Isolation, Characterization And Pathogenesis Of Capripox Virus
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Goat pox is the most important pox diseases of livestock and it usually
causes huge economic losses. The economic losses occur in terms of mortality,
reduced productivity and lower quality of wool and leather. The clinical
manifestations of the disease include high temperature, lesions skin in the form of
macules, papules, vesicles, pustule and scabs on hairless areas of the body. The
disease is highly contagious having high morbidity and mortality in the infected
herds. The present study was conducted to document the prevalence of goat pox
disease in the different regions of Punjab. The study was based on clinical
manifestation of the disease in various collecting spots including slaughter houses,
cattle and hide markets and tanneries. The prevalence of goat pox at slaughter
houses in different regions was 9.93% in arid region followed by 8.69% and 7% in
southern and northern irrigated regions respectively. The prevalence of pox disease
in sheep was highest (8.54%) in the northern irrigated region, 7.69% and 6.62% in
arid and southern irrigated regions respectively.
The prevalence of pox recorded in the hide markets shows a trend of high
presence 7.29% in arid region followed by 6.22% and 3.84% in southern and
northern irrigated regions. Whereas in sheep the overall prevalence was 0.51 %,
4.44% and 1.66% in northern irrigated, arid and southern irrigated regions.
In tanneries the pox lesions were identified on the basis of method as
adopted in hide markets. The overall prevalence of pox in goat was 3.96%, 4.06%
and 4.09% while in sheep 9.58%, 2.41 % and 10% in northern irrigated, arid and
southern irrigated regions.
The overall prevalence of pox disease in goat was 5%, 5.79% and 5.34% in
Northern irrigated, arid and southern irrigated regions respectively. Where as in
sheep, pox was 3.133%, 4.11 % and 2.67% in Northern irrigated, arid and southern
irrigated regions respectively. The highest trend of incidence of disease was present
in the arid regions followed by southern and northern regions. The slaughter houses
shows high incidence of disease as compared to cattle and hide market and
tanneries. The result was significant (P<0.05) among the regions and samples
A total of 100 samples consisting of 55 scabs and 45 skin tissues were
randomly selected from the different collecting spots of the three regions. The scabs
and skin tissue samples were processed on dehydrated minimum essential media
tor virus isolation. The virus was isolated on Vero cell line culture and its
characteristics were observed on the basis of specific cytopathic effects. All 55 scab
samples consisting 20 from cattle markets, 20 from slaughter house and 15 from
hide market and tannery were tested through cell culture. The cell culture positive
result for scabs was 60% cattle markets, 20% hide market and tannery and 40%
All 45 skin tissue samples including 5 from cattle markets and tannery, 20
from hide market and 20 from slaughter house were subjected to virus isolation on
Vero cell line. The cell culture positive result for skin tissue samples was 100% cattle
markets, 30% hide market and tannery and 60% slaughter house. In this way the
total cell culture result for scabs and skin tissue samples from all areas become
41.82% and 51.11 % respectively.
The isolated virus was confirmed through peR. All the collected samples
were also analyzed through peR in order to compare the two techniques for disease
diagnosis. Out of 40 samples from slaughter houses 18 scabs and 15 tissues
sample were positive through peR with 82.5%. Out of 25 samples collected from
cattle markets consisting of 20 scabs and 5 skin tissues, 17 of scabs and 5 skin
tissues were positive with 92%.
Similarly a total of 35 samples out of which 15 were scabs and 20 were skin
tissues collected from hide markets and tanneries. The peR of 7 scabs and 14 skin
tissues was positive with 60%. In this way the total peR result for scabs and skin
tissue from all areas was 42% and 34% respectively.
In the 3rd study of the present project the isolated virus was inoculated in to
experimental animal to study the detail pathogenesis. The disease followed the
same pattern as in the natural outbreak. But however the routes of inoculation affect
the severity of the disease. During the study the diseased animals were periodically
slaughter at weekly interval after the appearance of 1 st clinical signs. The detailed
lesions were observed in different visceral organs and the tissues were collected
and preserved in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed for histopathology and
immunohistochemical examination. The IHC was successfully optimized for the
detection of viral antigen in the tissues of skin, lung and lymph nodes.
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Epidemiology, Zoonotic Potential, Molecular Diagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Cryptosporidiosisin Bovine
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Cryptosporidiosis is an important parasitic infection of cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep, horses, cats, human beings and other vertebrates. Prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in selected animals and human beings carried out on the basis of microscopic examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis determined on the basis of conventional identification method was highest in calves (23.1) followed by cattle (10.5) and buffaloes (8.47). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in calves, cattle and buffaloes was higher at Government dairy farm (38.33, 20.55 and 16.66) followed by Gawala colonies (26.1, 12.77 and 9.44), Military dairy farm (18.3, 6.11 and 4.44) and then House hold dairies (10, 3.88 and 3.34). Percent prevalence recorded in calves having age less than six months was higher (26.45) than those with 7-12 months of age (16.6). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in cattle having age of 2-3 years was higher than those cattle having 3-7 years of age. Similarly, infection rate was higher in buffaloes with 2-3 years age (11.8) than 3-7 years (9.8). Cryptosporidiosis percent prevalence recorded in female calves was higher (24.04) than male calves (18.2). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts observed in feces of male cattle was little higher (11.25) than female cattle (10.4). Cryptosporidiosis percent prevalence recorded in female buffaloes was higher (13.3) than male buffaloes (8.3).
The data was analyzed monthly for the purpose to trace out the specific period of the year having the highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium infection. The highest percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis recorded in fecal samples of calves was during summer (27.5) followed by autumn (25.8), spring (20.3) and the lowest in winter season (14.5). Overall the highest percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in cattle recorded was during summer (15), followed by spring/autumn (10.88) and the lowest in winter (6.6%). The highest percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis recorded in buffaloes was during summer (12) followed by autumn (20), spring (7.5) and the lowest in winter season (4.5). In human beings patients suffering from diarrhea were examined by microscopy and percent prevalence calculated was 40 in present study.
Molecular percent prevalence rate determined was 12.22 in cattle. Percent prevalence recorded using PCR was the highest at Government dairy farm (22.7), followed by Gawala colonies (14.41), Military dairy farm (7.7) and the lowest at House hold dairies (5). The highest season wise percent molecular prevalence was observed during summer (16.6) followed by autumn/spring (13.3), the lowest in winter (7.7). The higher molecular percent prevalence in young cattle (2-3 years) was higher (23.7) than those having age between 3-7 years (10.7). Molecular percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in selected cattle was lower in females (13.6) than males (15).
The efficacy of albendazole observed was 43.05, 58.7 and 64.6 percents on 13th, 20th and 27th day post treatment. The efficacy of albendazole determined on this dose was 34.8, 57.1 and 62.9 percents on days 13, 20 and 27 post therapy. Efficacy of drug calculated on days 13, 20 and 27 was 32.8, 53.3 and 56.6 percent, respectively. Percent efficacy of used drug was 55.04, 68.5 and 79.4 on days 13, 20 and 27 post treatment, respectively. At 50mg/kg body weight dose rate of paromomycin significant decrease in OPG count was recorded from 6th day post treatment and onward (P<0.05). On days 13, 20 and 27 percent efficacy of used drug determined was 48.1, 65 and 69, respectively.
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