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1. Detection of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) Gene Polymorphism in Native Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck Chicken Breeds in Pakistan.

by Asad Ali | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Afzal Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Growth traits in chicken production system have an important role. Molecular analysis is an easier mean to identify desirable genotypes for growth. Candidate gene (s) for growth trait like insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has imperative function for growth, body composition, metabolic and skeletal traits. The polymorphism of Insulin-like growth factor-1 was detected in native Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck chicken breeds of Pakistan. Fifty, fifty birds of Aseel and Naked Neck breed were selected from Indigenous chicken genetic resource center, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS, Lahore, Ravi Campus. While Desi birds were procured from conventional production farm for genetic analysis. Insulin-like growth factor-1 plays very important role in the cell growth, cell differentiation, food intake of cells and have role in overall body growth, this is why it is being used as a marker to study traits like growth. The polymorphism of IGF-I gene was detected by PCR-RFLP-Pst-Iand this revealed two alleles A (364 and 257 bp), B (621 bp),and three genotypes AA, AB, BB.Genotypic data was analyzed with the help of Pop-gene 1.32 software to calculate genotypic and allelic frequencies. GenotypeAB had the highest frequency in all three native breeds. Genotypic frequency of AA, AB and BB in Aseel was 20, 66 and 14% and in Desi it was 12, 64 and 24 % respectively. While in Naked Neck genotypic frequencies of AA, AB and BB were 18, 60 and 22 %. The highest frequency of allele A (0.53) was found in Aseel while highest frequency of Allele B (0.56) was found in Desi. Genotypic frequency of heterozygotes was highest in all three native breeds i.e. 66, 64 and 60 % in Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck respectively. As the frequency of heterozygotes is significantly higher in all three breeds, so all these native breeds have potential to improve through selection.Furtherstudies are needed to link these polymorphisms with performance traits and then using that information in future breeding plans for high producing individuals would be very helpful for animal breeder in marker assisted selection (MAS). As Aseel carried highest frequency of allele A so, it can be reared for selective breeding program especially for meat type line development in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1637,T] (1).

2. Phenotypic Characterization Of Two Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes Of Pakistan

by Amjad Iqbal | Dr. Afzal Ali | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Poultry is the second largest industry of Pakistan and a significant proportion of poultry products (meat and eggs) originates from the rural poultry production system which is an important source of livelihood for about 80% of the rural households in Pakistan. The quest for greater production through the use of exotic breeds has created difficulties for backyard production systems and is dangerous on economic, social and scientific grounds. This practice is also resulting in rapid erosion of indigenous genetic resources. The commercial sector itself may require access to indigenous genotypes as its genetic base is quite narrow and for catering the future needs industry may require improvement in many other characteristics (for instance, adaptability and disease resistance) in addition to just egg and meat yield enhancement. Unfortunately, in many countries the indigenous breeds have not been studied for their potential uses and benefits and have been indiscriminately cross bred with exotic breeds. Therefore, it is crucial to study and characterize the indigenous breeds and generate necessary information to be used in future to reap maximum benefits. The generated knowledge would provide useful information essential for conservation of indigenous genetic resources. The knowledge about the morphological attributes of native chickens has not been adequately documented on technical and scientific grounds. Keeping this in view the present study was planned and data on qualitative and quantitative traits regarding the morphology were collected on Aseel and Naked-neck chickens using a specially designed performa.All recorded data were entered in MS Excel 2010 spreadsheets. The qualitative parameters were expressed as percentages and quantitative parameters were expressed as mean ± standard error. A great variation in plumage colors and patterns was observed in both Aseel and Naked-neck chickens. The Aseel chickens possessed a pea comb whereas Naked-neck chickens possessed single comb. Also it was interesting to note that about 10% of Aseel hens possessed spurs however spurs were absent in Naked-neck females. On the basis of quantitative traits,it was found that the Naked neck chickens were smaller in size than the Aseel chickens regarding body weight (Aseel: 1938.7±36.9 g in females and 2317±98.4 g in males; Naked neck: 1160.4±19.3 g in females and 1415±22.2 in males), shank length (Aseel: 8.1±0.1 cm in females and 10.3±0.1 cm in males; Naked neck: 7.5±0.05 cm in females and 8.6±0.1 cm in males), shank circumference (Aseel: 44.2±0.5 mm in females and 52.4±1.1 mm in males; Naked neck: 36.5±0.7 mm in females and 41.4±0.5 mm in males), and keel length (Aseel: 15.1±0.1 cm in females and 16.0±0.2 cm in males; Naked-neck: 14.1±0.2 cm in females and 14.7±0.1 cm in males). The information about indigenous Aseel and Naked-neck chickens documented in the present study can be used as reference in future for conservation and breed improvement programs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1679,T] (1).

3. Identification Of Variations In The Coding Region Of Myostatin Gene In Thalli And Pakkarakul Sheep Breeds Of The Punjab

by Armughan Ahmed Wadood (2006-VA-38) | Dr. Afzal Ali | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Mr. Muhammad Saadullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: In a developing country like Pakistan, livestock sector has a significant importance. Meat is an important food component in human diet and its source varies from different organisms like cattle, buffalo, camel, deer, sheep, goat, rabbit and chicken etc. Small ruminants especially sheep, has a unique role in meat production, due to its feeding and adaptive behavior. The myostatin (MSTN) gene is known as a candidate gene for development and growth of livestock because it plays its major role in muscle growth. Selection is an important tool to improve the meat production and thus enhance the economic conditions of livestock farmers. For this purpose genetically characterization of meat type animals, especially the indigenous sheep breeds is not common. The variations in the myostatin gene have been extensively studied and reviewed in small and large ruminants in the world but it has been scanty studied in sheep breeds of Pakistan. Thalli and Pak-Karakul are well known sheep breeds present in Punjab, Pakistan. This study aims to characterize the genetic variation in the myostatin gene in Thalli and Pak-Karakul sheep breeds. In this research study, twenty adult animals of two different sheep breeds (Thalli and Pak-Karakul) were selected from Small Ruminants Research and development Centre, Rakh Khairewala, District Layyah, Pakistan. Five mL blood sample was collected from each animal in a 15mL falcon tube containing anticoagulant. Primers were designed by using Primerfox online software. Primers were optimized using specific protocol and PCR was performed. DNA was extracted using modified inorganic method of Sambrook et al. (1989). PCR was carried out using all primers and later sent for sequencing to 1stBase Laboratories, Singapore. Molecular analysis was done using CodonCode Aligner and MEGA6 softwares. Ten samples of each breed were sequenced to detect polymorphism in both Thalli and Pak-Karakul sheep populations. Sequencing revealed G↓T transition at 3995 position in Summary 44 genome (accession number, DQ530260.1) in Thalli and similar transition in Pak-Karakul at the same position. In Thalli sheep 50 % of experimental animals were heterozygous, higher level of heterozygosity makes it a potential candidate for higher growth rates. On the other hand the Pak-Karakul sheep is medium weight breed and frequency of mutant allele was 0.2 or 20%. The observed heterozygous individuals were also with higher live body weights. The gene frequency shows that this breed has medium potential for its body growth. The information‟s so generated and further association studies in both breeds will be helpful in devising breeding plans for increasing mutton production at national level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2288-T] (1).

4. Morphological Structure Of Thalli Sheep Through Principal Component Analysis Of Body Measurements Muhammad

by Muhammad Arslan Akbar (2014-VA-07) | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Afzal Ali | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Mutton is also very extensively used food and sources of mutton are only sheep and goat. Sheep have a great genetic potential to fulfill the increasing demand of mutton in our country. Body conformation and features are very important traits in milch, meat and wool animals. In developing countries, record keeping is at initial level and the records about pedigree and progeny of individuals are insufficient and do not provide the estimation about genetic parameters. Therefore, phenotypic information are necessary for the explanation of relationship among linear type traits and selection is based on these traits. Principal component analysis technique has been used to identify the body size, body shape, head size and over all body conformation in Zulu Sheep. Animal conformation and genetic parameters can be measured by using the technique of phenotypic characterization. Data on morphometric traits of Thalli sheep were collected from “Small Ruminant Research and Development Centre, Rakh Khairewala, District Layyah, Punjab, Pakistan” and Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Ghulaman, District Bhakkar, Punjab, Pakistan. Different phenotypic parameters and twenty one (21) morphometric traits were measured on animals of Thalli sheep. The traits measured were birth weight, body weight, heart girth, body length, withers height, head length, head width, ear length, ear width, neck length, neck width, barrel depth, sacral pelvic width, rump length, rump width, tail length, testes length, testes width, scrotal diameter, teat length and teat diameter. Different phenotypic characters was recorded as body color, body shape, eye color, head color, fore head color, face color, face structure, chin color, ear color, ear nature, appendages color, nostril structure, muzzle structure, neck structure, tail color and tail switch. Summary 174 Weighing balance (digital) was used for determination of body weight and a flexible measuring tape (tailor tape) was used to record the different body measurements. To avoid variations among individuals, measurements were taken by the same person. Animals of different age groups were reared at these research stations. Animals were divided into different groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I) according to their age as 0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-15, 16-18, 19-21, 22- 24 and above 24 months. Each group was further divided into two sub-groups of males and females animals. Normality of data were checked against all animals (overall group and separate groups) and all animals were fallen in ±3SD but two outliers had been removed. Data on morphometric traits were analyzed statistically for mean, range, coefficient of variation and standard error. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation among different biometric traits was estimated and data were generated for principal component analysis (PCA) from the correlation matrix. Regression equations were developed for the estimation of body weight. Descriptive statistics (mean, range, standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of body measurements of overall female were showed coefficient of variations of overall female animals of Thalli sheep for mostly variables were ranged from 10-20% and coefficient of variations of birth weight and body weight were 22.38% and 25.75% respectively. Coefficient of variations of male animals of Thalli sheep for linear body measurements were ranged 08-25% and tail length had high coefficient of variations as 26.89%. Male animals of all age groups are heavier than females. Correlation coefficients of morphometric traits of overall females and males of Thalli sheep were highly positive and significant (P≤0.01) among withers height, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, ear length, neck length, neck width, rump length, rump width, barrel depth, sacral pelvic width and body weight. Withers height, heart girth and body length were observed to be significantly correlated with each other as well as with live body weight of all age groups. Summary 175 For overall female animals, two principal components were extracted with eigenvalues 9.005 and 1.558 and 56.279% and 9.740% variances for PC1 and PC2 respectively and their cumulative variance was 66.020%. For overall male animals, three principal components were extracted with eigenvalues greater than 1 and PC1 showed high variance 57.516% and PC2 and PC3 had variances as 12.184% and 7.022% respectively and their cumulative was components 76.721%. In all age groups which has been studied, withers height, body length and heart girth have high values in commonalities as well as in component matrix. PC1, PC2 and PC3 showed maximum variations in almost all age group studied. Regression equations developed to estimate of live weight of all age groups were indicated that almost all equations had variables withers height, body length and heart girth. Conclusion: From findings of present study, it was concluded that body measurements (Withers height, body length and heart girth) had high correlations with each other and with body weight in almost all age groups. Principal component analysis of morphometric traits was showed that most of variation explained by PC1 and in some groups, PC2 and PC3 had also more effects. Commonalities were higher which showed that all the variables were important but PC1 had high values for withers height, body length and heart girth and maximum variance. This indicated that morphometric traits are very important for selection of genetically elite animals. Morphometric traits can be used to estimate the body weight in the field conditions, where weighing balance is not usually available. However, further research is needed to investigate the relationship among different morphometric traits in other breeds of goats, sheep and other livestock breeds like cattle, buffalo, camel and horse of the country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2471-T] (1).

5. Association Study Of Gdf9 Gene With Litter Size In Kajli Sheep

by Muhammad Waseem Shahzad (2010-VA-499) | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Afzal Ali | Dr. Khalid Mahmood Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Genetic characterization of meat type animals, especially the indigenous sheep breeds is of great concern now a days. The GDF9 gene is known as a candidate gene for fecundity, development and growth of livestock especially small ruminants (sheep and goats) because it plays its major role in increasing ovulation rate, growth and differentiation of oocytes. The variations in the coding region of GDF9 gene and its relationship with ovulation rate and litter size have been extensively studied and reviewed in small and large ruminants worldwide, but there is a very little exploration about the role of GDF9 gene in sheep breeds of Pakistan. As Kajli sheep is well known meat type sheep breed of Punjab, Pakistan so, this study aimed to characterize the genetic variations and their association with litter size in Kajli sheep. A total of 80 adult female (> 2.5 years old ) animals belonging to Kajli sheep breed were randomly selected from the flock maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Khizerabad Sargodha. 5 ml blood sample was collected from each animal in a 15 ml falcon tube containing EDTA as an anticoagulant. A primer set reported by Barzegari et al. (2010) was used to amplify the exon-1 of GDF9 gene. Variation in PCR product was detected using RFLP technique. The outcomes of this study reported homozygosity for GDF9 exon 1 Hha1 SNP. From this study, it has been concluded that fecundity may depend on several other features such as season of lambing, age of ewe and nutrition or maybe there is/are some other major gene/s in Kajli sheep and there is a great need to explore some other genomic regions that might found with variants associated with litter size or multiple ovulation in Kajli sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2767-T] (1).

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