Genetic And Phenotypig Trends In Some Performance Traits Of Kajlli Sheep
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Kajli sheep is one of the native breeds and is found in the irrigated areas of central Punjab
(Districts of Sargodha, Khushab, Gujrat, Mandi Baha-ud-Din, and Mianwali). Kajli sheep is
mostly raised for mutton, wool and occasionally for milk production. Wide variation exists in
various production and reproduction traits of Kajli sheep which indicates a great scope of
improvement in these traits of economic importance. Any program of breed improvement is
based on maximum exploitation of genetic variation. The potential of genetic improvement
largely depends on genetic variation of the trait and its relationship with the other traits.
Knowledge of heritability, repeatability and correlations among various traits is essential for
formulating efficient breeding plan and selection strategies. Objective of this study is to evaluate
the performance of a purebred flock of Kajli sheep maintained at Livestock Experimental Station
Khushab and Livestock Experimental Station Khizrabad (Sargodha). Data on performance traits
as Birth weight, Weaning weight, Yearling weight and Greasy fleece weight from 1994 to 2009
were collected, An effort was made to determine the effect of all environmental and non genetic
factors on the performance of animals. For this purpose LSMLMW computer program was used.
The genetic parameters i.e., heritability, and phenotypic and genetic correlations among various
traits will be estimated. The breeding values for different traits were estimated for comparative
ranking of animals. Phenotypic and genetic trend lines were drawn to assess the selection success
in previous generations of Kajli sheep. These analyses were done using DFREML computer soft
ware which is s pecially designed for the estimation of variance components. The information so
generated will ultimately be helpful in developing future breeding plans for genetic improvement
of Kajli sheep in Pakistan. The birth and weaning weight in this flock averaged 4.16±0.0Ikg and
18.70±0.08 kg whereas yearling weight was 37.52±0.06 kg. The pre weaning average daily gain
was 142.34±0.83 gms. Birth weight varied significantly due to years, season, sex, type of birth
and flock. Data showed non- significant interaction between sex and type of birth. Analysis of
variance revealed significant effect of year of birth and season of birth on weaning weight.
However, the difference due to sex is non-significant. Type of birth and age of the dam were
significant. Effect of weaning age of the lambs on weaning weight was also significant, whereas,
birth weight had a non significant effect (P<0.05) on weaning weight. The variation in body
weight due to year, sex, and season of birth were significant (P<0.05).Whereas, effect of flock
and type of birth were non- significant. Weaning age of the lambs and birth weight had a non
significant (P<0.05) effect on yearling weight whereas weaning weights of the lambs had
significant effects on the trait under consideration. The analysis of variance revealed that year
and season of birth and birth type showed significant effect on pre weaning average daily gain
while sex had non-significant effect on the trait. The regressions of weaning weight and birth
weight on pre weaning average daily gain were significant (P<O.OI). The estimates of heritability
for birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, pre-weaning average daily weight gain, and
greasy fleece weight were 0.054±0.019, 0.069±0.016, 0.015±0.020, 0.056±0.016, and
0.170±0.060 respectively. The low heritability estimates indicated the presence of less additive
genetic variance and large environmental variance. Hence, improvement in the traits through
selection may be limited. The estimated breeding values for Khizerabad farm were, for birth
weight from -0.205 to 0.164 kgs in males. The corresponding values were from -0.149 to 0.180
kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.822
kgs in males and corresponding values were from -1.205 to 1.555 kgs in females. The breeding
value estimated for yearling weight was -0.152 to 0.285kg in males and -0.159 to 0.224kg in
females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.194 to 0.212 gms in
males and -0.174 to 2.00 gms in females, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.247 to 0.708 kgs
and -0.429 to 0.575 kgs in males and females respectively. The estimated breeding values for
Khushab farm were, for birth weight from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs in males. The corresponding
values were from -0.148 to 0.145 kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning
weight ranged from -1.478 to 0.284 kgs in males and corresponding values were from -0.976 to
1.923 kgs in females. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.198 to 0.176 in
males and -0.166 to 0.170 in females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate
was -0.281 to 0.195 gms in males and -0.205 to 0.148 gms in females, and for greasy fleece
weight it was -0.380 to 0.706 kgs and -0.267 to 0.590 kgs in males and females respectively. The
estimated breeding values for sire in Khizerabad farm were, for birth weight ranged from -0.169
to 0.164 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.694 kgs.
The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.151 to 0.285 kgs. The estimated
breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.190 to 0.212 gms, and for greasy fleece
weight it was -0.146 to 0.520 kgs. The estimated breeding values for sire in Khushab farm were,
for birth weight ranged from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning
weight ranged from -1.478 to 2.846 kgs. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -
0.198 to 0.176 kgs. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.281 to
0.195 gms, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.335 to 0.706 kgs. The genetic trends for birth
weight in Kajli sheep showed decreasing trend and phenotypic trend was fluctuating, whereas, the genetic
and phenotypic trend for weaning weight showed fluctuating trend. For yearling weight genetic and
phenotypic trend was also observed which show fluctuation, pre weaning growth rate also not statistic.
The phenotypic trend for greasy fleece yield showed little increasing trend.
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Identification Of Molecular Markers In Bmp15 Gene Of Different Pakistan Sheep And Goat Breeds
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Genetics of prolificacy in sheep and goat emphasize the importance of main genes which have been made known to affect litter size and rate of ovulation through various mechanisms. Natural mutations in prolific sheep and goat breeds have shown that the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) super family ligands such as bone morphogenetic protein 15 is crucial for ovulation and as well as for increasing litter size. Keeping in view the importance of prolificacy in sheep and goat, a research project was planed to identify the polymorphism, its association with fecundity and uncovering the nucleotide picture of BMP15 fecundity gene in sheep and goat breeds of Pakistan. In the research finding, various polymorphism, insertion and deletion of nucleotides in goat and sheep breeds of Pakistan were identified and associated with fecundity and secondly, some novel polymorphism in Pakistani goat and sheep breeds were identified which are different from the goat and sheep breeds of the world. This is the first report of the whole nucleotide of BMP15 gene in the sheep. A lot of work has been reported on these genes but total nucleotide picture in the sheep is not reported. Sequences of Bmp15 gene from sheep and goat breeds of Pakistan has been submitted to the NCBI GenBank database libraries,USA under accession numbers JN655669, JN655670, JN655671 and JN655672. It will result in fast vertical expansion of small ruminants to increase the mutton production and uplift the socio economic condition of small ruminant's farmers in the country.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1421,T] (1).
Clincal Cytogenetic Investications In Cattle & Buffalo Population Of Punjab For Chromosomal Abnormalities
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1439,T] (1).
Effect Of Yeast On Growth, Milk Yield And Its Composition In Beetal Goats
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: During last few years, rate of the use of yeast in dairy animals feed had greatly been increased. The use of live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in feed of ruminants and especially of goat is being used throughout the world. The effect of the live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in vitro and in vivo conditions may vary widely. Yea-Sacc1026 is a live yeast culture which consists of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 1026, a yeast strain specially selected for its influence on animal performance. Yea-Sacc1026 is ideal for beef, dairy, calf and equine feeds. In the present study, eighteen lactating Beetal goats each having approximately same body weight and age, were selected from the flock. These goats were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C of six animals in each group. All the animals were offered similar concentrate ration @ 500gm/day to meet their daily requirements. Alltech's product "Yea Sacc" was added in the concentrate ration of lactating Beetal goats. In group Aeach goat was fed @500 gm concentrate ration (without treated with Yea Sacc) per day. In group B each goat was fed @ 500gm concentrate ration (treated with Yea Sacc @ 1.5 gm/goat) per day. In group C each goat was fed @ 500gm concentrate ration (treated with Yea Sacc @3gm/goat) per day. The effects of Yea Sacc on milk production, milk quality, weight gain and dry matter intake were evaluated.The mean milk production of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 0.6417 ± 0.067, 0.8600 ± 0.066and 1.0267± 0.146litters, respectively. The analysis of variance of experimental groups was significant between groups. The mean milk fat percentage of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 4.3133± 0.004, 4.4417± 0.010 and 4.5900± 0.042 % respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between groups. The mean milk protein percentage of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 3.1167± 0.014, 3.2783± 0.012 and 3.2867± 0.003%, respectively. The analysis of variance of experimental group are non significant between treated groups. The mean milk lactose percentage of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were3.6083± 0.014, 3.6400± 0.006and 3.6583± 0.006%, respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between treated group and group A. The mean milk ash of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were0.5100± 0.004, 0.5300± 0.004and 0.5483± 0.014 %, respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between the treated groups and group A. The mean milk total solid of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 11.5483± 0.018, 11.8983± 0.013and 12.0750± 0.005%, respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between group A and group C. The mean weight gain of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 0.218 ± 0.010, 0.285 ± 0.031 and 0.442 ± 0.019 kg, respectively. The analysis of variance of experimental group were significant between the treated groups and group A while non significant between group A and group B. The mean dry matter intake of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were1.2133± 0.008, 1.2183± 0.012and 1.2383± 0.014%, respectively. In above experiment group C animals were fed 3 gm yeast had shown high milk production, fat %, protein %, lactose %, ash %, total solid %, weight (kg) and dry matter intake (kg) than other groups.
Data on milk yield, composition, growth rate and dry matter intake of Beetal goats were evaluated.
The data obtained was analysed through one way analysis of variances of (ANOVA) (Steel et al. 1997). The difference among treatment means were tested through least significance difference (L.S.D) (Steel et al, 1997).
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1527,T] (1).
Genetic Evaluation Of Teddy Goats In Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Data available on 20455 kidding and performance records of 5545 Teddy goats and progeny of 406 sires maintained as separate flocks at three different locations i,e (I) Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman, District Bakkhar (1983-2008) (II) Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Khariewala District Layyah (1971-2008) and (III) Livestock Experiment Station Chak Katora, District Bahawalpur (1975-2008) Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed for documenting both genetic and environmental sources which influence growth and reproductive traits. Breeding values of sires and does were estimated and genetic and phenotypic trends for various performance traits were drawn. The data was analyzed using the GLM procedure (General Linear Models) of the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS, 2004) to study the influence of environmental sources of variation on various growth and reproductive traits. The genetic parameter estimation was done using REML procedure fitting an Individual Animal Model. Estimates of breeding values for various performance traits were also calculated by using BLUP. For these purposes WOMBAT software was used.
The Least squares means for Age at first service, Age at first kidding, Weight at first service, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period, kidding interval, birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six months, weight at nine months, yearling weight, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six months, post-weaning daily gain at nine months and post-weaning daily gain at twelve months the least squares means were 245.65±0.73 days, 14.07±0.01 kg, 394.14±0.76 days, 18.06±0 kg, 1.24±0.004, 153.58±0.73 days, 327.53±1.12 days, 1.66±0.03 kg, 9.59±0.01 kg, 11.70±0.02 kg, 16.69±0.02 kg, 21.03±0.03 kg, 70.21±0.16 grams, 31.39±0.08 grams, 45.25±0.03 grams and 45.95±0.02 grams, respectively. The percentage of single births was 43 percent, while multiple births were 57 percent. The sex ratio was 51:49 males and females.
Year, sex, flock, and type of birth were main sources of variation on all the growth traits. The influence of season of birth was significant on yearling weight; however its effect on weight at six and nine months was non-significant. A significant influence of (p<0.01) birth and weaning weight was noticed on weight at 6, 9, 12 months and on post-weaning daily gain at 6,9 and 12 months. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, birth weight and weight at service were observed on age of does at first service, while the seasonal and flock effect on the trait was non-significant. The influential environmental sources of variation on weight of does at first service were year, season and age at first service(p<0.01). A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, season, type, age and weight at service on age and weight at first kidding was noticed. The influence of year of service, flock, age and weight at service on services per conception was significant (p<0.01); however, effect of season of service on the trait was non-significant. A highly significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season of service, services per conception and weight at service were observed on service period. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season on kidding interval was noticed. The effect of flock was non-significant on the trait, however, age and weight at kidding had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the service period and kidding interval.
The heritability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at twelve months, age at first service, weight at first service, age at first kidding, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.28±0.23, 0.23±0.32, 0.19±0.42, 0.09±0.01 and 0.12±0.01, 0.21±0.32, 0.17±0.42, 0.12±0.02, 0.15±0.01, 0.19±0.22, 0.21±0.01, 0.19±0.04, 0.20±0.04, 0.07±0.01, 0.06±0.05 and 0.05±0.03, respectively. The repeatability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.53±0.02, 0.38±0.01, 0.02±0.05, 0.01±0.04 and 0.05±0.03, respectively.
The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between birth weight and other growth traits were; weaning weight 0.61, 0.20 and 0.19, with weight at six months 0.39, 0.24 and 0.23, with weight at nine months 0.25, 0.38 and 0.36, with yearling weight 0.29, -0.01 and -0.02 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.55, 0.31 and 0.29, respectively, while corresponding values for correlations between weaning weight and other growth traits were; with weight at six months 0.29, 0.19 and 0.17, with weight at nine months 0.23, 0.27 and 0.25, with yearling weight 0.45, 0.29 and 0.27 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.97, 0.68 and 0.65, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at six months and other growth traits were; with weight at nine months 0.71, 0.27 and 0.25 with yearling weight 0.64, 0.21 and 0.19 and with pre-weaning daily gain were 0.31, 0.33, 0.31, respectively. The values for these correlations between weight at nine months and other traits were; with yearling weight 0.79, 0.23 and 0.21, with pre-weaning daily gain 0.25, 0.39 and 0.37, with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.72, 0.81 and 0.79, respectively, while the estimates of these three correlations between yearling weight and other traits were; with pre-weaning daily gain 0.47, 0.41 and 0.42 and with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.65, 0.10 and 0.08, while the corresponding values between pre-weaning daily gain and other traits were; with post-weaning gain at six months were 0.34, 0.15 and 0.13, with post-weaning gain at nine months 0.22, 0.13 and 0.12 and with post-weaning daily gain at twelve months were 0.54, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively.
The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between age at first serviceand other traits were; with weight at first service 0.22, 0.79 and 0.76, with age at first kidding 0.76, 0.97 and 0.91 and with weight at first kidding 0.34, 0.14 and 0.11, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at first service and other traits were; with age at first kidding 0.39, 0.81 and 0.80, with weight at first kidding 0.35, 0.22 and 0.21 and with weight at first kidding 0.82, 0.18 and 0.16, respectively.
Analysis of pedigree records for coefficient of inbreeding revealed that number of animals being 4465 (42.61 percent) with an average inbreeding of 2.43 percent and the highest level being 46.48 percent. The number of non-inbred animals was 6014 (57.39%). Out of the total of 406 sires used 23 were found inbred having an average inbreeding coefficient of 3.125 percent. Most frequent value for this category of animals was zero. The highest number of animals 1531 (14.61 percent) had an inbreeding percentage between 0.1 to 3.125, while only 104 animals (0.99 percent) were found with inbreeding of more than 25 percent. Most of the growth traits were statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds except yearling weight and post-weaning weight gain at twelve months, in which the means of both the traits were similar in both the groups. Among reproductive traits, age at first serviceand kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were also statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds, while weight at first service and kidding interval were similar in both the groups.
The ranges for estimated breeding values for different traits were, birth weight (-0.18 to 0.08 kg), weaning weight (-0.61 to 0.40 kg), weight at six months (-0.27 to 0.11 kg), weight at nine months, (-0.07 to 0.09 kg), yearling weight (-0.12 to 0.18 kg), pre-weaning daily gain (-0.30 to 1.20 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 6 months (-0.74 to 1.27 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 9 months (-0.32 to 0.57 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 12 months (-1.08 to 1.57 grams), age at first service(-43.23 to 58.06 days), weight at first service (-0.55 to 1.07 kg), age at first kidding (-53.31 to 48.34 days), weight at first kidding (-1.19 to 3.50 kg), services per conception (-0.18 to 0.16), service period (-7.07 to 9.80 days) and kidding interval (-13.23 to 20.89 days), respectively. The genetic trend in both birth weight and weaning weight showed an increasing trend during the period of study, while the genetic trend in weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months had no significant trend and fluctuated in the vicinity of zero.
It is envisaged from the present study that over the 34 years period selection remained ineffective to bring the desired changes and it will remain so if random use of breeding animals is practiced. The possible use of ineffective selection could be unavailability of efficient techniques for the evaluation of animals and incorrect performance recording etc. It is therefore, necessary to correct all these discrepancies by taking corrective measures as discussed above. The following corrective measures may be a first step towards a goal oriented breeding policy.
1. The animals kept mainly for producing meat, the single most important factor is reproductive rate, which contributes to the efficiency of production (Shelton 1978). The most striking feature of sheep and goat enterprise is the ability to breed, off-season. Teddy goat is a non-seasonal breeder as kidding was observed throughout year with 36%, 19%, 25% and 20% kiddings recorded during spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively, therefore a controlled breeding programme being practiced at times (as was observed during the present study at all the three stations) should not be advocated in any form at all and the desirable trait of non-seasonality should be the main pillar of a meat goat enterprise.
2. Although a higher percentage of abortions (70%) was observed in summer months but the percentage of dead births and mortality was almost equally distributed throughout the year, which indicates that better management of the flock during extremes of weather will results in less abortions and reduced mortality.
3. The high percentage of multiple births (57%) as against single births (43%) in teddy goats found in present study has backing of several studies, which showed that although there was slow growth rate in multiple births, yet they performed better by producing more total weight of kid weaned. Therefore prolificacy becomes a very important reproductive criteria and therefore emphasis should be selection of those animals with higher percentage of multiple births.
4. Environmental effects on productive and reproductive traits were significant; therefore through better management there are ample chances of improvement in these traits.
5. Low to medium heritability was recorded in all the growth traits, which offers scope for genetic selection.
6. Selection of animals to be the parents of future flock must be based on EBVs of growth traits.
7. Reproductive performance in present study was more than satisfactory. Early maturity which has been the main characteristic of Teddy breed was better as compared to many other breeds of the tropics (Beetal, Kamori, Jamunapari and Sirohi). Teddy goats were efficient than other breeds of the region when the means of the other reproductive traits like services per conception, service period and kidding interval were taken into consideration, however, room for improvement is still there.
8. Inbreeding in present study showed some increasing trend during the last five years and the percentage of animals kept on increasing during the last decade, therefore to control inbreeding a breeding plan with introduction of new blood from time to time is of utmost importance.
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Phenotypic And Genetic Aspects Of Some Performance Traits Of Buchi Sheep In Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1598,T] (1).
Detection of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) Gene Polymorphism in Native Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck Chicken Breeds in Pakistan.
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Growth traits in chicken production system have an important role. Molecular analysis is an easier mean to identify desirable genotypes for growth. Candidate gene (s) for growth trait like insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has imperative function for growth, body composition, metabolic and skeletal traits. The polymorphism of Insulin-like growth factor-1 was detected in native Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck chicken breeds of Pakistan. Fifty, fifty birds of Aseel and Naked Neck breed were selected from Indigenous chicken genetic resource center, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS, Lahore, Ravi Campus. While Desi birds were procured from conventional production farm for genetic analysis. Insulin-like growth factor-1 plays very important role in the cell growth, cell differentiation, food intake of cells and have role in overall body growth, this is why it is being used as a marker to study traits like growth. The polymorphism of IGF-I gene was detected by PCR-RFLP-Pst-Iand this revealed two alleles A (364 and 257 bp), B (621 bp),and three genotypes AA, AB, BB.Genotypic data was analyzed with the help of Pop-gene 1.32 software to calculate genotypic and allelic frequencies. GenotypeAB had the highest frequency in all three native breeds. Genotypic frequency of AA, AB and BB in Aseel was 20, 66 and 14% and in Desi it was 12, 64 and 24 % respectively. While in Naked Neck genotypic frequencies of AA, AB and BB were 18, 60 and 22 %. The highest frequency of allele A (0.53) was found in Aseel while highest frequency of Allele B (0.56) was found in Desi. Genotypic frequency of heterozygotes was highest in all three native breeds i.e. 66, 64 and 60 % in Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck respectively. As the frequency of heterozygotes is significantly higher in all three breeds, so all these native breeds have potential to improve through selection.Furtherstudies are needed to link these polymorphisms with performance traits and then using
that information in future breeding plans for high producing individuals would be very helpful for animal breeder in marker assisted selection (MAS). As Aseel carried highest frequency of allele A so, it can be reared for selective breeding program especially for meat type line development in Pakistan.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1637,T] (1).
Phenotypic Characterization Of Two Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes Of Pakistan
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Poultry is the second largest industry of Pakistan and a significant proportion of poultry products (meat and eggs) originates from the rural poultry production system which is an important source of livelihood for about 80% of the rural households in Pakistan. The quest for greater production through the use of exotic breeds has created difficulties for backyard production systems and is dangerous on economic, social and scientific grounds. This practice is also resulting in rapid erosion of indigenous genetic resources.
The commercial sector itself may require access to indigenous genotypes as its genetic base is quite narrow and for catering the future needs industry may require improvement in many other characteristics (for instance, adaptability and disease resistance) in addition to just egg and meat yield enhancement. Unfortunately, in many countries the indigenous breeds have not been studied for their potential uses and benefits and have been indiscriminately cross bred with exotic breeds. Therefore, it is crucial to study and characterize the indigenous breeds and generate necessary information to be used in future to reap maximum benefits. The generated knowledge would provide useful information essential for conservation of indigenous genetic resources.
The knowledge about the morphological attributes of native chickens has not been adequately documented on technical and scientific grounds. Keeping this in view the present study was planned and data on qualitative and quantitative traits regarding the morphology were collected on Aseel and Naked-neck chickens using a specially designed performa.All recorded data were entered in MS Excel 2010 spreadsheets. The qualitative parameters were expressed as percentages and quantitative parameters were expressed as mean ± standard error.
A great variation in plumage colors and patterns was observed in both Aseel and Naked-neck chickens. The Aseel chickens possessed a pea comb whereas Naked-neck chickens possessed single comb. Also it was interesting to note that about 10% of Aseel hens possessed spurs however spurs were absent in Naked-neck females. On the basis of quantitative traits,it was found that the Naked neck chickens were smaller in size than the Aseel chickens regarding body weight (Aseel: 1938.7±36.9 g in females and 2317±98.4 g in males; Naked neck: 1160.4±19.3 g in females and 1415±22.2 in males), shank length (Aseel: 8.1±0.1 cm in females and 10.3±0.1 cm in males; Naked neck: 7.5±0.05 cm in females and 8.6±0.1 cm in males), shank circumference (Aseel: 44.2±0.5 mm in females and 52.4±1.1 mm in males; Naked neck: 36.5±0.7 mm in females and 41.4±0.5 mm in males), and keel length (Aseel: 15.1±0.1 cm in females and 16.0±0.2 cm in males; Naked-neck: 14.1±0.2 cm in females and 14.7±0.1 cm in males).
The information about indigenous Aseel and Naked-neck chickens documented in the present study can be used as reference in future for conservation and breed improvement programs.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1679,T] (1).
Characterization Of Linear Type Traits In Nili Rivei Buffaloes Of Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The present study on conformation recording of Nili Ravi buffaloes was planned because there was lack of studies on this aspect of Nili Ravi buffaloes. The main objective of the study was to document and characterize linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes so that the buffaloes with proper body characteristics could be identified for selection and breeding programs. Nili Ravi buffalo herds maintained at Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey, Pattoki, distt. Kasur, Livestock Experiment Station, Chack Katora distt. Bahawalpur, Livestock Experiment Station Haroonabad distt. Bahawalnagar, Livestock Experiment Station Khushab, distt. Khushab, Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman distt. Bhakhar and some private breeders were utilized in this study.
The guidelines for conformational recording of dairy cattle provided by the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) were followed in this study. A total of 437 milking buffaloes were scored for linear type traits on a scale of 1-9. First scoring was performed within 15 to 90 days of calving and then each after about 90 days interval.
Genetic parameters viz. heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluation techniques. Influencing factors such as age of the buffalo at scoring, stage of lactation, parity, herd and season of scoring were included in the model. Individual Animal Model was fitted under Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Procedure. Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems. Genetic parameters were estimated fitting an Individual Animal Model using the ASREML set of computer programs.
A total of 1180 records on different linear type traits and body measurements were generated over a scoring period of 2 years. Most of the average values for linear type traits were seen to fall under the intermediate category of 4-6. The means±SD for different linear type traits were found as 5.07±1.35, 5.23±2.35, 5.41±1.45, 5.76±0.98, 6.73±1.53, 4.91±1.85, 4.99±0.88, 4.99±0.90, 5.39±2.13, 4.78±1.1, 5.36±1.56, 4.91±1.84, 5.76±1.67, 3.58±0.88, 5.66±2.24, 6.42±0.88, 4.88±0.69, 4.92±1.08, 4.87±0.84, 5.34±1.79, 4.76±1.78, 5.97±0.94, 5.04±2.488, 5.15±1.65 and 6.44±1.03 for stature, chest width, body depth, angularity, rump angle, rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle , fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement, locomotion, body condition score, top line, bone structure, rear udder width, udder balance, teat thickness, thurl width, and temperament, respectively.
A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits (P< 0.0001). Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits. Parity was observed as a highly significant source of variation for some of the body traits including stature, body depth, body condition score and bone structure. However most of the udder related traits were affected by this factor. A non significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, central ligament, locomotion, top line, udder balance, thurl width and temperament. A highly significant effect of season of scoring was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, locomotion and thurl width among body traits. However, stature, body depth, body condition score, top line, bone structure and temperament were not affected by season of scoring. Udder conformation traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, rear udder width, and udder balance were affected by the season of scoring, however rest of the udder traits including udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement and teat thickness were not significantly different in different seasons.
Significant linear effect of age of the buffalo at scoring was seen on most of the linear type traits. including stature, body depth, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length, body condition score, bone structure, rear udder width, teat thickness and thurl width. However, chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, top line, udder balance and temperament were not affected by linear effect of age. Quadratic effect of age was found as significant on most of the linear type traits except chest width, angularity, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, udder balance and temperament.
Univariate heritability estimates of linear type traits were observed as for stature, 0.36±0.092; chest width, 0.10±0.081; body depth, 0.32±0.081; angularity, 0.06±0.071; rump angle, 0.15±0.071; rump width, 0.38±0.092; rear legs set, 0.02±0.07; rear legs rear view, 0.08±0.07; foot angle, 0.09±0.07; fore udder attachment, 0.21±0.07; rear udder height, 0.09±0.07; central ligament, 0.09±0.09; udder depth, 0.10±0.091; front teat placement, 0.11±0.091; teat length, 0.08±0.091; rear teat placement, 0.11±0.081; locomotion, 0.06±0.06; body condition score, 0.14±0.091; top line, 0.03±0.05; bone structure, 0.09±0.09; rear udder width, 0.15±0.09;
udder balance, 0.16±0.07; teat thickness, 0.22±0.091; thurl width, 0.31±0.09 and temperament, 0.14±0.07, respectively.
Some important positive phenotypic correlations of linear type traits with 305 days milk yield were observed as 0.18±0.04 for body depth, 0.15±0.04 for rump angle, 0.13±0.04 for rump width, 0.30±0.04 for rear udder height, 0.43±0.03 for central ligament, 0.16±0.03 for rear teat placement and 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width. Rest of the phenotypic correlations were very low. Considerable negative phenotypic correlations included -0.16±035 for body condition score, -0.15±0.04 for top line, -0.16±0.03 for front teat placement, -0.14±0.04 for udder depth and -0.26±0.04 for fore udder attachment.
Most of the linear type traits showed positive but low genetic correlation with 305 days milk yield including 0.140±0.0001 with stature, 0.210±0.0001 with body depth, 0.11±0.0001 with rump angle, 0.19±0.0002 with rump width, 0.14±0.0001 with rear udder height, 0.20±0.000001 with central ligament, 0.14±0.0000001 with rear teat placement, 0.13±0.0001 with rear udder width, 0.14±0.0000001 with udder balance, 0.09±0.0001 with thurl width and 0.12±0.0000001 with temperament.
Phenotypic and genetic correlations of most the linear type traits with score day milk yield were generally higher than with 305 days milk yield. Phenotypic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.09±0.03 for stature, -0.21±0.03 for chest width, -0.05±0.04 for body depth, -0.17±0.03 for angularity, -0.12±0.03 for rump angle, -0.16±0.05 for rump width, -0.32±0.03 for rear legs set, -0.16±0.04 for rear legs rear view, -0.22±0.03 for foot angle, -0.34±0.03 for fore udder attachment, -0.16±0.04 for rear udder height, -0.16±0.04 for central ligament, -0.25±0.03 for udder depth, 0.06±0.04 for front teat placement, 0.008±0.03 for teat length, -0.19±0.04 for rear teat placement, -0.15±0.04 for locomotion, -0.22±0.03 for body condition score, -0.35±0.03 for top line, -0.08±0.04 for bone structure, -0.17±0.05 for rear udder width, -0.18±0.04 for udder balance, -0.20±0.03 for teat thickness, -0.11±0.04 for thurl width and -0.11±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Genetic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.57±0.05 for stature, 0.09±0.02 for chest width, 0.31±0.04 for body depth, 0.06±0.02 for angularity, 0.15±0.03 for rump angle, 0.30±0.05 for rump width, 0.04±0.02 for rear legs set, 0.06±0.01 for rear legs rear view, 0.06±0.02 for foot angle, 0.10±0.02 for fore udder attachment, 0.18±0.03 for rear udder height, 0.12±0.02 for central ligament, 0.18±0.02 for udder depth, 0.60±0.06 for front teat placement, 0.23±0.03 for teat length, 0.07±0.01 for rear teat placement, 0.021±0.02 for locomotion, 0.12±0.02 for body condition score, 0.08±0.02 for top line, 0.08±0.03 for bone structure, 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width, 0.19±0.03 for udder balance, 0.095±0.02 for teat thickness, 0.12±0.02 for thurl width and 0.27±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Among body measurements, head related measurements included head length, horn diameter at base, length and width of ear and poll width and their average values were found as 54.13±3.48, 18.65±2.06, 29.5±2.12 and 18.66±1.22, and 30.95±2.35 cm, respectively. Average values for neck length and neck circumference were observed as 53.32±4.56 and 95.77±8.58 cm, respectively.
The height and length of body was measured at different body points and average values were found as 139.56±6.29 cm for horizontal body length, 154.01±7.61 cm for diagonal body length, 135.77±4.4 cm for height at sacrum, 132.04±4.57 cm for height at withers, 130.77±4.61 cm for height at 6th rib position, 126.34±4.51 cm for height at last rib position, 128.89±4.83 cm for height at hook bone and 118.81±4.45 cm for height at pin bone.
The average values for heart girth, paunch girth, sprung at 6th rib position and sprung at last rib position were resulted as 194.46±10.31, 238.52±13.96, 45.15±4.48 and 68.72±5.2 cm, respectively. Mean estimates for top wedge area, front wedge area and side wedge area were obtained as 3152.79±309.53, 1030.17±136.34 and 3105.07±345.26 cm2, respectively. The length of tail and its diameter at base was measured and its value averaged 103.51±12.55 and 22.41±2.005 cm, respectively. Average values of skin thickness at neck, ribs, belly and tail region were found as 4.16±1.16, 5.85±1.36, 7.34±1.49 and 1.71±0.55 mm, respectively. Mean values for some other traits included 43.52±2.582 cm for rump length, 3.12±0.56 cm for heel depth and 523.13±81.63 kg for body weight. It was observed that herd was a significant source of variation for all body measurement traits. Age of the buffalo at classification was a significant source of variation for all of the body measurements except horn diameter at base, poll width, tail length, skin thickness at tail and height at hook bone.
Most of the body measurements have been found to be lowly to moderately heritable in the current study. Heritability estimates for various body measurements were observed as 0.16±0.09 for horn diameter at base, 0.38±0.04 for ear length, 0.06±0.09 for ear width, 0.25±0.091 for head length, 0.14±0.09 for poll width, 0.03±0.06 for neck circumference, 0.05±0.07 for neck length, 0.05±0.09 for body length, 0.05±0.09 for diagonal body length, 0.41±0.09 for tail length, 0.28±0.091 for tail diameter at base, 0.04±0.09 for skin thickness at neck, 0.02±0.09 for skin thickness at ribs, 0.10±0.09 for skin thickness at belly, 0.07±0.08 for skin thickness at tail, 0.11±0.09 for height at sacrum, 0.28±0.09 for height at withers, 0.22±0.092 for height at 6th rib position, 0.25±0.092 for height at last rib position, 0.18±0.091 for height at hook bone, 0.07±0.08 for height at pin bone, 0.04±0.06 for sprung at 6th rib position, 0.07±0.06 for sprung at last rib position, 0.13±0.09 for heart girth, 0.05±0.09 for paunch girth, 0.11±0.09 for top wedge area, 0.05±0.06 for front wedge area, 0.16±0.07 for side wedge area, 0.13±0.08 for rump length, 0.02±0.06 for heel depth and 0.33±0.07 for body weight.
Phenotypic correlations of 305 days milk yield with various body measurements were in low range. Positive phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.02±0.04 for sprung at 6th rib position to 0.17±0.05 for ear length. Some of the important body measurements have positive phenotypic correlation with 305 days milk yield as 0.15±0.04 for head length, 0.04±0.04 for diagonal body length, 0.04±0.02 for height at withers, 0.11±0.03 for height at sacrum, 0.11±0.04 for sprung at last rib position, 0.04±0.04 for heart girth, 0.08±0.03 for rump length and 0.07±0.03 for body weight. Negative phenotypic correlations with 305 days milk yield ranged from -0.03±0.03 for side wedge area to -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base. Some important negative phenotypic correlations included -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base, -0.04±0.04 for neck circumference, -0.12±0.03 for skin thickness at neck and -0.08±0.03 for front wedge area.
Positive phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included 0.09±0.05 for body weight, 0.07±0.002 for rump length, 0.09±0.003 for sprung at last rib position, 0.09±0.005 for height at hook bone, 0.08±0.02 for height at sacrum. Rest of all the traits were low in correlation with milk yield. Negative phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included horn diameter at base as -0.15±0.02 and heel depth as -0.13±0.04. Rest of all negative phenotypic correlations were very low.
Positive genetic correlations of 305 days milk yield varied from 0.02±0.002 for ear width to 0.23±0.02 for side wedge area. Some important body measurements have positive genetic correlation values as 0.121±0.000001 for head length, 0.162±0.000001 for diagonal body length, 0.080±0.000001 for height at withers, 0.15±0.000001 for height at sacrum, 0.15±0.000001 for sprung at last rib position, 0.14±0.0005 for heart girth and 0.16±0.007 for body weight. Negative genetic correlation for this trait was observed only for skin thickness at neck region as -0.16±0001.
About 40 traits regarding udder and teat measurements before and after milking were analysed. Average values for udder length, width, height, depth and circumference before milking were found as 52.65±6.87, 53.52±6.19, 54.34±4.99, 18.76±3.87, and 77.05±11.69 cm, respectively while the corresponding values for the same traits after milking were found as 47.08±6.57, 48.15±5.79, 55.39±5.15, 18.11±4.11 and 67.04±8.11 cm, respectively. Teat impression distances between front teats, rear teats, fore and rear teats from right side and fore and rear teats from left side were found as 12.46±3.01, 7.01±1.91, 8.08±1.8 and 7.71±1.75 cm, respectively. Pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics were found as 12.93±3.12 and 11.71±2.83 cm for distance between front teats; 7.48±1.93 and 6.61±1.58 cm for distance between hind teats; 8.34±1.91 and 7.54±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 8.004±1.95 and 7.17±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 10.19±2.17 and 9.057±1.50 for diameter of fore right teat; 10.92±2.45 and 9.611±1.66 cm for diameter of rear right teat; 10.33±2.11 and 9.33±1.45 cm for diameter of fore left teat; 11.25±2.54 and 9.937±1.76 cm for diameter of rear left teat; 10.71±2.63 and 11.2±2.39 cm, for teat length of fore right teat; 13.05±3.27 and 13.13±3.03 for teat length of rear right teat; 11.09±2.71 and 11.88±2.61 cm for teat length fore left teat and 13.75±3.04 and 14.47±2.99 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
All of the udder conformation traits before and after milking were highly significantly different in different herds (P<0.0001). Stage of lactation was found to be highly significant source of variation (P<0.0001) for before milking udder length, before milking udder height, average before milking udder circumference, after milking udder length, after milking average udder circumference, teat impression distance between fore, between rear and between fore and rear teats on both sides. However, before milking average udder width, before milking udder depth, after milking average udder width, after milking udder height and after milking udder depth were not affected by this factor.
All of the above mentioned traits were significantly affected by parity except after milking udder depth and teat impression distance between fore teats and between rear teats.
Season of scoring significantly affected before milking udder length (P<0.01), before milking average udder width (P<0.05), before milking average udder circumference (P<0.01), after milking average udder width (P<0.01), after milking average udder circumference (P<0.0001), teat impression distance between fore and hind teats of left side (P<0.05). Rest of all the traits were not significantly different in different seasons.
Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by linear and quadratic effect of age of the buffalo at classification. Herd was a significant source of variation for all teat related traits recorded at pre stimulation before milking time. Stage of lactation significantly affected pre stimulation distance between front teats, pre stimulation distance between hind teats, pre stimulation distance between fore and hind teats on right and left side, pre stimulation diameter of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of rear right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore left and rear left teat. However, pre stimulation diameter of rear right teat, pre stimulation diameter of fore left teat and pre stimulation diameter of rear left teat were not affected by this factor. All of these parameters were affected by parity except pre stimulation distance between hind teats and pre stimulation teat length of fore left teat. Similarly all of these traits were affected by season of scoring except pre stimulation distance between fore, between hind, between right and between left teats.
All of teat characteristics after milking were significantly affected by herd. Stage of lactation significantly affected after milking distance between fore and hind teats of right side (P<0.05), after milking teat length of fore right and rear right teat (P<0.01), after milking teat length of fore left teat (P<0.05) and rear left teat (P<0.0001). Rest of all traits after milking were not affected by stage of lactation. Most of the teat parameters after milking were significantly affected by parity except after milking distance between front and between rear teats, after milking teat length of rear right teat and after milking teat length of fore left teat. Distances among teats after milking and after milking diameter of rear left teat were not significantly affected by season. Rest of all traits were significantly affected by this factor.
Heritability estimates for before milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference were found as 0.08±0.07, 0.22±0.08, 0.22±0.09, 0.05±0.06 and 0.21±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values after milking for these traits were observed as 0.14±0.07, 0.20±0.08, 0.09±0.08, 0.02±0.08 and 0.09±0.07, respectively.
Heritability estimates for before milking and after milking teat characteristics were found as 0.11±0.09 and 0.15±0.09 for distance between front teats; 0.03±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for distance between hind teats; 0.32±0.09 and 0.06±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.16±0.08 and 00.09±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.21±0.08 and 0.11±0.08 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.05±0.05 and 0.02±0.05 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.19±0.08 and 0.25±0.09 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.07±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.12±0.06 and 0.08±0.06 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.02±0.05 and 0.11±0.07 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.29±0.09 and 0.29±0.092 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.14±0.08 and 0.08±0.07 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.29±0.04 and 0.18±0.04; 0.30±0.04 and 0.33±0.04; -0.26±0.03 and -0.20±0.03; 0.07±0.04 and 0.06±0.05 and 0.18±0.04 and 0.14±0.04, respectively. Corresponding values in the same order for genetic correlations were observed as 0.17±0.0002 and 0.21±0.0003; 0.33±0.0002 and 0.19±0.0003; -0.29±0003 and -0.34±0003; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 and 0.28±0.0004 and 0.23±0.0003, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with score day milk yield were found as 0.29±0.03 and -0.18±0.02; -0.32±0.02 and 0.17±0.01, -0.38±0.001 and -0.20±0.002, 0.28±0.01 and -0.04±0.04 and 0.21±0.04 and -0.15±0.04, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.19±0.03 and 0.07±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.20±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.21±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.18±0.03 and 0.18±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.07±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.04±0.03 and 0.14±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.03±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.02±0.04 and 0.20±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.24±0.03 and 0.28±0.03, for teat length of fore right teat; -0.13±0.03 and -0.009±0.04 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.01±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and 0.06±0.03 and 0.22±0.03 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.22±0.0002 and 0.12±0.0003 for distance between front teats; 0.26±0.0001 and 0.13±0.0001 for distance between hind teats; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.09±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.11±0.0001 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.09±0.0002 and 0.16±0.0001 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.080±0.00001 and 0.11±0.0001 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.07±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0002 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.003±0.000001 and 0.003±0.0003 for teat length fore left teat and 0.003±0.000001 and 0.002±0.0002 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as -0.37±0.02 and -0.48±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.06±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.03±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.03±0.039 and 0.08±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; -0.33±0.03 and -0.16±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.46±0.03 and -0.26±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.41±0.03 and -0.24±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.30±0.03 and -0.28±0.04 for diameter of rear left teat; -0.43±0.03 and -0.49±0.03 for teat length of fore right teat; -0.36±0.02 and -0.47±0.02 for teat length of rear right teat; -0.41±0.034 and -0.43±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and -0.28±0.021 and -0.53±0.02 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for before and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as 0.13±0.016 and 0.15±0.02 for distance between front teats; 0.30±0.04 and 0.40±0.05 for distance between hind teats; 0.19±0.05 and 0.38±0.05 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.32±0.06 and 0.44±0.06 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.22±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.16±0.02 and 0.23±0.03 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.15±0.02 and 0.22±0.03 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.11±0.02 and 0.24±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.19±0.02 and 0.17±0.02 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.075±0.01 and 0.07±0.01 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.27±0.029 and 0.27±0.03 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.10±0.01 and 0.08±0.01 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Least squares means for various performance traits were found as 7.02±2.46 for score day milk yield, 1801.61±624.59 for lactation milk yield, 2074.1±360.85 for 305 days milk yield, 2149.09±680.59 for best milk yield, 272±69 for lactation length, 408.553±203.63 for preceeding dry period, 1762.05±305.97 for age at first calving, 477.68±64.53 for weight at first calving, 110±33 for age at scoring in months, 523.133±81.63 for weight at scoring in Kg.
Most of the phenotypic studies on Nili Ravi breed are limited to recording only few body measurements. In order to explore the physical features of this breed, linear scoring system needs to be adopted which is based on measurement of certain specific parts of body as per international standards according to the ICAR guidelines. However, some of the linear scores developed for dairy cattle breeds do not fit for this breed and harmonization of certain trait definitions is needed even for the linear score system for this breed. The following points are important regarding linear scoring system for Nili Ravi buffaloes:
" In case of rump angle, the score ranging as 1-3 which refers to higher pin bone than hook bone is not present in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for central ligament ranging as 1-3 which refers to convex floor of udder has not been observed in this breed. The position of front teat placement as inside of quarter scoring as 7-9 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The position of rear teat placement as outside of quarter scoring as 1-3 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for top line ranging as 8-9 which represents a back bent upwards has not been observed in this breed. The score of 1 and 2 which represents a rear udder deeper than the fore udder has also not been observed in the present study. A higher temperament score indicates that buffaloes tend to be excited especially at the time of milking and handling. This behaviour of buffaloes needs to be improved through selection and breeding.
" A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits. Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length and rear udder width. Most of the udder related traits were affected by parity such as fore udder attachment, rear udder height, udder depth, teat length, rear udder width and teat thickness. significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, top line, thurl width, and temperament.
" Initiation of conformation recording in public and private sector and use of selective and planned breeding will be helpful for the improvement in milk yield and to bring uniformity in body features of Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Scoring in first parity should be adopted as in later parities adjustment for age and parity will be needed.
" Differences among herds for most of the traits suggest that performance can be improved by exploiting genetic potential through selection and breeding. Heritability estimates for most of the linear type traits were found as higher than the reported values available in literature. The reasons might be due to species differences and relatively small data set as well as incomplete pedigree records. Even then the results might be considered for inclusion of some of the linear type traits in selection programs. Keeping in view that this is a preliminary study on genetic aspects of linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes, further studies and research with larger data set is needed to explore linear type traits and to validate the findings of the current study.
" A positive genetic correlation of stature with milk yield suggest that taller and heavier buffaloes produced more milk and selection for taller buffaloes may result in improved milk yield but the efficiency of milk yield must be studied before making indirect selection for milk yield through stature. Negative phenotypic correlation of chest width with score day milk yield suggested that buffaloes with wider chest are relatively less efficient in milk production. Further studies are needed with larger data set to verify the results. A considerable positive genetic correlation between body depth and milk yield suggest that body depth may be considered for indirect selection of higher milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Considerable genetic correlation with milk yield suggest that rump width is important in this breed of buffaloes and can be used for indirect selection for improved milk yield. A considerable negative phenotypic correlation of fore udder attachment with milk yield is important however negligible genetic correlation suggest that fore udder attachment is independent of milk producing genes and separate selection for each trait should be considered keeping in view heritability of the trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder height with milk yield suggested that selection for this trait might be helpful for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Genetic correlation of teat length with score day milk yield is considerable in the current study but very low with 305 days milk yield. The findings of current study suggested that rear teat placemen has a considerable genetic correlation with milk yield and can be used for indirect selection for better milk yield. The results of current study are not in agreement with most of the reports in the literature regarding correlation of BCS with milk yield. Further research is needed to verify positive genetic correlation of BCS with milk yield before using BCS as selection criterion for milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Due to negative phenotypic correlation of body condition score with milk yield, an optimal score of below average ranging from 4 to 5 may be recommended. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder width with milk yield suggested that some of the same genes are controlling milk yield and rear udder width and indirect selection for improved milk yield is possible through selection for rear udder width in Nili Ravi buffaloes. This genetic correlation with milk yield is considerable but further studies are needed before the udder balance could be included for selection program in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Current study indicated that teat thickness is not genetically important with negligible correlation with milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes but negative phenotypic correlation is considerable and buffaloes with thinner teats are suitable for more milk production. A low but positive genetic correlation of thurl width with milk yield provides a scope for further studies to explore this trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Further studies are needed with relatively larger data set to explore temperament and verify its relationship with milk yield in this breed of buffaloes. Generally, the least squares means for most of the body measurements were found in the normal range and were in agreement with most of the reports in literature.
" Comparatively higher body weight was observed than the reports available for Nili Ravi buffaloes. One of the reason for this might be relatively better supply of feed and fodder during the course of study and also the records pertaining to 3rd and latter parities were more in number than the records on younger buffaloes. The top and side wedge area are almost similar with less variation showing that Nili Ravi buffaloes are relatively more wedge shaped.
" Most of the body measurements were affected by the herd and age factors but the effect of parity, stage of lactation and season of scoring was variable for different traits and showed not very clear trend. Body weight was affected by all the factors studied in the current investigation. Most of the body measurements have been found to be moderately to highly heritable in the current study. Overall range of heritability estimates for body measurements was found as 0.08±0.09 to 0.92±0.00.
" Skin thickness has been found under the genetic control and can be improved through selection and breeding keeping in view its importance and demand in the leather industry and also its correlation with milk yield.
" Diagonal body length in the current study has shown a low but positive genetic correlation with milk yield and this trait might be considered in the selection program for Nili Ravi buffaloes. The negative genetic correlation of skin thickness in the neck region with 305 days milk yield is important and advocates the thinking of farmers about the negative correlation of skin thickness with milk yield. Genetic correlation of heart girth with milk yield although not very high but seems to be important and can be considered for indirect selection for milk yield through heart girth measurement. A reasonable genetic correlation of body weight with milk yield suggested that this trait should be considered in the selection program for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Udder colour has not been found important. Buffaloes with pendulous udders have produced more milk. The possible reason for this more milk is that such buffaloes were recorded in latter parities and age of those buffaloes was high and the size of their udder was large. The frequency of buffaloes with such type of udder is only 8%. Buffaloes with such type of pendulous udders are more prone to udder and teat injuries and mastitis and their life time production is less. Thick and lengthy teats have been observed in this breed and the reason might be due to hand milking and direct suckling of cows by the calves.
" Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by herd, parity, stage of lactation and age of the buffaloes at classification. Most of the udder measurements have been found highly heritable and this provides a good scope for improvement of these traits through selection and breeding. A general decrease in the distance between fore, rear and fore and rear teats on both sides was observed after milking. This indicated that the distance measured after milking was a good indicator of actual distance between teats of this breed irrespective of stage of lactation. Udder length, width, udder circumference and height either recorded before milking or after milking have been found genetically correlated with milk yield and they should be considered for selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A reasonable positive genetic correlation of distance between fore and between rear teats suggested that this distance is important for milk yield and should be considered for selection in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The results of present study suggest that teat diameter is not genetically much important for milk yield and the reason of thick teats is due to hand milking and direct suckling by the calves.
" Teat distance between front teat, between rear teat, diameter of fore right and rear right teat and teat length of fore right teat have shown low but not negligible genetic correlations with milk yield and should be given some importance in making selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Brown colour buffaloes have not been observed in this study because such animals at Govt. livestock farms are culled at an early age, however farmers think that such type of buffaloes are better milk yielder and they like and demand such animals, development and conservation of these animals is advocated at experimental level to study their potential.
" Further research is needed to evaluate visual image analysis system as a tool for quick and more accurate conformation recording.
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Comparative Productive And Reproductive Performance Of Beetal Goats In Accelerated And Annual Kidding Systems
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Three kiddings in two years or five kiddings in three years refers as accelerated kidding which is helpful to have more kids, helps to fetch higher market prices during off-season. This can also increase life time production in the form of meat, milk and fiber. High reproduction rate is the basiccondition to increase efficiency of production. Most of the goats do not follow seasonal breeding pattern and breed round the year resulting in management problems and high mortality during severe weather conditions. Accelerated kidding strategy is a viable option that affects the health and fertility of the flock. In the present investigation, three experiments were conducted at Small Ruminant Training and Research Centre (SRT&RC) Ravi Campus Pattoki, UVAS, Lahore. The experiment-I was about the initiation of estrus activity in anestrus Beetal goats during low breeding season. Twenty Beetal goats were selected from the existing flock, maintained at SRT&RC. These goats were divided randomly into 4 groups i.e. A, B, C and D having 5 animals in each group. Group A was treated as negative control by offering only green fodder, group B was provided flushing ration along with green fodder (control), group C was kept on green fodder along with hormone therapy of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and prostagladin (PGF2?) while group D was provided with green fodder, flushing ration (600 gms/animal) and hormone therapy by providing GnRH and PGF2?. Hundred percent estrus induction was achieved in group B, C and D as compared to group A. The results revealed that fertility rate and kidding rate was high i.e. 80 and 60 percent among animals of B group while animals of control group had less fertility, kidding and gestation rate. The shortest gestation length was found in group B and C while triplet births were observed in goats of group D.
The experiment-II was regarding the initiation of estrus through buck effect in Beetal goats. This experiment was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 comprised two groups A and B for which estrus induction was done during pre-breeding (August) and normal breeding (September/October) season. Similarly, Phase 2 comprised two groups C and D in which estrus induction was done during post-breeding (December) and normal breeding (September/October) season. Different reproductive parameters like estrus, fertility percentage, were noted. The data regarding average birth weight (kg) and gestation length (days) were recorded. Estrus signs were maximum in group B while low in group C. However fertility rate was high in group A, instead of group B. Overall kidding percentage was higher in A group but the lowest in group D. The highest gestation length was observed in group D whereas the lowest value was found in group B. Average litter size was higher in group D as compared to A and B group, respectively.
The experiment-III was conducted to compare productive and reproductive performance of Beetal goats in accelerated and annual kidding systems. Total of 50 adult Beetal goats were divided into two groups viz. accelerated kidding and annual kidding having 25 animals each. The does were selected on the basis of their age, body size, weight and parity. Different breeding bucks were used for each group having similar size, weight and age. All the animals included in this study were fed according to national research council (NRC) nutrient requirements for goats (NRC, 1981). Flushing rations and estrus inducing hormones both were provided to the does of respective groups for preparation of breeding activity during out of season breeding. The annual kidding group was considered as the control group, while the does were bred every eight months for accelerated kidding. The offsprings produced by the pregnant does of 1st batch of both the groups were reared under similar managemental conditions up to maturity. Three crops were produced in accelerated kidding system as compared to two crops in annual kidding system. It was observed that more number of animals i.e. 17 out of 25 showed estrus signs as compared to annual kidding system where 15 animals showed estrus signs. There were non significant differences for number of services per conceptionin two crops under annual kidding groups. Higher percentage of estrus was observed in accelerated to annual kidding. Total number of kids produced in accelerated kidding system was 42 with an average 14 kids in three crops while 23 kids were produced in annual kidding system in two years. Average cost of concentrate was observed high in accelerated kidding system as compared to annual kidding system. Birth weight of kids produced in 3 different seasons i.e. March-April, October- November and June-July were found as 2.84, 2.91 and 2.98 kg. The overall results in term of reproductive efficiency, oestrus behavior and kidding percentage were better in accelerated group than annual kidding.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1812,T] (1).
Documenting Goat Production System In Two Agro-Ecological Regions Of Punjab
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1920,T] (1).
Genetic And Phenotypic Evaluation Of Sheep And Goat Flocks Maintained At Small Ruminant Training And Research Center UVAS
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1950,T] (1).
Isolation Of Phytase Gene From Bacteria Obtained From Different Sources
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Association Study Of Leptin Gene With Growth Trait In Lohi Sheep
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Effect Of Feeding Milk Replacer And Diet With Varying Levels Of Concention On Growth Puberty And First Lactation
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Effect of Selenium-Supplemented Diets on Production Performance, Hatching, Egg Geometry And Quality Traits in Four Varieties of Indigenous Aseel
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: CD Corrupted.
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Productive And Reproductive Performance Of The Parents And The Growth Performance Of Subsequent Progeny As Influenced By Molting In Japanese Quails
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Japanese quail is a member of order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie Japonica. Scientific name of Japanese quail is Coturnix coturnix japonica (Mizutani, 2003). Japanese quail attained significance as agriculture specie due to its unique flavor of eggs and meat hence got importance as a food animal (Kayang et al. 2004). Egg production is important in south East Asia whereas meat is an important product in Europe (Baumgartner, 1994: Minvielle, 1998). Female quail starts laying at the age of 6 weeks and constantly produces eggs for at least one year. Quail is efficient converter of feed, with each egg a female deposits an edible package of 8 percent of her own body weight as compared to 3 percent in case of chicken (Martin et al. 1998).
Molting in avian species is the periodic shedding and replacement of feathers as well as rejuvenation of the reproductive system (Berry, 2003). Molting has been conducted through different techniques including photoperiod reduction, feed restriction, hormone administration, feeding dietary salt of zinc, aluminium and/or iodine (Khan et al. 2011). Molting has been associated with sudden change in physiological biochemistry which requires restoration before coming into production (Khan et al. 2011). The most important advantage of molting is the rejuvenation of reproductive system which increases tissue efficiency, development of reproductive system, loss of fat on female reproductive system, hence better post-molt performance (Park et al. 2004). Attia et al. (1994) explored that bird’s egg shell quality, albumen quality, and hatchability are influenced by molting method.
Molting is followed by ovary and oviduct histophysiological changes (De-cuypere and Verheyen 1986); affecting egg characteristics, hatchability and chick quality.
Induced molting is an effective management tool, enabling to meet egg production with demand and even providing greater economic benefit as it reduces bird cost per dozen of eggs because it lengthens the productive life of the hen (Carey and Brake 1987).Induced molting is used in the poultry industry to increase the reproductive lifespan of birds leading to new productive cycles (Laurentiz et al. 2005). In the induced molting methods, 25-30% of body mass reduction from initial weight is ideally required to achieve a maximum post-molt performance (Brake, 1993). Induced molting has been reported to improve egg production and other performance parameters (Akram, 1998; Usman et al. 2013). As to body weight loss (BWL), research studies point out that BWL levels between 25 and 30% promotes better post-molting production in a second laying cycle (Hussein, 1996). Reduction in ovary weight depends upon the duration of fasting or body weight loss levels (Berry, 2003); 15% body weight loss results in heavier eggs as compared to 20-25% (Buhr and Cunningham 1994). Post-molt reproductive improvement is related to the regression and to the regeneration of the cells of reproductive system (Brake and Thaxton 1979). Egg quality and hatchability decrease with the age of the breeder and are reported to be improved in terms of Haugh Units and overall hatchability after molting (Lapaˆo et al. 1999). Induced molting not only helps in improving production performance and egg shell quality but also increases profit by optimizing the use of replacement pullets on commercial layer farms (Bell, 2003).
The combination of feed withdrawal and light reduction was most widely used to induce molting in the US egg industry in the past. Most producers used some form of feed withdrawal for periods of 5 to 14 days in breeder birds (Bell and Kuney 2004).
It is further reported that induced molting improves the post-molt performance of the laying hens compared to the pre-molt performance, this improvement includes egg size, shell quality, internal
egg quality, and the rate of egg production. Egg size increases significantly after a molt with a higher percentage of higher grade eggs (Zeelen, 1975). Hatchability is influenced by molting method (Attia et al. 1994). Several researchers studied a relationship among hen age and hatchability (King’ori, 2011). Induced molting through feed withdrawal and photoperiod reduction is an effective method to improve egg production, egg quality, fertility and hatchability of broiler breeders (Moustafa et al. 2010).
The effect of molting in chicken and turkey is very well studied and some basic facts have been well established but its significance in quail production is still having a question mark. Reason being the availability of little information on this aspect of quail production. It is also being felt that in Pakistan, especially at Avian Research and Training Center selection for higher body weight is being practiced since last 5-6 years and with the passage of time final body weight (4 week) of quail is almost doubled. These genetically improved quails need to be subjected to maximum experimentation in order to study their potential and standardize their management requirements. Present study is also an effort in the same direction with the main objective to explore the effect of molting on productive and reproductive performance as well as subsequent progeny growth performance in Japanese quails.
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Identification Of Variations In The Coding Region Of Myostatin Gene In Thalli And Pakkarakul Sheep Breeds Of The Punjab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: In a developing country like Pakistan, livestock sector has a significant importance.
Meat is an important food component in human diet and its source varies from different
organisms like cattle, buffalo, camel, deer, sheep, goat, rabbit and chicken etc. Small
ruminants especially sheep, has a unique role in meat production, due to its feeding and
adaptive behavior. The myostatin (MSTN) gene is known as a candidate gene for
development and growth of livestock because it plays its major role in muscle growth.
Selection is an important tool to improve the meat production and thus enhance the economic
conditions of livestock farmers. For this purpose genetically characterization of meat type
animals, especially the indigenous sheep breeds is not common. The variations in the
myostatin gene have been extensively studied and reviewed in small and large ruminants in
the world but it has been scanty studied in sheep breeds of Pakistan. Thalli and Pak-Karakul
are well known sheep breeds present in Punjab, Pakistan. This study aims to characterize the
genetic variation in the myostatin gene in Thalli and Pak-Karakul sheep breeds.
In this research study, twenty adult animals of two different sheep breeds (Thalli and
Pak-Karakul) were selected from Small Ruminants Research and development Centre, Rakh
Khairewala, District Layyah, Pakistan. Five mL blood sample was collected from each
animal in a 15mL falcon tube containing anticoagulant. Primers were designed by using
Primerfox online software. Primers were optimized using specific protocol and PCR was
performed. DNA was extracted using modified inorganic method of Sambrook et al. (1989).
PCR was carried out using all primers and later sent for sequencing to 1stBase Laboratories,
Singapore. Molecular analysis was done using CodonCode Aligner and MEGA6 softwares.
Ten samples of each breed were sequenced to detect polymorphism in both Thalli and
Pak-Karakul sheep populations. Sequencing revealed G↓T transition at 3995 position in
genome (accession number, DQ530260.1) in Thalli and similar transition in Pak-Karakul at
the same position. In Thalli sheep 50 % of experimental animals were heterozygous, higher
level of heterozygosity makes it a potential candidate for higher growth rates. On the other
hand the Pak-Karakul sheep is medium weight breed and frequency of mutant allele was 0.2
or 20%. The observed heterozygous individuals were also with higher live body weights. The
gene frequency shows that this breed has medium potential for its body growth. The
information‟s so generated and further association studies in both breeds will be helpful in
devising breeding plans for increasing mutton production at national level.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2288-T] (1).
Effect Of Different Dietary Lysine Levels And Feed Restriction Regimes On Growth Performance And Slaughtering Characteristics In Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Maintained During Hot Season
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: High prices, global shortage of feed ingredients and less supply of animal protein against great demand as consequence of ever increasing human population needs to enhance protein supply. One way of enhancing protein supply is to expand poultry production along with increasing production of other micro livestock such as Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) having low maintenance cost, short generation intervals, early sexual maturity and better resistance to diseases and its meat being rich in high quality protein having high biological value with low caloric content. Profit can be optimized by minimizing feed cost that accounts for 60-70 % of the total production cost and any improvements in the performance of birds by manipulation of feeding strategies inevitably have a profound effect on profitability. Any effort to improve commercial poultry production and enhance its efficiency needs to emphasize on better utilization of existing resources. Among different feeding management schemes and strategies phase feeding may be employed with the logic seems to feed birds for shorter periods of time to exactly meet but not exceed the amino acids requirements hence improvement in carcass characteristics and reduction of dietary cost. Commercial availability of very vital limiting amino acids (lysine) has set a new tendency of formulation of poultry feeds having low protein level with addition of amino acids. Lysine, being utmost essential amino acid is used as a reference for other essential amino acids. Feed restriction program may be another managemental tool that may elicit compensatory growth, improved feed efficiency, carcass quality and birds are not exposed to sub optimal level of nutrients but the efficiency of utilization of these nutrients may be improved. On the other hand breed, strain, management and sex differences for carcass traits have also been reported. Very little research focus on the subject has necessitated conducting the
present study undertaken in Japanese quails on the similar pattern as adopted in broiler industry to make quail production more cost-effective and commercially viable at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. A series of experiments at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan was run to assess the effect of different management interventions on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood biochemical profile in Japanese quail.
The first experiment was aimed to examine the growth performance and economic efficiency involving 1440 day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicks. Three dietary lysine levels (1.3, 1.4-1.2 & 1.5-1.3-1.1 %) in 3 different phases were allocated to four different close-bred stocks (Imported, Local-1, Local-2 and Local-3) of Japanese quails to assess their comparative growth performance by replicating each treatment for three times. The experimental day-old quail chicks were randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 40 chicks each. Quails under 1st treatment were fed a diet with 1.3 percent lysine throughout the grow-out period of 28 days, while, those under 2nd treatment were allotted diet with 1.4 percent lysine up to14 days of age and then subsequently reduced to 1.2 percent lysine up to 28 days. The 3rd treatment was split into 03 different phases. The first phase was up to 9th, 2nd up to 19th and 3rd up to 28th day by allotting diet containing 1.5, 1.3 and 1.1 % lysine, respectively. Weekly data on growth performance were recorded and analyzed through ANOVA technique in CRD under factorial arrangement and the comparison of means was worked out using DMR test by the help of SAS 9.1. Maximum (P≤0.05) feed intake; body weight gain and improved FCR were observed in three phase dietary lysine regimen leading to maximum profit margins.
In the 2nd experiment same experimental design and phase feeding was practiced to observe organ development. Sexing with in treatment was done at the age of three weeks and quails were maintained separately for one week. At 4 week of age, 3 birds/ replicate from either sex were slaughtered through Halal Muslim method for studying carcass characteristics. Two birds per replicate from either sex were used for serum analysis of glucose, cholesterol, urea, albumen and total protein using standard procedures. The analysis showed three phase dietary lysine regimen than other dietary lysine regimens improved (P≤0.05) slaughter characteristics i.e. post slaughter weight (g), dressing percentage with and without giblets, breast yield (g), thigh yield (g), giblet weight (g), liver weight (g), keel length (cm), shank length (cm), weight of visceral organs including intestinal weight (g) and intestinal length (cm). However, heart weight (g), gizzard (empty) weight (g), serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, albumin and total protein were not significantly affected by dietary lysine regimen. While, different close bred stocks did not show any significant differences.
Third experiment was executed to examine the growth performance and economic efficiency of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) subjected to different feed restriction regimes at ART Centre, UVAS, Lahore. For this purpose a total of 3200 quail chicks from four different close-bred stocks were allocated to four different feed restriction regimes comprising four close-bred stocks (Imported, Local-1, Local -2 and Local-3) at the age of 10 days. The experimental quails in group 1 were fed ad-libitum (20.30% CP, 1.3% Lysine, as recommended by NRC) throughout the experimental period to serve as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were provided with 1 hour feed- 3-hour off, 2-hour feed- 2hour off and 3-hour feed-1hour off feeding regimes, respectively. The analysis of data showed that the maximum feed intake was observed in ad-libitum fed group whereas the highest body weight gain was observed in ad-libitum and 3 hour
fed quails. The best FCR leading to maximum profit margin was observed in 3 hour-fed group. Different close-bred stocks could not express any significant difference in growth parameters.
In the 4th experiment same dietary plan of time restriction as in 3rd experiment was adopted to observe organ development. At the termination of the experiment (at the age of 38 days), 6 birds (3 male and 3 female) from each replicate were randomly picked up and slaughtered (by Halal method) to study different slaughter parameters. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) carcass weight, mean dressing % with and without giblet, mean thigh weight was observed in ad-libitum and 3 hours fed quails while significantly lower mean dressing %, liver weight, gizzard weight, giblet weight, breast weight and mean intestinal length and weight in one hour fed quail.
Blood profile showed significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum glucose, urea, albumin and total protein level in ad-libitum and 3-hours fed quails while significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum cholesterol level was observed in one hour fed quails. Heart weights (g), keel length (cm), shank length (cm) were not affected significantly among different treatments and close-bred stocks.
Based upon the findings of the present study it may be stated that
1. Maximum (P≤0.05) feed intake; body weight gain and improved FCR were observed in three phase dietary lysine regimen leading to maximum profit margins.
2. Significant improvement in carcass characteristics was recorded in three phase dietary lysine regimen.
3. The best FCR leading to maximum profit margin was observed in 3 hour-fed group in Japanese quails when subjected to different feed restriction regimens.
4. Three hour fed quails showed superior carcass characteristics at par with ad-libitum fed groups especially in terms of carcass weight, dressing percentage and thigh weight.
5. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum glucose, urea, albumin and total protein level were recorded in ad-libitum and 3-hours fed quails while significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum cholesterol level was observed in one hour fed quails.
Suggestions and Recommendations
Four lysine dietary regimens having 1 week each may successfully be employed in Japanese quails in order to get maximum profit. It may further be recommended that Japanese quails may be subjected to feed restriction of 1-hour after 2nd week.
The present series of experimentation is a step towards optimizing the nutritional and managemental strategies in Japanese quails, however, a lot more is still needed to be worked out in this direction.
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Supplementation Of Glycerin In Rearing Diets And Its Subsequent Effect On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Hatchability In Japanese Quails
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Glycerin has gained attraction being a low cost and energy rich compound that can partially replace the major ingredients including corn and some other energy rich stuffs. It may work as an alternative energy source without any detrimental effect on production performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quails. This study evaluated subsequent effect of glycerin on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quail. A total of 200 birds were arranged according to completely randomized design into 5 treatment groups having 5 replicates of 8 birds each (6 female + 2 Males). Treatment consisted 5 levels of glycerin i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 % and control group. Birds were fed with different levels of glycerin during rearing period of six weeks and their subsequent effect on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed. Data were collected regarding productive performance for 16 weeks, however, egg quality and hatching traits were recorded during pre-peak (at 4th week), peak (at 12th week) and post peak (at 16th week) phase. No significant effect of glycerin on subsequent productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed throughout the experimental period. Regarding productive performance, initial and final body weight, feed intake, hen housed and hen day production%, egg weight, egg mass, FCR / dozen egg and / kg egg mass did not show any major significant difference in all three phases. However, glycerin had significant effect on subsequent egg weight during peak and post peak phase. In egg quality, no significant effect of glycerin were observed on subsequent egg shell thickness, shell weight and yolk index in all three phases, whereas, albumen height and Haugh Unit score during pre-peak and peak phase were effected significantly. In terms of hatching traits, hatchability, fertility, dead in shell and dead germ% did not show any significant difference in all phases. However, clear egg % showed significant difference during peak phase of production.
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Morphological Structure Of Thalli Sheep Through Principal Component Analysis Of Body Measurements Muhammad
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Mutton is also very extensively used food and sources of mutton are only sheep and goat.
Sheep have a great genetic potential to fulfill the increasing demand of mutton in our country.
Body conformation and features are very important traits in milch, meat and wool animals. In
developing countries, record keeping is at initial level and the records about pedigree and progeny
of individuals are insufficient and do not provide the estimation about genetic parameters.
Therefore, phenotypic information are necessary for the explanation of relationship among linear
type traits and selection is based on these traits. Principal component analysis technique has been
used to identify the body size, body shape, head size and over all body conformation in Zulu Sheep.
Animal conformation and genetic parameters can be measured by using the technique of
Data on morphometric traits of Thalli sheep were collected from “Small Ruminant
Research and Development Centre, Rakh Khairewala, District Layyah, Punjab, Pakistan” and
Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Ghulaman, District Bhakkar, Punjab, Pakistan. Different
phenotypic parameters and twenty one (21) morphometric traits were measured on animals of
Thalli sheep. The traits measured were birth weight, body weight, heart girth, body length, withers
height, head length, head width, ear length, ear width, neck length, neck width, barrel depth, sacral
pelvic width, rump length, rump width, tail length, testes length, testes width, scrotal diameter, teat
length and teat diameter. Different phenotypic characters was recorded as body color, body shape,
eye color, head color, fore head color, face color, face structure, chin color, ear color, ear nature,
appendages color, nostril structure, muzzle structure, neck structure, tail color and tail switch.
Weighing balance (digital) was used for determination of body weight and a flexible
measuring tape (tailor tape) was used to record the different body measurements. To avoid
variations among individuals, measurements were taken by the same person. Animals of different
age groups were reared at these research stations. Animals were divided into different groups (A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I) according to their age as 0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-15, 16-18, 19-21, 22-
24 and above 24 months. Each group was further divided into two sub-groups of males and females
animals. Normality of data were checked against all animals (overall group and separate groups)
and all animals were fallen in ±3SD but two outliers had been removed. Data on morphometric
traits were analyzed statistically for mean, range, coefficient of variation and standard error.
Pearson’s coefficient of correlation among different biometric traits was estimated and data were
generated for principal component analysis (PCA) from the correlation matrix. Regression
equations were developed for the estimation of body weight.
Descriptive statistics (mean, range, standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of body
measurements of overall female were showed coefficient of variations of overall female animals
of Thalli sheep for mostly variables were ranged from 10-20% and coefficient of variations of birth
weight and body weight were 22.38% and 25.75% respectively. Coefficient of variations of male
animals of Thalli sheep for linear body measurements were ranged 08-25% and tail length had
high coefficient of variations as 26.89%. Male animals of all age groups are heavier than females.
Correlation coefficients of morphometric traits of overall females and males of Thalli sheep
were highly positive and significant (P≤0.01) among withers height, body length, heart girth, head
length, head width, ear length, neck length, neck width, rump length, rump width, barrel depth,
sacral pelvic width and body weight. Withers height, heart girth and body length were observed to
be significantly correlated with each other as well as with live body weight of all age groups.
For overall female animals, two principal components were extracted with eigenvalues
9.005 and 1.558 and 56.279% and 9.740% variances for PC1 and PC2 respectively and their
cumulative variance was 66.020%. For overall male animals, three principal components were
extracted with eigenvalues greater than 1 and PC1 showed high variance 57.516% and PC2 and
PC3 had variances as 12.184% and 7.022% respectively and their cumulative was components
76.721%. In all age groups which has been studied, withers height, body length and heart girth
have high values in commonalities as well as in component matrix. PC1, PC2 and PC3 showed
maximum variations in almost all age group studied.
Regression equations developed to estimate of live weight of all age groups were indicated
that almost all equations had variables withers height, body length and heart girth.
From findings of present study, it was concluded that body measurements (Withers height,
body length and heart girth) had high correlations with each other and with body weight in almost
all age groups. Principal component analysis of morphometric traits was showed that most of
variation explained by PC1 and in some groups, PC2 and PC3 had also more effects.
Commonalities were higher which showed that all the variables were important but PC1 had high
values for withers height, body length and heart girth and maximum variance. This indicated that
morphometric traits are very important for selection of genetically elite animals. Morphometric
traits can be used to estimate the body weight in the field conditions, where weighing balance is
not usually available. However, further research is needed to investigate the relationship among
different morphometric traits in other breeds of goats, sheep and other livestock breeds like cattle,
buffalo, camel and horse of the country.
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Quality Enhancement Of Buffalo Milk Yoghurt By Using Glutathione Treated Transglutaminase Enzyme As A Gelatin Replacer
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Yoghurt is a fermented dairy product and intensively used in all over the world. It is very popular in sub-continental region due to its high consumption as compare to other regions of the world. Fermentation of milk is carried out by mixture of lactic acid bacteria. Synergistic effect of Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is a key factor which determines the rate of fermentation process and quality of yoghurt. In traditionally made set yoghurt, protein gel is stabilized by weak non covalent interactions (hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic bonds). Addition of Transglutaminase enzyme (TGase) can provide opportunities to increase covalent bonding and cohesiveness which ultimately enhances the gel consistency with reduction of syneresis.
For the production of yogurt standardized buffalo milk of 5.5% fat and 9.5% SNF contents were used. Milk was pasteurized for 15 seconds at 72°C to kill the pathogenic bacteria and cooled to 42°C. After cooling the Glutathione treated Transglutaminase enzyme was added in the milk with different concentrations (1.25g/250ml, 2.50g/250ml, 3.75g/250ml and 5g/250ml) and cooled to 42°C. While the control sample was prepared without the addition of Glutathione treated Transglutaminase enzyme. After that each treatment was inoculated with standard yoghurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) at the rate of 2% at 42°C for 3-4 hours and each sample was stored at 4°C in a refrigerator for 28 days. The physico-chemical parameters such as pH, acidity %, fat %, protein % and syneresis % were observed weekly till 4 weeks.
The quality comparison of prepared yoghurt was carried out by using Two Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique under Completely Randomized Design. Significant means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) Test with the help of SAS 9.1.
Results showed variations in pH, acidity %, fat%, protein %, snf% and syneresis % values due to the production of Yoghurt with Glutathione treated Transglutaminase in different percentages. pH in different treatments decreased from 4.71 – 4.61. Acidity % during storage period increased from 0.40 % to 0.43 %. Fat % also showed some variation during storage period decreased from 5.37% – 4.49 %. Protein % in different treatments increased from 4.10 % – 4.27 % and SNF % in different treatments increased from 9.81% – 10.00 % . Syneresis % in different treatments decreased from 5.17% - 3.48 %. Sensory evaluation was carried out by a panel of 06 semi trained people, using criteria of appearance, taste, color, flavor and whole acceptability on a 9 points hedonic scale. Color, taste, aroma, acidity, appearance and overall acceptability showed non-significant results as compared with controlled sample after 28 days.
Results of the present study showed that yoghurt prepared with Glutathione treated Transglutaminase enzyme reduced the syneresis and enhanced the nutritional aspects of yoghurt.
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Study Of Factors Affecting Quality Of Silage As A Component Of Total Mixed Ration On Growth And Production Performance In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Silage production is at initial stages to be a part of animal agriculture in Pakistan. The lack of research on silage making and its benefits for livestock production under local conditions is an important factor for slow propagation of silage in our country. Under such scenario a multi-step study was conducted. At first, the effect of proper maturity stage for harvesting different fodders was investigated, and then the effects of silo type and silage additives were assessed on silage quality. In last part of the study the feeding trials were conducted on growing calves and lactating buffalo to evaluate the effect of silage feeding on growth and milk production respectively.
In all the three fodders i.e. oats, maize and sorghum, the full bloom stage for harvesting produced the best results regarding silage quality and fermentation characteristics. Although the trench silo produced best results regarding fermentation characteristics and silage quality, the expected operational cost and dry matter losses during face management for trench silo would make it harder for farmers to adopt. Under such circumstances, for long term use the bunkers would be a good choice for silage making with comparable silage quality as that of trench silo. Silage inoculants certainly improved the silage quality and it is highly recommended to use such additives for silage making and these additives are not that costly. Buffalo calves raised on fresh corn fodder and three different silages showed similar daily weight gain. Further growth trials on buffalo calves with varying levels of concentrate feeding along with silage are suggested to investigate silage feeding in calves. Corn silage fed lactating buffaloes had lower dry matter intake and total milk yield, but higher total solids as compared to fresh fodder feeding. The future studies of silage feeding compared to different inclusion levels of fresh and dry roughage sources would add further to explore the economic implications of silage feeding.
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Effect Of Selenium Supplementation On The Growth Performance Of Quail Chicks From Different Parental Body Weight Categories
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Quail farming, despite having enormous potential, is still one of the neglected components of the poultry sector in the country, reason being very little research work done on its breeding, incubation, housing, nutritional requirements, feeding and overall management. Interaction factor between different parental body weight categories and Selenium sources has never been studied earlier: Therefore, it is of much importance to investigate the effect of selenium on growth performance, body measurements and slaughtering characters of progeny from the parents of variable body weight in Japanese quails. Supplementation of feed with organic selenium may affect growth performance, morphological traits and carcass characteristics of the chicks from parents of different body weight categories. Present study was conducted at Avian Research and Training Center, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS, Lahore for the duration of 04 weeks. Standard managemental conditions were followed, where, birds were maintained in well ventilated octagonal quail house (33×12×9 cubic ft.) equipped with French made multi deck cages. The birds were fed quail ration according to NRC (1994) recommendations. Quail broiler starter crumbs (CP 24% and ME 2900 Kcal/Kg) were provided with addition of Se from different sources. Through nipple drinking system availability of fresh, clean drinking water was ensured. Treatments consisted of 3 parental body weight categories (Heavy, medium and low) and three Se sources (Control, Organic Se @ 0.2mg/kg and Inorganic Se @ 0.4mg/kg). Effect of different Selenium sources on different parental body weight categories was studied regarding progeny growth performance, body measurement and slaughter parameters. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) under Randomized complete block design (RCBD in factorial arrangements using PROC GLM in SAS software. Means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Present study showed that parental body
weight, selenium and their interaction did not show significant effect on growth performance except livability% for which maximum value was observed in heavy x organic group. For body measurements, parental body weight (heavy) interacting with selenium (control) sources resulted in highest measurement of shank length and circumference. Keel length was maximum in heavy x control group. Drumstick length was found highest in medium x inorganic while its circumference was highest in medium x control. Wing spread was found to be the highest in heavy x control group. Regarding slaughtering characteristics live weight was found to be maximum in heavy x control group while regarding dressed weight, heavy x organic group showed the highest value. Dressing% was non-significantly affected by parental body weights, selenium sources and their interaction.
On the basis of the results of present study, it can be concluded that
Parental body weight, selenium and their interaction did not show any significant effect on growth performance of Japanese quail except livability%. The interaction of heavy x control for livability was found to be better.
For body measurements, parental body weight and their interaction with selenium sources significantly affected shank length, shank circumference, keel length, drumstick length and circumference. Wing spread only significantly responded to parental body weight. Selenium was found to be non-significantly affecting all other morphometric measurements.
Regarding slaughtering characteristics parental body weight and their interaction with selenium sources significantly affected live weight and dressed weight. Selenium sources had only significant effect on dressed weight. Live weight was not effected by selenium
supplementation. Dressing% was non-significantly affected by parental body weights, selenium sources and their interaction.
The dose rates of organic and inorganic Selenium especially for Japanese quail need to be fixed.
Carefully planned and well executed studies are needed to fix the dose rates of selenium for Japanese quail.
Organic selenium seems better but again, further experimentation is recommended to use this trace mineral in Japanese quail feeds.
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Quality, Nutritional And Organoleptic Evaluation Of Eggs From Different Chicken Genotypes In Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Egg is a miraculous food having all essentials of life. In the recent times, consumer
consciousness regarding egg and egg products is increasing and people prefer to eat eggs from
indigenous breeds over commercial breed, as they consider them of high nutritional value and
good quality. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare egg quality,
proximate composition, macro minerals analysis, fatty acids profile, and organoleptic
evaluation of eggs from 6 different breeds of chicken in Pakistan. For this purpose, 5 bird of
each of the 6 breeds (White Leghorn, White Plymouth Rock, Naked Neck, Aseel, Rhode Island
Red and Fayoumi; 40-50 week of age) were kept under Completely Randomized Design on
litter floor. A total of 10 eggs from each breed were used for egg geometry (Egg Shape index,
surface area, volume) and quality analysis (Egg specific gravity, shell thickness, shell %,
albumen %, albumen index, haugh unit score, albumen pH, yolk pH, yolk %, yolk index, yolk
color, blood and meat spots), 3 from each breed were used for proximate analysis (Moisture
%, Crude Protein %, Lipids %, Ash %, Carbohydrates %), macro minerals (Calcium,
Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Iron) analysis, and fatty acid analysis, respectively. For
organoleptic evaluation, a semi trained panel of 20 people evaluated egg samples randomly
which were boiled at same time peeled and sliced into pieces. The panel evaluated Color,
Aroma, Flavor, Taste, mouth feel, and overall quality of Albumen and Yolk separately on 15-
point hedonic scale. The data were analyzed with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique
under Completely Randomized Design. The significant means were compared using Duncan’s
Multiple Range (DMR) test using SAS 9.4. Results showed no difference among breeds for
egg geometry and shell quality parameter, however, egg specific gravity was significantly
higher in Fayoumi chicken. In albumen quality, Rhode Island Red eggs showed highest
albumen percentage, while Haugh unit score was best in eggs of Aseel, Fayoumi, Naked neck
and Rhode Island Red as compa red to other breeds. But, Albumen index and Albumen pH
remained unaffected by different breeds. Similarly, in yolk quality traits, yolk percentage was
significantly higher in Aseel, Fayoumi and Naked neck, and yolk color in eggs of Fayoumi,
but yolk pH and yolk index remained unaffected by different breeds. Proximate analysis
showed significantly highest moisture and carbohydrate contents in White leghorn eggs while
Protein contents were highest in Aseel, Naked neck and White Plymouth rock. Moreover,
White Plymouth rock eggs also showed more lipid contents, while Ash percentage remained
comparable among different breeds. Macro minerals analysis showed higher Iron contents in
eggs of White leghorn breed, while Fayoumi eggs were higher in Magnesium, Potassium, and
Sodium contents. Naked neck eggs also showed higher Potassium and Calcium contents. Fatty
acid analysis showed higher Myristic acid (C14:0), DPA contents in eggs of White leghorn,
Stearic acid (C18:0) in eggs of Fayoumi and Aseel, Saturated Fatty acids in eggs of Fayoumi,
Palmitoleic acid (C16:1), Oleic acid (C18:1), Linoleic acid (C18:2), Arachidonic acid (C20:4),
EPA, DPA, DHA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-3 fatty acids in White Plymouth rock, n-6 fatty acids
in eggs of Rhode Island Red, While α-Linolenic acid (C18:3) was lowest in eggs of Naked
neck breed as compared to rest of the breeds. But, Naked neck showed higher total lipid
contents as compared to other breeds. During organoleptic evaluation, White Leghorn eggs
showed highest intensity for yolk taste, flavor and mouth feel, whilst, yolk color, aroma and
overall quality remained comparable among different breeds. Likewise, in albumen
organoleptic evaluation, Albumen color was least intense while Albumen Aroma was highest
in Aseel eggs. Albumen taste, flavor and overall quality was highly intense in White Leghorn
as compared to other breeds.
On the basis of the results of the present study it can be concluded that egg geometry was not
affected by genotype variation, however, very interestingly, huge variation was observed
regarding internal egg quality traits, proximate and mineral composition, fatty acid profile as
well as sensory evaluation of the eggs from different chicken breeds.
Suggestions and Recommendations:
Based upon the findings of present study it is suggested for future researchers that:
1. There is a dire need to conduct thorough studies to investigate the genetic basis of
differences among different breeds regarding egg quality attributes.
2. In future breeding plans, egg quality and sensory properties of different breeds must be
kept in mind and incorporated accordingly.
3. Improvement in production performance of indigenous breeds through selection should
be made as these breeds have better egg characteristics and preference by the local
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2683-T] (1).
Effect Of Pre-Weaning Diets And Varying Levels Of Concentrate During Post-Weaning Period On The Performacne Of Female Nili-Ravi Buffalo Calves Up To One Year Of Age
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Nili-Ravi buffalo is a well-known buffalo breed in subcontinent Indo-Pakistan region and famous for its high milk production ability. Currently, buffalo calves and growing heifers are fed on deprived quality and quantity roughages with poor nutritive values resulting in reduced growth rate, reproduction with delayed attainment of puberty and high mortality. These constraints can be overcome through nutritional management of buffaloes. There is a need for the development of standards for adequate, cost effective provision of colostrum, whole milk/milk replacer and calf starter ration to neonatal calves up to weaning, establishment of nutrient requirements for growing buffalo heifer with aim of more average daily gain to reduce age at puberty and nutrients requirements for lactating buffalo according to their status and stage of milk production.
The current study comprises of two experiments and was conducted at Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey, Pattoki, District Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan. The first experiment was performed with an aim to check the growth performance of female buffalo calves on whole milk & milk replacer and find out the cost effective and growth rate friendly alternate source of liquid diet. The duration of this experiment was 120 days. Thirty six female calves were selected and randomly divided into three (n=12) different treatments A (whole milk), B (50% whole milk & 50% milk replacer) and C (milk replacer). All the calves were given colostrum for first three days, then whole milk up to 15 days of age and transferred into three treatments. In addition to this all the calves were provided calf starter and fresh water ad-libitum. The calves were given
liquid diet @ 10% of their body weight for first two months and then gradually decline of 1% on weekly basis for the subsequent two months. Green fodder was started on three month of age. The average daily total dry matter intake was remained same for all the three treatments but the average daily gain was higher in treatment A (457.38±110.13a) compare to treatment C (362.22±107.83b) but it was same for treatment A&B and B&C, respectively. The mean FCR value was also better for treatment A (3.49±0.56b) compare to treatment C (4.30±1.24a) and it was same for treatment A&B and treatment B&C, respectively. The mean cost/kg gain was higher in treatment A (422.72±70.66a) compare to treatment C (352.97±97.49b) and it was same for treatment A&B and B&C, respectively. Animals had performed well on mix liquid (50 % whole milk: 50% milk replacer) diet and it was more cost effective than other two treatments.
The aim in second experiment was to set the standard and cost effective level of concentrate ration for growing female buffalo heifer calves. For second experiment thirty (30) calves were selected from first experiment and were randomly dived into three treatments A, B and C. Treatment A was fed on concentrate ration according to 0.5 % of their body weight, treatment B 1.0 % and treatment C 1.5 % of their body weight. In addition to this all the calves were given ad-libitum green fodder and fresh clean water. All the calves were fed on similar concentrate ration having CP: 17 % and ME: 2.6 Mcal/kg. The duration of this experiment was 8 months. There was significant difference (P<0.05) in mean dry matter intake, protein intake, energy intake and protein per kg gain across all the three treatments and were higher (P<0.05) for treatment C then treatment B and lower (P<0.05) in treatment A, respectively. The average daily gain was remained same (P>0.05) for all the three treatments (497.32±17.92, 503.63±19.09 and 532.77±20.67). The higher feed efficiency was observed in treatment A (0.135±.004a) while it was same for treatment B & C (0.113±.003b & 0.108±.004b), respectively. The average body
condition & score, body mass index and blood constituents (RBCs, WBCs, heamoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, platelets count, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes) were unaffected (P>0.05) by different concentrate levels. Concentrate levels had significantly affected some of serum components (total protein and urea) but some components (glucose & cholesterol) were unaffected by dietary treatments. The values of mean serum total protein and serum urea were found lower in treatment A (6.12±0.17b & 42.34±1.59b) compare to treatment B (6.65±0.23a & 50.08±2.05a) and C (6.79±0.23a & 51.41±2.29a), respectively. The higher values of serum total protein and cholesterol in treatment B & C may be attributed to higher concentrate level in these two treatments. Concentrate levels had significantly (P<0.05) affected some of the digestibility parameters (DM %, CP% and NDF%) while other parameters (organic matter, fat, ash, ADF and urine pH) were remained same (P>0.05) on varying concentrate level diet. The mean body measurements (height at wither, body length and heart girth) were also not affected (P>0.05) by dietary treatments. There was significant difference across all the three treatments in total average daily dry matter intake cost and cost per kg gain. These were lower in treatment A compared to other two treatments B & C. It was observed that mean dry matter, protein and energy intake was lower in treatment A (0.5% of body weight) and weight gain was remained same on all the three dietary treatments. The mean feed efficiency was greater and mean cost per/kg gain was lower in treatment A. So, treatment A was remained more cost effective than other two treatments.
Both experiments were planned by keeping in mind the problems of buffalo farmer. Rearing of calves with improved growth rate on least cost feeding regime is important in dairy farming. Milk replacer is an alternate source of whole milk. Most of the buffalo farmers don’t use milk replacer for rearing of calves because of slower growth rate. Mixing of milk replacer
with whole milk in 50:50 ratio make the consistency of liquid diet near to whole milk. Feeding of whole milk with milk replacer along with calf starter reduces the cost without affecting growth rate. At this stage farmers should keep in mid the cleaning of feeding pans to avoid the risk of diarrhea.
In post weaning period calves’ rumen is fully develop and is completely shifted to solid diet. During this transition phase farmers don’t follow the nutritional requirements of calves, which slow down the growth rate and ultimately increase the age at puberty. As buffalo are efficient converter of low quality diet. If farmers offer concentrate ratio (16-18% CP) to buffalo heifers at the rate of 0.5% of body weight along with ad-libitum green fodder, growth rate can be improved cost effectively.
The findings of first experiment shows that 50% whole milk & 50% milk replacer @ of 10 of body weight along with adlibitum calf starter ration help in early rumen development, improved growth rate and better FCR on economical basis. So, it is recommended that whole milk and milk replacer in 50:50 ratio is growth rate friendly and cost effective for rearing of female buffalo calves up to weaning. The results of second experiment shows that growth rate, body measurements and body condition & score remained the same on all the three dietary concentrate levels but the feed efficiency was improved on lower concentrate level. So, it is recommended that it is cost effective to raise buffalo growing heifers on small amount of concentrate ration (0.5% of body weight) along with ad-libitum green fodder.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2720-T] (1).
Association Study Of Gdf9 Gene With Litter Size In Kajli Sheep
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Genetic characterization of meat type animals, especially the indigenous sheep breeds is of great concern now a days. The GDF9 gene is known as a candidate gene for fecundity, development and growth of livestock especially small ruminants (sheep and goats) because it plays its major role in increasing ovulation rate, growth and differentiation of oocytes. The variations in the coding region of GDF9 gene and its relationship with ovulation rate and litter size have been extensively studied and reviewed in small and large ruminants worldwide, but there is a very little exploration about the role of GDF9 gene in sheep breeds of Pakistan. As Kajli sheep is well known meat type sheep breed of Punjab, Pakistan so, this study aimed to characterize the genetic variations and their association with litter size in Kajli sheep.
A total of 80 adult female (> 2.5 years old ) animals belonging to Kajli sheep breed were randomly selected from the flock maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Khizerabad Sargodha. 5 ml blood sample was collected from each animal in a 15 ml falcon tube containing EDTA as an anticoagulant. A primer set reported by Barzegari et al. (2010) was used to amplify the exon-1 of GDF9 gene. Variation in PCR product was detected using RFLP technique. The outcomes of this study reported homozygosity for GDF9 exon 1 Hha1 SNP.
From this study, it has been concluded that fecundity may depend on several other features such as season of lambing, age of ewe and nutrition or maybe there is/are some other major gene/s in Kajli sheep and there is a great need to explore some other genomic regions that might found with variants associated with litter size or multiple ovulation in Kajli sheep.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2767-T] (1).