Detection Of Falciparum Malaria And Its Control Under Local Climatic Conditions
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Epidemiology Zoonotic Potential Haematology Amd Chemotherapy Of Sarcoptic Mange In Camel In Punjab
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: A camel is a very hardy ruminant animal, which can survive under harsh climatic
conditions very effectively by utilizing the marginal areas with excellent capabilities and produce
under such conditions (Hjort and Hussein, 1986; Abbas and Tilley, 1990). Camel is an important
animal as it is well adopted in unique manners in the hot, arid and semi-arid environments
(Schwartz, 1992). It can survive without water and food for many days and this unique ability of
camel makes it an ideal for such harsh conditions for which it is also commonly known as “The
Desert Ship”. In spite of the fact that camel is an important member of a group of animals which
produces food for human consumption in the shape of milk and meat, yet it is the most neglected
one in the field of scientific research. It may be due to the fact that camel belongs to such areas
of the world which are arid, semi-arid or rain fed in nature, having harsh climatic conditions,
where poor nutrition and poor management are the major issues (Sohail, 1983).
It is an established fact that diseases originating from parasites lead to the main health
hazard issues in animals. These parasites survive at the expense of the host animals causing lot of
health problems, like skin irritation, anemia leading to weakness and debility. Some of the
parasites have zoonotic importance and may become a source for the transfer of many contagious
diseases like scabies to the human beings (Dominguez et al. 1978). McClain et al. 2009,
observed the scabies as a major health problem globally both for humans and animal population.
Sarcoptes scabiei is an ectoparasite which is a cause of scabies, a skin problem in the human
beings worldwide and the similar species of mites do also produce a similar type of disease in a
large variety of wild and domesticated mammals (Pence and Ueckermann, 2002; Fitzgerald et
al. 2004). Fain, 1978, reported that more than fifteen (15) different species of Sarcoptes scabiei
morphologically and genetically distinct from each other have been identified in different hosts.
Sarcoptic mange is the second important problematic disease of camel after
Trypanosomiasis (Nayel and Abu-Samra, 1986). Scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli
is a serious & highly contagious skin problem and also economically important disease of the
camels (Pegram and Higgins, 1992). Camels, which are reared with deficient nutrition, poor
management and under unhygienic conditions are mostly affected by this disease (Kumar et al.
A large group of people and communities living in arid diverse ecozones in the entire
world, particularly in harsh climates earns their livelihoods by depending on camels. This
dependence may spread to the utilization of camel milk, meat, wool and leather besides its use in
transportation, riding and sports (Wilson, 1984; Snow et al. 1992). In Pakistan camels are also
raised by the people for meat, milk, riding, transportation and sports purposes in the deserts, semi
desert & rain-fed / warm areas of the entire country being a hardy animal as it can tolerate easily
the rugged climate as well as extremes of temperatures of such areas.
The natural harsh and adverse climatic conditions, particularly during long dry seasons
lead to a paucity of feeding regimes resultantly the camels raised in such areas are subjected to
stress conditions which lower their resistance and make them easily vulnerable to diseases
(Abbas et al. 1993; Agab, 1993). Abbas & Tilley, 1990; Saint-Martin et al. 1992; Abbas and
Agab, 2002; Pathak and Chhabra, 2010; while reviewing the parasites & parasitic diseases of
camel population in India were of the opinion that Sarcoptic mange is a serious, debilitating,
dreaded and widely prevalent disease of camels in India.
Besides other infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin, camels are exposed to a
wide range of internal & external parasitic infestations. Amongst other so many external
parasites to which camels are exposed, the Sarcoptic mange is recognized to be one of the most
serious and damaging disease. This disease is caused by a mite known as Sarcoptes scabiei var
cameli which belongs to genus Camelus of SARCOPTIDAE family in Veterinary Entomology.
It is an extremely pruritic, contagious and debilitating skin disease which is very
frequently and sudden in onset. It is also ranked as one of the most serious and important disease
of the camels. Sarcoptic mange infestation is very common in the areas of thin skin, the head,
neck, flanks, medial aspect of thighs or inguinal region, mammary glands and prepuce. The head
is usually affected very rapidly as the animal uses its teeth for scratching the affected areas.
Besides linking the occurrence of the disease with poor camel management, malnutrition and
contact with infected objects, the stray & infected camels also often become a focus of infecting
the healthy animals when mingling with them particularly at watering places for drinking
purpose (Richard, 1987; Abdel-Rehman et al. 2001).
Sarcoptes is a burrowing mite as it penetrates deeply through the skin surface of the
infected camel. This burrowing of mites in the skin helps these parasites lead to intense pruritus
and exudative dermatitis. In pruritus, mites penetrate deep into muscular areas, damaging the
flesh and lowering the quality of meat. The early inflammatory reaction of the host body towards
the mites becomes evident in the shape of small popular elevations, invasion and injuries leading
to formation of hairless areas, scaly crust formation or scabs on the affected parts and the skin
become dark and thickened. Skin of mangy camel show hemorrhages, and subcutaneous odema
after the development of fissures in the underlying epidermis (Kumar et al. 1992; Amer et al.
The fertilized female mites create winding burrows or tunnels in the upper layers of the
epidermis of the skin of the host animal and feeding on the serous exudate, a liquid oozing from
the damaged tissues. The female mites lay about 40-50 fertilized eggs in these tunnels which
hatch in 3-5 days into a six legged larvae. These larvae immediately crawl to the surface and
burrow themselves in the superficial layers of the skin and create small molting pockets. In these
molting pockets, the larvae molt to next stages of nymph and adult. The adult male then emerges
and seeks a female either in the molting pocket or on the surface of skin. After fertilization the
female produces new tunnels, either de novo or, by extension, of the molting pockets, lays eggs
in these tunnels and a new life cycle starts. The entire life cycle of Sarcoptic mange is completed
in 17-21 days.
New hosts can be infected through direct transmission by contact between the animals,
presumably from larvae, nymph or adult mites, which are commonly present on the skin surface
of the infected animal. Indirect transmission of infestation can also take place through the objects
or fomites having mange infection, which come into contact with the affected camel, such as
harnesses, blankets, baggage tack, tents and tree trunks (Richards, 1987). The pruritus increases
as the mites penetrate deeper in the skin (Al-Rawashdeh et al. 2000, Driot et al. 2011, Bekele et
al. 2012). Based on the rate of infection camels can be seriously disturbed by the Sarcoptic
infestation as they may stop grazing which can lead to a rapid fall in milk production, and
deterioration of health condition. With the increase in the irritation due to scabies, the camel
rubs, bites and scratches the affected areas in an attempt to reduce the itchiness. Due to rubbing,
biting or scratching, the mites move to the periphery affecting the healthy tissues and resultantly
affected area spreads. As the disease prolongs, the skin becomes excoriated, leading to hair loss
and the development of scabs. These scabs in turn may be rubbed away and a red surface
developed. The animal becomes restless due to severe Sarcoptic mange infestation and
involvement of most of the body surface. If the diseased animal is not treated in time, the animal
loses its health condition, become emaciated and within two, three weeks the acute stage of
disease may give way to more chronic state (Gorakh et al. 2000, Abubakar et al. 2002, Driot et
al. 2011). Sarcoptic mites rarely survive long off the host under natural conditions.
A continuous direct contact of animal keepers with their camels can also lead to
transmission of diseased condition in human beings which is termed as pseudo scabies.
Transmission of infection from camel to man usually takes place during milking, handling or
riding. The main symptoms of pseudo scabies can therefore be seen in the inter digital spaces of
the hands, on the wrists, forearms, the elbows, the axillary folds and inner side of the thighs.
Once a herd is infected with Sarcoptic mange, continuous reinfection of the disease occurs
(Schillinger 1987, Singh & Veer 2005, Premalatha et al. 2010).
Sarcoptic mange is usually considered to be a seasonal disease and is often reported
severe during the winter months as in cold weather the disease had an acute course. However,
there is some evidence that in some countries hot weather predisposes to acute outbreaks of
camel mange and in the cooler, winter season the rate of mange infestations are at the lowest. In
the summer the activity of the mite seems to decline or disease becomes chronic. Dietary intake
is an important factor in mange infestation. Nomadic camels on a low nutrition plan, probably
carrying heavy worm burdens in hot desert conditions are likely, therefore, to be highly prone to
Sarcoptes at this time (Dinka et al, 2010). During such periods of great activity, the mites are
readily transmissible from one animal to other animals (Richards, 1987, Banaja & Ghandour,
1994, Tefera & Gebreah, 2001).
Mange can easily be diagnosed clinically from the occurrence of pruritus, depilation,
alopecia, thickened skin, folds around the joints and encrusted plaques being the main
characteristics of this parasitosis. In order to control this zoonotic disease, it is essential to treat
both camel and man along with effective checks over other predisposing factors of the disease
such as hygiene and nutritional requirements of the animals.
The skin diseases like the scabies both in human beings and animals are being treated
with a variety of allopathic drugs now a day, but the role of herbal plants in use since centuries in
different shapes cannot be ignored at all, especially in the rural lifestyle. Further with the
continuous use of different acaricidal drugs, the issue of resistance development has come across
as a challenge for the researchers to find some alternatives for the purpose. Accordingly the
research work on the use of traditional herbal medicines is gaining attention day by day.
Although there are many reports and studies regarding the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange
in camel from different parts of the world, only few preliminary reports are available for Pakistan
and none of them provide detailed epidemiology of Sarcoptic mange and its effect on host
health. Therefore, keeping in view the importance of the mange problem in camel population of
the country, the present project was designed to determine the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange
infestation, factors in its occurrence its zoonotic importance, effect on blood physiology and
different treatment options in the camel population of Punjab, province in Pakistan.
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Efficacy Of Chenopodium Album As Anthelmintic Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep Dr. Muhammad Lateef
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Helminthiasis is among the most significant animal health harms, which inflicts heavy
production and economy losses especially in small ruminants. The helminth problem is
highly common mainly in developing countries like Pakistan (Dhar et al. 1982). Small
ruminants have much importance in meat and leather industry of Pakistan. Sheep play a vital
role in producing income and provide financial support for poor farmers in developing
countries. Endo-parasites represent a major constraint to the production and growth of small
ruminants (Babar et al. 2013). Pakistan has been reported to problem of helminths in sheep
and goat (Raza et al. 2009) and cattle and buffalo (Athar et al. 2011). Mainly infection is
generally controlled by allopathic drugs and vaccination (Behnke et al. 2008). Parasitic
diseases are a major threat in efficiency, the most widespread helminth parasites being
Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum columbianum. Liver
flukes and paramphistomes (Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum microbothrium)
occasionally cause heavy mortality in animals grazing swampy areas (Akerejola et al. 1979).
The adverse effects of nematode infections include: loss of weight, anorexia, anaemia,
retarded growth, delayed sexual maturity, decrease in milk and meat production (Saddiqi et
Indigenous knowledge of herbal medicine is a big source of the modern knowledge.
Today, thousands of plants, traditionally used as medicines are being explored (Kakar, 2012).
Chemical control of helminths coupled with improved management has been an important
worm control approach throughout the World. However, increasing problems of development
of resistance in helminths rise in price of drugs contributing factor for traditional plant used
(Coles et al. 1997) against anthelmintics have led to the proposal of screening medicinal
plants for their anthelmintic activities. Reports of drug resistance have been made in every
livestock host and to every anthelmintic class. In some regions of world, the extremely high
prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in nematodes of sheep and goats threatens the
viability of small-ruminant industries. Many parasitic nematodes of veterinary importance
have genetic features that favor the development of anthelmintic resistance (Kaplan et al.
The plants are known to provide a rich source of botanical anthelmintics (Lewis and
Elvin Lewis 1977). There are many medicinal plants have been used to treat parasitic
infections in man and animals (Iqbal et al. 2005). Various botanical plants have been
possessed anthelmintic activity against helminth e.g Chenopodium album (Eguale & Giday,
2009). It has been expected that there are around 250,000 plant species present throughout the
world. Plants, from ancient, have served human beings as sources of food, shelter, clothing
and medicines. Before the advent of modern allopathic medicine and synthetic drugs, plants
and to a certain extent, animals and minerals were used in various formulations for treatment
of diseases by traditional medicinal practitioner (Rahmatullah et al. 2011).
Plant medicine is very important from ancient to present daytime. The uses of
biologically different plant assets for various ailments are the lifelong struggle of humankind
(Hussain et al. 2008). In Indo-Pak subcontinent, Ayurvedic and Unani therapeutic systems
are very popular and people have been using plants not only for the treatment of their own
ailments but also for their domesticated animals.
Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae) commonly known as “Bathu” is important
medicinal plants in Pakistan and their different parts are utilized in the traditional system of
medicine (Said et al. 1970). Chenopodium album usually recognized as “Bathua” is a familiar
food as well as a medicinal plant. In traditional system of medicine, it is used as an
anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, contraceptive, laxative, cardiotonic, antiscorbutic,
and blood purifier & also in management of hepatic disorder, spleen enlargement, intestinal
ulcers, digestive, carminative, seminal weakness, pharyngopathy, splenopathy, hemorrhoids,
cardiac disorder (Panigrahy et al. 2012). The seeds of the plant are known to possess
anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. A compound C37- trihydroxy adjacent
bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin, present in the seeds, is responsible for inhibition of the egg
(Chenopodiaceae) is a rapid rising fragile annual plant and it is found in Bangladesh. In
English plant known as Lamb’s quarters and in Bengali as Buthiya shak. Both in vitro and in
vivo activity of plant as anthelmintic has been reported (Jain and Singhai 2012).
Chenopodium album was found to be one of the initial plant species colonizing a heavy
metal-contaminated site, polluted by pyritic (sulphide-rich) waste from the Aznalcóllar Mine
spill (South-western Spain). This shows its importance in the re-vegetation of this soil
(Walker et al. 2004). In vitro experiments were arranged to conclude the possible
anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous extracts and powder of the whole of Chenopodium
album (Eguale et al. 2009). Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium album and its
active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be,
used with substantial success in mass treatment campaigns (Kliks et al. 1985).
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Development Of Molecular Techniques For The Detection Of Toxocara Species In Dog
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Genus Toxocara belongs to sub-family Ascaridoidea. The genus contains species of significant importance for human and animal health (Despommier, 2003; Lee et al., 2010; Rubinsky-Elefant et al., 2010) . Various species of the genus Ascaris, Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis, are clinically important to cause diseases in mammals that are usually canids and felids (Fisher, 2003; Lee et al., 2010). Toxocara canis and T. cati are of zoonotic importance. (Fillaux et al., 2013).
This parasite has a fecal-oral type of transmission. Dogs are its definitive host and humans are its accidental hosts. Its eggs are non-infective when eliminated with feces of dogs. Eggs then develop into infective embryonated stage. The duration of embryo development depends upon different environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and type of soil (Overgaauw et al., 2013). Soil of the parks, streets and other public places polluted with the feces of stray dogs and cats also play a great role in the transmission of toxocariosis to humans. Toxocara spp. have the ability to reproduce and survive for long time periods outside their host. In this way the lands of parks, streets and other public places remain infected for long times. This contaminated soil with Toxocara eggs poses a high risk of infection to humans. Specially children under 5 years of age are the key set affected because they play in playgrounds and by chance can swallow the eggs of these intestinal parasites from contaminated soil (Dado et al., 2012; Thomas et al., 2014).
Infection commences both in man and dogs by ingestion of embryonated eggs, which are then hatched to liberate larvae. Humans get infected by the accidental ingestion of infective eggs with contaminated food or water. Eggs hatch in the stomach and larvae move to the small intestine. From small intestine these larvae migrate to visceral organs via blood causing a series of to retina via retinal artery and impair eye vision (Nicoletti, 2013). In dogs, these larvae mature within the small intestine. Then, mating takes place and new non-embryonated eggs are formed (Despommier, 2003). Humans can acquire infection by infective embryonated infections (Rubinsky-Elefant et al., 2010). Clinical signs of the infection varies from asymptomatic to a range of severe infections i-e. Visceral organ damage (Fillaux et al.) by the migration of larvae of T. canis and T. cati. These larvae cause Ocular larva migrans by the migration of larvae eggs from adulterate soil, dirty hands, un-cooked vegetables and by direct exposure to pets (Good et al., 2004; Wolfe et al., 2003). Nearly 100% of pups are infected in utero by reactivated somatic larvae from day 42 of the gestation period. This trans-placental path and intra uterine infection is the most important means of transmission in pups (Overgaauw et al., 2013).
Zoonotic prevalence is higher in tropical region than in temperate regions. Rural populations consume more risks of infection as compared to urban population of same area (Rubinsky-Elefant et al., 2010). Worldwide surveys show that the prevalence of Toxocara infection ranges from 86% to 100% in pups and 3% to 81% in adult dogs. Infection rate is higher in pups between age of 1-6 months as compared to dogs more than 7 months old (Itoh et al., 2004). In Lahore, prevalence of Toxocara infection is 49% in stray dogs and 30% in pet dogs (Chattha et al., 2009). Various diagnostic methods are employed for diagnosis of Toxocara species. Coproscopical techniques are classical techniques which are extensively used to identify eggs and larvae in fecal samples based upon morphological characteristics, coproscopic techniques have been extensively used to diagnose larvae and eggs in fecal samples (Sweeny et al., 2011). But identification by these coproscopic techniques has limitation in the differentiation of different species of Toxocara (Li et al., 2007a). Immunodiagnostic approaches like ELISA have also been utilized by using excretory/secretory antigens of larvae (Fan et al., 2004). But it has drawback that there is chance of cross reaction between anti-toxocara serum and antigen from other Toxocara spp. (Lozano et al., 2004). Alternatively, the DNA based molecular approaches are being employed for the accurate diagnosis of toxocariosis at species level. This technique may overcome the drawbacks of traditional methodologies and help in molecular epidemiological screening because genetic variation can be studied. Molecular methods based on DNA are more sensitive and specific as compared to classical methods (Jacobs et al., 1997; Ndao, 2009). In Pakistan, DNA based diagnosis of Toxocara spp. has not been employed yet. The present study was designed to achieve the goal of accurate diagnosis of prevalent species of Toxocara in dogs by using effective DNA based diagnostic technique.
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Isolation and Identification of Parasites From Available Raw Vegetables
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Blank CD.
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Taxonomy And Control Of Flea Infestation In Cats At Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: INTRODUCTION
Fleas play an important role in causing clinical skin disorders and diseases transmission in man
and pets animals (Rust & Dryden, 1997). Fleas are one of the most important ectoparasites with
more than 2,000 species worldwide affecting mammals, birds, and reptiles (Hsu, 2003). In some
locations, fleas represent over 50% of all the dermatological cases presented to small animal
clinics. Most are limited to hosts with nests as this can provide conditions for the completion of
their life cycle (Linardi & de Avelar, 2014). While fleas on pets are generally considered a
nuisance that may cause some dermatologic problems, they are also responsible for the
transmission of several important diseases in humans and animals (Dryden & Rust, 1994). They
have been involved in transmission of cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) (Chomel et al.,
2006; Comer et al., 2001), Rickettsia typhi (Murine thyphus), Rickettsia felis (Finkelstein et al.,
2002; Rolain et al., 2005), and also serve as the intermediate host for the tapeworm Dipylidium
caninum (Rust & Dryden, 1997) and several trypanosomatids (Coutinho & Linardi, 2007).
The term ‘‘cat flea,’’ which is the approved common name for Ctenocephalides felis felis (C. f
felis), can occasionally cause confusion. When it appears in print, it refers to the specific flea
genus and species and not to fleas recovered from cats. There are four recognized subspecies of
C. felis throughout the world: Ctenocephalides felis damarensis and C. felis strongylus occur
primarily in East Africa, C felis orientis occurs in India and Australia, and the widespread C. f
felis occurs in all continents except Antarctica and is the only subspecies that occurs in North
America (Rust & Dryden, 1997). The cat flea, C. felis, is a clinically important parasite of
domestic pets, being responsible for the production of allergic dermatitis, serving as the vector of
various bacterial pathogens, and being the intermediate host for filarid and cestode parasites.
Flea allergy dermatitis is the most common dermatologic disease of dogs and a major cause of
feline miliary dermatitis (Dryden & Rust, 1994; Rust & Dryden, 1997).
Clinical features vary from asymptomatic to severe hypersensitivity reactions with restlessness,
alopecia from scratching and biting resulting in a pruritic papular dermatitis. Vacuuming of
carpets, furniture cushions, rugs, or other substrata, with a vacuum machine containing a ‘‘beater
bar,’’ will remove many of the flea eggs and larvae. In addition, cocooned pupae at the upper
levels of the carpet can also be affected. The vibration also stimulates adult fleas to emerge from
their cocoons so that they can be collected in the vacuum machine. Therefore frequent
vacuuming, during a flea infestation, can reduce the overall flea burden in the home. It should be
ensured that vacuum bags are disposed of properly, to prevent recolonization of the home with
flea stages previously removed by vacuuming. Because outdoor development of immature flea
life stages is limited to shaded areas, altering outdoor environments to eliminate such habitats
can effectively reduce flea populations. Because urban wildlife, such as opossums, raccoons, and
foxes, are good hosts for cat fleas, pet owners should avoid encouraging visitations by wildlife,
which will affect flea and tick control (see later discussion). Treatment of indoor and outdoor
environments with insecticides requires knowledge of what to use and where to use it. For this
reason, it is suggested that pet owners consult with a licensed pest control specialist for such
applications (Angelbeck-Schulze et al., 2014; Perrins & Hendricks, 2007).
In line with increasing urbanization over the last few decades, flea species that infest pets have
become household pests. Thus, and for reasons of animal and human welfare, the control of fleas
is of great importance worldwide. Despite the increase in the number of products available and
their use, flea infestation of cats and dogs is still widespread in Europe and on other continents,
whereas resistance of these insects against many chemicals has been detected (El-Gazzar et al.,
1986). Cat fleas are the most important ectoparasite of cats and dogs worldwide. During the past
ten years, topical and oral applications of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, lufenuron
and, most recently, selamectin have revolutionized cat-flea control. Recent studies show that
these therapies eliminate the need to treat indoor and outdoor environments, and their use
markedly reduces the severity and prevalence of flea allergic dermatitis. Surveys have yet to
reveal the development of insecticide resistance to these chemical compounds. Extending the
longevity of these effective host-targeted therapies should be a major goal of the veterinary
community (Rust, 2005).
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Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Gastro- Intestinal Helminths In Camels Of Cholistan Area Of Bahawalpur
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal helminths are responsible for wide range of health problems, economic losses in camels and are characterized by impaired milk, meat, infertility, low calving rates, decreased working efficiency and even death of the camel.
To study the gastrointestinal helminths, 384 camels of different age, sex and breed was examined coprologically. For this, five gram of fresh fecal sample was carefully collected into a sealed container from each camel and was transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Fecal samples were scored 1-3 based on the consistency. The individual samples was triturated in saturated salt solution, sieved and examined for helminths eggs by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method, Sedimentation technique and Floatation technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. Among the camel population, the current study indicates that in Marrecha breed the prevalence of Nematodes was Trichostrongylus 1.77%, Haemonchus 8.44%, Nematodirus 3.11% and Trichuris 7.11% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 26.66% in infested camels, while the prevalence of Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris in Barella breed was 4.40%, 1.88%, 2.51%, 6.91%, 2.51% and 7.54% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 25.78% in infested camels. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Berrela breed. It was 18.66% in Marrecha breed and 14.46% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 16.93%. While the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Marrecha breed than Barella breed. It was 16% in Marrecha breed and 10.69% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 13.80%. The overall prevalence of fascioliosis in camel is 30.31. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Barella breed. It was 10.22% in Marrecha breed and 8.80% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 9.63%. The sex wise prevalence of gastrointestinal Nematodes in males was 39.28% which includes Camelostrongylus 8.03%, Trichostrongylus 3.57%, Strongyloides 6.25%, Haemonchus 11.60%, Nematodirus 4.46% and Trichuris 5.35% respectively while in the female it was 25.37% which includes Camelostrongylus 4.41%, Trichostrongylus 2.20%, Strongyloides 2.94%, Haemonchus 6.25%, Nematodirus 2.57% and Trichuris 6.98%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in Male was found higher as compared to Female which was 39.28% and 25.37% respectively. Sex wise prevalence of GI Trematodes in Camels was determined through collected samples. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 16.91% in Female and 15.18 % in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 19.53%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Female than Male. It was 12.13% in Female and 11.61% in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 11.98%. Sex wise prevalence of GI Cestodes in Camels was determined. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 14.34% in Female and 13.39% in Male while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the sex was 14.06%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in age group >10 yrs. was higher 30.25% as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. 20% which includes Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris 3.36%, 2.52%, 6.72%, 5.88% 4.20% and 7.56 in age group >10 yrs and 1.88%, 1.51%, 1.88%, 4.90%, 2.64% and 7.16 respectively, in age group 5-10 yrs.
The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 30% in age group 5-10 yrs and 16.99% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 18.75%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 9.33% in age group 5-10 yrs and 7.55% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 8.59%.
The prevalence of Moniezia expansa in age group >10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. It was 10.92% in age group >10 yrs and 10.18% in age group 5-10 yrs while the overall prevalence of in Moniezia expansa the camels irrespective of the age groups was 7.81%.
To study the effect of gastrointestinal helminths on various blood parameters of camels, blood samples were collected from 5 infected and 5 healthy camels. Samples were analyzed using Hematology Analyzer and results were compared.
For therapeutic trials, a total of 30 camels positive for helminths was taken and divided into three groups A-C each group comprising of 10 animals. A fourth group D was selected comprising of 10 uninfected camels. The camels of group A were treated with dry Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder at a daily oral dose of 100 gm/camel for five days, group B was treated with Albenzole granules® (Albendazole) at a dose rate of 15mg/kg bd. wt. PO once. Group C (untreated) was designated as positive control, and the camels in Group D as negative control. Efficacy was determined on the reduction of eggs in feces at day 3, 7 and 14 (post-treatment). In the current study Neem leaves and Albendazole gave following results in the camels affected with Helminths. Neem leaves cured 20% of the animals on day 3rd after the drug administration while 40% and 60% of the animals cured on the day 7th and 14th respectively. Albendazole also gave good results against helminths affected camels. On the day 3rd of the treatment 30% animals cured while 60% animals were cured on the 7th day and on 14th day 80% animals recovered.
Data regarding prevalence was measured by non-parametric, chi-square (χ2), while therapeutic trails were analyzed by repeated measures one way ANOVA, using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences), P < 0.05 was considered significant.
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Biological Studies on Various Avian Influenza Virus Types In Poultry
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2390-T] (1).
Prevalance, Diagnosis and Economic Losses Due to Bovine Cysticercosis in Punjab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1379-T] (1).
Optimization Of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) For The Molecular Diagnosis Of Feline Babesiosis
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Babesia is a worldwide tick borne hemoparasite causing Babesiosis, an important disease affecting a number of animals and attracting the researcher’s attention due to its zoonotic potential.Babesiosis in cats often presents as a chronic and low grade disease, however most common symptoms include anaemia, lethargy, weakness and rarely icterus and fever.
Blood samples were collected from 100 domestic cats at Pet Center, UVAS, Lahore,from their ear tips and cephalic/saphenous vein. The blood will be immediately transferred to EDTA coated vacutainers. Stained thin blood smears were observed for intra-erythrocytic bodies and 45 samples were selected after screening. Blood in EDTA were tested for PCR (already optimized) in the Molecular Parasitology laboratory at UVAS, Lahore, to screen for B. felis. ExtractedDNA of confirmed B. felis samples were further processed forLoop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).
LAMP primers weredesigned recognizing four sections of the B. felis gene. LAMP reactions of 25µL were standardized at 60°C temperature for 1 hour time using DNA extracted from blood samples of cats found positive on PCR.
Briefly, the concentration of FIP and BIP were varied from 0.8µM to 2.4µM, Mg2+from 2mM to 4mM, betaine from 0.2 to 0.8M and dNTPs from 1mM to 4mM.The LAMP reaction was optimized at the final concentration of 0.2µM F3 and B3, 2.0µM of each of the FIP & BIP, 2mM for each dNTPs, 0.8M betaine, 1X reaction buffer, 1µl bst polymerase and 2µl DNA templates at 60°C.
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Clinico-Epidemiological And Experimental Observations On Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease Among Domesticated Cats
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Idiopathic Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (iFLUTD) has been known as a major as well as important problem throughout the world especially the veterinary profession. Nicks of this problem also found in Pakistan, however the veterinarians are usually unable to properly diagnose this disease due to lack of knowledge as well as the ancillary diagnostic equipment availability for this disease. Present study was divided into two phases. Phase – 1 included clinico-epidemiological data. To this end, target of more than 502 domesticated client-owned cats of either sex, age, breed, etc showing signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) as per Buffington (1994) were examined accordingly from 3 different cities (Lahore, Faisalabad, and Islamabad) of Pakistan). All data collected was based on a predesigned proforma by using structured interview of the owners. Diagnosis was solely based on serum-cortisol levels, urinalysis, radiography and ultrasonography. Phase II involved experimental trial. The data obtained from whole of the study was then presented in tabulated form as frequencies and percentages. Treatment and outcome of the disease were also analyzed accordingly.
According to the present study conducted it is proved that iFLUTD is present among the cats in Pakistan. Its proper cognizance among the Pakistani veterinarians is still non-existent and is misdiagnosed as colic or constipation issues in cats. The present study was undertaken to bring iFLUTD into the reportive of small animal practitioners working in Pakistan. The present study debunked various previous notions like iFLUTD is associated with commercial diets and canned foods only if we talk about this region majority of cases were noticed that had home-cooked food given by the owner. Moreover, cases in Siamese breed are larger than Persian breed. It has been strongly associated with Indoor housing management. Additional work is still needed to explore untouched areas of epidemiology including factors other than those being studied in the previous literature. Academicians in veterinary pathology and veterinary medicine of Pakistani universities should embrace this malady in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) curricula.
According to the present study results it is concluded that two factors like stress and pain accelerate the sympathetic nervous system outflow compared to normal felines leading to the inflammatory response. Thus the stress factor must be reduced in the form of making hiding places for cats at home to reduced down the fear factor along with enhancing the feeling of owes for that particular place. Moreover, some more practices should be performed by the owner to reduce down the stress factor like playing with the pet, giving full attention, placing toys and other attractive things like yarn balls at the feline places (where they live/placed). There was no significant difference found between the groups based on the food with health score along with the therapeutic judgment. Hence, it is recommended that more experiments should be performed on larger scale to assess GAG therapy on increased number of felines and need of hour is to conduct more veterinary studies to get information and authenticity for its use against iFLUTD.
From this study conducted, I recommend to the owners that the cats must be provided with the indoor hiding places and play with their pets in order to reduce the stress factor that increases the risk of idiopathic lower urinary tract disease. Moreover, the trend of home-cooked diet should be reduced along with increase in water intake by the cat.
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Conventional And Molecular Characterization Of Theileria Species Prevalent In Cattle
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Theileriosis is the destructive disease caused by the protozoan in cattle. It is major cause of huge losses in production of cattle. It is a wide spread protozoan syndrome of cattle playing foremost role in production losses. Early and exact diagnosis of theileriosis can be helpful in reducing production losses.
Early and exact diagnosis of theileriosis can be helpful in the control of disease.( Hypothesis )
Incidence of different Theileria species was recorded. Blood samples was collected in sterilized vacutainers. The samples were examined by preparing fresh blood smears followed by Giemsa staining and observing under microscope. Identification on preliminary basis was done by morphological characters of Theileria. In order to find the harmful effect of the theileriosis, blood hematology and biochemistry values were also be determined in both healthy and infected cattle.
The samples from theileriosis positive animals were used for nucleic acid extraction. The extracted nucleic acid was amplified using Species specific primers.Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to visualize the amplified DNA. Amplicons of nucleic acid was treated with different restriction enzymes and pattern was visualized to find differences among different species of Theileria.
Suitable statistical tool was used to analyze the data collected. Chi was applied on data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0. This research will help to confirm for the conventional and molecular diagnosis of theileriosis in dairy animals. Also genetic variation in Theileria species will be determined.
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Detection of Albendazole Resistance in Commonly Found Gastrointestinal Tract Nematodes of Sheep
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: CD Corrupted.
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Evaluation Of Risk Factors And Molecular Diagnosis Of Dermatophytosis In Dogs
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Dogs are most kept and beloved pets in Pakistani society. Dermatophytosis is among the common disease of the pets. Many predisposing factors are involved in development of clinical cases of dermatophytosis including climatic conditions, housing condition of dogs and physical attributes such as coat hair size. Dermatophytosis is not only of concern as being infection of pets but also of its zoonotic importance hence it is very crucial to diagnose dermatophytic infection well in time. Dermatophytosis is caused by Dermatophytes,Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, the fungal species. It is difficult to diagnose the Dermatophytosis from other skin infections by routine tests in most of the cases especially subclinical. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is advanced and the most reliable technique to detect genome of Dermatophytes even in minute quantities specifically and can efficiently detect the presence of any Dermatophyte specie on the skin of dog. The current study was planned to develop and validate a diagnostic assay which could be able to detect and distinguish tree important dermatophytes species including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophytonby a uniplex PCR reaction. Analysis of involvement of certain predisposing factors in dermatophytosis was second goal to be worked on in this study. Samples of suspected pet dogs (n=50) were collected by scraping the skin at affected areas over skin. DNA was extracted from the skin scraping samples by organic Phenol Chloroform Isoamyle Alcohol method. Primers, specific to the 18-S ribosomal RNA region of genomes of the Dermatophytes, were designed after alignment of available sequences of Microsporum,Trichophyton and Epidermophyton at NCBI. Annealing temperature and recipe of PCR reaction was optimized by gradient PCR in BIO-Rad thermal cycler. Amplification reaction of all samples collected was carried out as per optimized reaction conditions, afterwards. Amplified products obtained were subjected to genotyping by agarose gel electrophoresis for size based separation of the amplified products. The specific amplified bands of desired genomic region of dermatophytes were seen in UV light transilluminator. The data of results of predisposing factors involved in dermatophytosis wasanalysedby using Pearson’s chi squared test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) Program.
Genome specific product sizes of Microsporum and Trichophyton i.e. 366 bp and 351 bp in respective positive samples were observed. Out of 50 suspected samples 46 samples were positive for dermatophytosis out of which 38 samples (82.6%) were positive for Microsporum, 6 samples (13%) for Trichophyton and 2 samples (4.4%) were positive for both Microsporumand Trichophyton.
This study will help to validate a diagnostic technique for Dermatophytosis with greater efficacy and reliability. Moreover, this investigation may become basis for the future research activities in this field in Pakistan.
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Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) Of Malakand Division, Pakistan
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted from 2010 to 2013 in three districts (Malakand, Dir and Swat) of Malakand Division. A total of 49 stations were sampled for bats where total 1982 bats were recorded. A total of 21 species of bats belonging to six families, fourteen genera were recorded. These includes the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus), the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx), the fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaultia), the greater mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma microphyllum), the lesser mouse tailed bat (Rhinopoma hardwickii), the greater false vampire (Megaderma lyra), the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), the Blyth‟s horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus Lepidus), the fulvous leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros fulvus), the Hodgson‟s bat (Myotis formosus), the Asian barbastelle (Barbastella leucomelas), the Asiatic greater yellow house bat (Scotophilus heathii), the Asiatic lesser yellow house bat (Scotophilus kuhlii), the serotine (Eptesicus serotinus), the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), the javan pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus), the coromandel pipistrelle (Pipistrellus coromandra), the least pipistrelle (Pipistrellus tenuis), the Dormer‟s bat (Pipistrellus dormeri), the desert yellow bat (Scotoecus pallidus) and the Schreiber‟s long-fingered bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) were recorded throughout the study area.
M. formosus was common to all the three districts while B. leucomelas and P. pipistrellus were captured only from Dir district. The Hodgson‟s bat (M. formosus) and the Schreiber‟s long-fingered bat (M. fuliginosus) were captured from Malakand and Swat districts. The skeleton of C. sphinx was recorded only from adjacent area of Malakand district. The Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was not previously recorded from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa while it has been reported from Punjab and Sindh province of the country. There are only six species which has
previously been reported from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa while thirteen bats were newly recorded from the study area. Only two bats were newly recorded for the first time in the country.
The mean forearm length of the three P. giganteus was 152.23 mm ± 3.72 (SD). The mean greatest skull length was 65.96 mm ± 1.42 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 24.91 mm ± 0.84 (SD). The mandible and mandibular toothrow length were 50.78 mm ± 0.87 (SD) and 27.41 mm ± 0.66 (SD), respectively.
The thumb and forearm length of one C. sphinx was 25.80 mm and 65.48 mm, respectively. The greatest length of skull was 32.20 mm. The maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 10.86 mm and 12.64 mm. The mandible was 24.75 mm long.
The mean forearm and thumb of R. leschenaultii was 80.23 mm ± 3.26 (SD) and 27.79 mm ± 1.22 (SD), long, respectively. The mean greatest skull length was 36.97 mm ± 1.11 (SD). The mean mandible, maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 28.95 mm ± 0.90 (SD), 14.08 mm ± 0.44 (SD) and 15.51 mm ± 0.47 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of three R. microphyllum was 8.80 mm ± 0.95 (SD) and 67.45 mm ± 4.60 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull was 20.15 mm ± 0.64 (SD). The mandible, maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 7.30 mm ± 0.18 (SD), 8.11 mm ± 0.11 (SD) and 14.38 mm ± 0.63 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of R. hardwickii was 8.23 mm ± 0.38 (SD) and 59.90 mm ± 1.21 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the four specimens was 18.20 mm ± 0.48 (SD). The maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 6.08 mm ± 0.07 (SD) and 6.72 mm ± 0.13 (SD), respectively. The mandible length was measured as 12.38 mm ± 0.0.23 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of M. lyra was 11.80 mm ± 0.44 (SD) and 70.06 mm ± 0.69 (SD), respectively. Mean greatest length of skull of the three specimens was 29.60 mm ± 0.46
(SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 11.40 mm ± 0.10 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 11.94 mm ± 0.04 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 20.04 mm ± 0.03 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of R. ferrumequinum was 4.01 mm ± 0.01 (SD) and 60.01 mm ± 1.41 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the two specimens was 23.35 mm ± 0.20 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 9.18 mm ± 0.02 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 9.86 mm ± 0.01 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 16.33 mm ± 0.13 (SD).
The mean thumb and forearm length of R. lepidus was 3.87 mm ±0.13 (SD) and 38.02 mm ± 0.63 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the two specimens was 15.94 mm ± 0.15 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 5.86 mm ± 0.02 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 6.57 mm ± 0.64 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 10.34 mm ± 0.04 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of H. fulvus was 4.91 mm ± 0.17 (SD) and 41.41 mm ± 0.97 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the thirteen specimens was 18.45 mm ± 0.16 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 6.50 mm ± 0.14 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 6.96 mm ± 0.18 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 11.73 mm ± 0.14 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of M. formosus was 9.26 mm ± 0.70 (SD) and 48.74 mm ± 2.02 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the three specimens was 17.81 mm ± 0.12 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 7.15 mm ± 0.05 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 7.80 mm ± 0.05 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 13.85 mm ± 0.07 (SD).
Thumb and forearm length of B. leucomelas was 5.65 mm and 42.88 mm, respectively. The tragus height was 10.32 mm. The greatest length of skull of a single specimen was 15.87 mm. The maxillary toothrow length was 4.91 mm. The mandibular toothrow length was 5.43 mm. The mandible length was measured as 10.02 mm.
Mean thumb and forearm length of S. heathii was 9.06 mm ± 0.41 (SD) and 62.25 mm ± 1.76 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the nine specimens was 23.12 mm ± 0.46 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 7.87 mm ± 0.16 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 8.93 mm ± 0.16 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 16.62 mm ± 0.19 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of S. kuhlii was 7.01 mm ± 1.41 (SD) and 50.06 mm ± 7.13 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the two specimens was 19.24 mm ± 0.71 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 6.49 mm ± 0.11 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 7.42 mm ± 0.01 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 13.78 mm ± 0.47 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of E. serotinus was 8.92 mm ± 0.32 (SD) and 53.37 mm ± 1.39 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the fifteen specimens was 21.40 mm ± 0.70 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 7.84 mm ± 0.21 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 9.28 mm ± 1.95 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 15.51 mm ± 1.94 (SD).
Thumb and forearm length of P. pipistrellus was 4.01 mm and 31.06 mm, respectively. The greatest length of skull of a single specimen was 12.14 mm. The maxillary toothrow length was 4.22 mm. The mandibular toothrow length was 4.45 mm. The mandible length was measured as 8.27 mm.
Thumb and forearm length of P. javanicus was 4.02 mm and 32.01 mm, respectively. The greatest length of skull of a single specimen was 13.13 mm. The maxillary toothrow length was 4.60 mm. The mandibular toothrow length was 5.20 mm. The mandible length was measured as 9.46 mm.
Mean thumb and forearm length of P. coromandra was 4.70 mm ± 0.45 (SD) and 32.28 mm ± 1.17 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the eight specimens was 12.67 mm
± 0.40 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 4.44 mm ± 0.24 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 4.74 mm ± 0.23 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 9.13 mm ± 0.46 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of P. tenuis was 4.43 mm ± 0.47 (SD) and 29.24 mm ± 1.03 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the 23 specimens was 11.56 mm ± 0.25 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 3.87 mm ± 0.09 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 4.10 mm ± 0.06 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 7.89 mm ± 0.60 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of P. dormeri was 5.28 mm ± 0.70 (SD) and 34.30 mm ± 1.25 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of the skull was 13.77 mm ± 0.11 (SD). The mandible, maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were measured as 10.53 mm ± 0.09 (SD), 5.33 mm ± 0.02 (SD) and 5.56 mm ± 0.07 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of S. pallidus was 6.26 mm ± 0.41 (SD) and 36.83 mm ± 0.42 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the twenty two specimens was 15.00 mm ± 0.26 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 5.66 mm ± 0.10 (SD). The mandible and mandibular toothrow length were 11.35 mm ± 0.23 (SD) and 6.11 mm ± 0.12 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of M. fuliginosus bat was 6.61 mm ± 0.43 (SD) and 37.59 mm ± 5.37 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the six specimens was 14.48 mm ± 0.58 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 5.32 mm ± 0.39 (SD). The mandible and mandibular toothrow length were 10.54 mm ± 0.65 (SD) and 5.71 mm ± 0.49 (SD), respectively.
1. Bat surveys. This is the first extensive exploration of that small portion of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which comprises of only three districts of Malakand Division i.e. Malakand, Dir and Swat. Although more focus remained towards Malakand district, six families, fourteen genera, twenty one species were identified. Moreover, two new country
records (Myotis formosus and Miniopterus fuliginosis) were also explored. Further bat surveys in poorly surveyed parts of the country especially in KPK and Baluchistan may result in identification of some other new bat taxa. More bat surveys involving greater field efforts may also confirm the presence or absence of those already described from the country.
2. Distribution ranges and species specific habitat analysis. Presence of thirteen new locality records (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, Rhinopoma hardwickii, Megaderma lyra, Rhinolophus Lepidus, Hipposideros fulvus, Barbastella leucomelas, Scotophilus heathii, Scotophilus kuhlii, Eptesicus serotinus, Pipistrellus javanicus, Pipistrellus dormeri and Scotoecus pallidus) and two new country records (Myotis formosus and Miniopterus fuliginosis) gives credence to the idea that distribution ranges of most of the bat species has change over the past sixty years. Thus serious scientific studies are needed to redefine distribution ranges and identify species specific habitats using global positioning system and radio-telemetric studies.
3. Reconfirmation of bat taxonomy. Genetic analysis of none of the bat species of the country has been made using molecular markers thus leaving behind a chance to doubt identification of cryptic bat species. Thus molecular genetic studies of all the bat species of the country is highly recommended which may also lead to the discovery of such bat taxa which are new to science.
4. Bat call library. The only bat detector (Patterson D 1000X) present in the country fell down from my hand in a water body and became out of order. So none of the bat could be recorded. Bat call analysis has boosted bat identification throughout the world but the
lack of such sophisticated equipment in the country has become a major bottle neck in the establishment of a bat call library.
5. Awareness campaigns. Majority of the countrymen are unaware of the ecological services rendered by bats. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the major fruit growing region of the country. Based on misperceptions, the locals consider all bats as vermin and kill them ruthlessly. Conservation education to highlight the significance of bats must be included in the curriculum of children at primary school level so that they may adopt a pro-conservation attitude in the first few years of their personality building.
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Comparative Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Levamisole, Piperazine And Pineapple Leaves Extract(Ananascomosus)Against Ascaridiosis In Captive Java Sparrow (Lonchuraoryzivora)
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Ascaradia galli imposes major health problems on pet birds including the java sparrows. It retards growth, decrease body condition, and lowers the clutch size which imparts huge economic losses to breeders and birds owner. Over dosage of frequently used anthelmintic increase the risk of adverse effects and stress on birds. So there arises a need to adapt alternative therapeutic approaches.
The present study was designed to compare the anthelmintic activity of frequently used synthetic drugs levamisole and piperazine and herbal drug pineapple leave extracts against ascariasis in java sparrows.To study the comparative anthelmintic efficacy of levamisole, piperazine and pineapple leave extract against Ascaridia galli in captive java sparrows, fecal sample of (n=200) java sparrows captive for breeding purpose were screened for the Ascaridiagalli by direct fecal smear method. Among the all the infected birds 30 infected and 10 healthy birds were selected to conduct the study and divided into 4 groups and included in therapeutic trial.Birds were treated with levamisole, with piperazine and with pineapple leaves extract according to standard dose rate and route of administration in Group A, B & C respectively, Fourth group D comprising of 10 birds waskept as negative control. To evaluate the comparative efficacy of drugs, EPG will be calculated according to McMaster Technique post treatment at day 0 and after treatment on 7th, 14th and 21s. Results revealed that levimosle was the very effective against Ascaradia galli in java sparrows. Levaimsole decrease the average EPG of treated group to 50 from 600 and show 100 percent efficacy against Ascaradia galli and recovered all the infected birds of the group A. Piperazine was less effective as compare to the levamisole but show more effectiveness as compare to the pineapple leave extract. Piperazine reduced the average EPG of treated group B to 150 from 650 and show 70 percent and recovered 7 infected from 10. Pineapple leave extract showed least effectiveness and reduced the EPG of treated group C to 350. Pineapple showed 40 percent efficacy against Ascaradia galli and recovered only 4 infected birds of group C from Ascariasis.Pineapple leaves extract were effective against ascariasis in captive Java sparrows but least effective as compare to levamisole and piperazine having no adverse effects.
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