group, more prevalent in males and the level of serum liver enzyme rises as the serum level of dengue 1gM raises that is with the increase of severity of infection.
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Isolation, Characterization And Pathogenesis Of Capripox Virus
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Goat pox is the most important pox diseases of livestock and it usually
causes huge economic losses. The economic losses occur in terms of mortality,
reduced productivity and lower quality of wool and leather. The clinical
manifestations of the disease include high temperature, lesions skin in the form of
macules, papules, vesicles, pustule and scabs on hairless areas of the body. The
disease is highly contagious having high morbidity and mortality in the infected
herds. The present study was conducted to document the prevalence of goat pox
disease in the different regions of Punjab. The study was based on clinical
manifestation of the disease in various collecting spots including slaughter houses,
cattle and hide markets and tanneries. The prevalence of goat pox at slaughter
houses in different regions was 9.93% in arid region followed by 8.69% and 7% in
southern and northern irrigated regions respectively. The prevalence of pox disease
in sheep was highest (8.54%) in the northern irrigated region, 7.69% and 6.62% in
arid and southern irrigated regions respectively.
The prevalence of pox recorded in the hide markets shows a trend of high
presence 7.29% in arid region followed by 6.22% and 3.84% in southern and
northern irrigated regions. Whereas in sheep the overall prevalence was 0.51 %,
4.44% and 1.66% in northern irrigated, arid and southern irrigated regions.
In tanneries the pox lesions were identified on the basis of method as
adopted in hide markets. The overall prevalence of pox in goat was 3.96%, 4.06%
and 4.09% while in sheep 9.58%, 2.41 % and 10% in northern irrigated, arid and
southern irrigated regions.
The overall prevalence of pox disease in goat was 5%, 5.79% and 5.34% in
Northern irrigated, arid and southern irrigated regions respectively. Where as in
sheep, pox was 3.133%, 4.11 % and 2.67% in Northern irrigated, arid and southern
irrigated regions respectively. The highest trend of incidence of disease was present
in the arid regions followed by southern and northern regions. The slaughter houses
shows high incidence of disease as compared to cattle and hide market and
tanneries. The result was significant (P<0.05) among the regions and samples
A total of 100 samples consisting of 55 scabs and 45 skin tissues were
randomly selected from the different collecting spots of the three regions. The scabs
and skin tissue samples were processed on dehydrated minimum essential media
tor virus isolation. The virus was isolated on Vero cell line culture and its
characteristics were observed on the basis of specific cytopathic effects. All 55 scab
samples consisting 20 from cattle markets, 20 from slaughter house and 15 from
hide market and tannery were tested through cell culture. The cell culture positive
result for scabs was 60% cattle markets, 20% hide market and tannery and 40%
All 45 skin tissue samples including 5 from cattle markets and tannery, 20
from hide market and 20 from slaughter house were subjected to virus isolation on
Vero cell line. The cell culture positive result for skin tissue samples was 100% cattle
markets, 30% hide market and tannery and 60% slaughter house. In this way the
total cell culture result for scabs and skin tissue samples from all areas become
41.82% and 51.11 % respectively.
The isolated virus was confirmed through peR. All the collected samples
were also analyzed through peR in order to compare the two techniques for disease
diagnosis. Out of 40 samples from slaughter houses 18 scabs and 15 tissues
sample were positive through peR with 82.5%. Out of 25 samples collected from
cattle markets consisting of 20 scabs and 5 skin tissues, 17 of scabs and 5 skin
tissues were positive with 92%.
Similarly a total of 35 samples out of which 15 were scabs and 20 were skin
tissues collected from hide markets and tanneries. The peR of 7 scabs and 14 skin
tissues was positive with 60%. In this way the total peR result for scabs and skin
tissue from all areas was 42% and 34% respectively.
In the 3rd study of the present project the isolated virus was inoculated in to
experimental animal to study the detail pathogenesis. The disease followed the
same pattern as in the natural outbreak. But however the routes of inoculation affect
the severity of the disease. During the study the diseased animals were periodically
slaughter at weekly interval after the appearance of 1 st clinical signs. The detailed
lesions were observed in different visceral organs and the tissues were collected
and preserved in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed for histopathology and
immunohistochemical examination. The IHC was successfully optimized for the
detection of viral antigen in the tissues of skin, lung and lymph nodes.
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Immuno Pathological Effects Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) In Commercial Broiler Chickens
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: These experiments were conducted to study the effects of Azadirachta indica admixed in poultry feed on weight gain performance, haemtological values,immune modulations, and toxic effects in broiler chickens. A total number of 144 commercial broiler 1-day old chicks were reared in the experimental sheds of the Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore, The birds were fed with balanced commercial feed and water ad libitum. The birds were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C having fourty eight chicks each. Birds of all groups were sub divided into four groups of each i.e. A1, A2, A3 and A4; B1, B2, B3 & B4 and C1, C2, C3 and C4, respectively. Each of the sub groups containd 12 birds. Sub groups A4, B4 and C4 were control group with no medication. The birds of groups A, B and C were fed with poultry feed containing dry powder of neem leaves @ 2 gm, 4 gm and 6gm per kg of feed respectively. The birds of groups A1, B1 and C1 were treated with the herb from day 0 to 42 of their life. The birds of groups A2, B2 and C2 were given the neem from day 14 to 42 of their life, whereas the birds of groups A3, B3 and C3 were treated with the herb from day 28 to 42 of their life. Difference between weekly weight gain in the birds of groups A1, B1 and C1 was non significant (P>0.05) however the difference between weight gain in the treated and control groups was significant (P<0.05). The birds treated with the herb from day 0 of their life showed more weight gain. There was no difference in the haematological indices between all of the treated groups and the control groups. The neem treated birds showed increased antibody titers against ND and IBD viruses as compared to control groups. The values of ALP and ASTshowed decreasing trend when the level of neem leaf meal was increased in the ration. Serum creatinine and serum uric acid values posed a slight declining trend in the neem fed birds. There was a decrease in serum cholesterol level in the neem treated bird groups, the higher the concentreation of the herb, the lower the cholesterol value. The organ body weight indices showed that there was no significant difference in liver, spleen and thymus weights among treated groups as well between treated and control groups. There was absence of prominent gross pathological lesions in liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus, however some treated groups showed mild hypertrophied liver and kidneys as did the organs of the birds in control groups. No histopathological changes except a few mild changes were observed in liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus in the birds of experimental groups.
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