Effect of Selenium-Supplemented Diets on Production Performance, Hatching, Egg Geometry And Quality Traits in Four Varieties of Indigenous Aseel
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: CD Corrupted.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2218-T] (1).
Productive And Reproductive Performance Of The Parents And The Growth Performance Of Subsequent Progeny As Influenced By Molting In Japanese Quails
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Japanese quail is a member of order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie Japonica. Scientific name of Japanese quail is Coturnix coturnix japonica (Mizutani, 2003). Japanese quail attained significance as agriculture specie due to its unique flavor of eggs and meat hence got importance as a food animal (Kayang et al. 2004). Egg production is important in south East Asia whereas meat is an important product in Europe (Baumgartner, 1994: Minvielle, 1998). Female quail starts laying at the age of 6 weeks and constantly produces eggs for at least one year. Quail is efficient converter of feed, with each egg a female deposits an edible package of 8 percent of her own body weight as compared to 3 percent in case of chicken (Martin et al. 1998).
Molting in avian species is the periodic shedding and replacement of feathers as well as rejuvenation of the reproductive system (Berry, 2003). Molting has been conducted through different techniques including photoperiod reduction, feed restriction, hormone administration, feeding dietary salt of zinc, aluminium and/or iodine (Khan et al. 2011). Molting has been associated with sudden change in physiological biochemistry which requires restoration before coming into production (Khan et al. 2011). The most important advantage of molting is the rejuvenation of reproductive system which increases tissue efficiency, development of reproductive system, loss of fat on female reproductive system, hence better post-molt performance (Park et al. 2004). Attia et al. (1994) explored that bird’s egg shell quality, albumen quality, and hatchability are influenced by molting method.
Molting is followed by ovary and oviduct histophysiological changes (De-cuypere and Verheyen 1986); affecting egg characteristics, hatchability and chick quality.
Induced molting is an effective management tool, enabling to meet egg production with demand and even providing greater economic benefit as it reduces bird cost per dozen of eggs because it lengthens the productive life of the hen (Carey and Brake 1987).Induced molting is used in the poultry industry to increase the reproductive lifespan of birds leading to new productive cycles (Laurentiz et al. 2005). In the induced molting methods, 25-30% of body mass reduction from initial weight is ideally required to achieve a maximum post-molt performance (Brake, 1993). Induced molting has been reported to improve egg production and other performance parameters (Akram, 1998; Usman et al. 2013). As to body weight loss (BWL), research studies point out that BWL levels between 25 and 30% promotes better post-molting production in a second laying cycle (Hussein, 1996). Reduction in ovary weight depends upon the duration of fasting or body weight loss levels (Berry, 2003); 15% body weight loss results in heavier eggs as compared to 20-25% (Buhr and Cunningham 1994). Post-molt reproductive improvement is related to the regression and to the regeneration of the cells of reproductive system (Brake and Thaxton 1979). Egg quality and hatchability decrease with the age of the breeder and are reported to be improved in terms of Haugh Units and overall hatchability after molting (Lapaˆo et al. 1999). Induced molting not only helps in improving production performance and egg shell quality but also increases profit by optimizing the use of replacement pullets on commercial layer farms (Bell, 2003).
The combination of feed withdrawal and light reduction was most widely used to induce molting in the US egg industry in the past. Most producers used some form of feed withdrawal for periods of 5 to 14 days in breeder birds (Bell and Kuney 2004).
It is further reported that induced molting improves the post-molt performance of the laying hens compared to the pre-molt performance, this improvement includes egg size, shell quality, internal
egg quality, and the rate of egg production. Egg size increases significantly after a molt with a higher percentage of higher grade eggs (Zeelen, 1975). Hatchability is influenced by molting method (Attia et al. 1994). Several researchers studied a relationship among hen age and hatchability (King’ori, 2011). Induced molting through feed withdrawal and photoperiod reduction is an effective method to improve egg production, egg quality, fertility and hatchability of broiler breeders (Moustafa et al. 2010).
The effect of molting in chicken and turkey is very well studied and some basic facts have been well established but its significance in quail production is still having a question mark. Reason being the availability of little information on this aspect of quail production. It is also being felt that in Pakistan, especially at Avian Research and Training Center selection for higher body weight is being practiced since last 5-6 years and with the passage of time final body weight (4 week) of quail is almost doubled. These genetically improved quails need to be subjected to maximum experimentation in order to study their potential and standardize their management requirements. Present study is also an effort in the same direction with the main objective to explore the effect of molting on productive and reproductive performance as well as subsequent progeny growth performance in Japanese quails.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2249-T] (1).
Effect Of Different Dietary Lysine Levels And Feed Restriction Regimes On Growth Performance And Slaughtering Characteristics In Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Maintained During Hot Season
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: High prices, global shortage of feed ingredients and less supply of animal protein against great demand as consequence of ever increasing human population needs to enhance protein supply. One way of enhancing protein supply is to expand poultry production along with increasing production of other micro livestock such as Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) having low maintenance cost, short generation intervals, early sexual maturity and better resistance to diseases and its meat being rich in high quality protein having high biological value with low caloric content. Profit can be optimized by minimizing feed cost that accounts for 60-70 % of the total production cost and any improvements in the performance of birds by manipulation of feeding strategies inevitably have a profound effect on profitability. Any effort to improve commercial poultry production and enhance its efficiency needs to emphasize on better utilization of existing resources. Among different feeding management schemes and strategies phase feeding may be employed with the logic seems to feed birds for shorter periods of time to exactly meet but not exceed the amino acids requirements hence improvement in carcass characteristics and reduction of dietary cost. Commercial availability of very vital limiting amino acids (lysine) has set a new tendency of formulation of poultry feeds having low protein level with addition of amino acids. Lysine, being utmost essential amino acid is used as a reference for other essential amino acids. Feed restriction program may be another managemental tool that may elicit compensatory growth, improved feed efficiency, carcass quality and birds are not exposed to sub optimal level of nutrients but the efficiency of utilization of these nutrients may be improved. On the other hand breed, strain, management and sex differences for carcass traits have also been reported. Very little research focus on the subject has necessitated conducting the
present study undertaken in Japanese quails on the similar pattern as adopted in broiler industry to make quail production more cost-effective and commercially viable at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. A series of experiments at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan was run to assess the effect of different management interventions on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood biochemical profile in Japanese quail.
The first experiment was aimed to examine the growth performance and economic efficiency involving 1440 day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicks. Three dietary lysine levels (1.3, 1.4-1.2 & 1.5-1.3-1.1 %) in 3 different phases were allocated to four different close-bred stocks (Imported, Local-1, Local-2 and Local-3) of Japanese quails to assess their comparative growth performance by replicating each treatment for three times. The experimental day-old quail chicks were randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 40 chicks each. Quails under 1st treatment were fed a diet with 1.3 percent lysine throughout the grow-out period of 28 days, while, those under 2nd treatment were allotted diet with 1.4 percent lysine up to14 days of age and then subsequently reduced to 1.2 percent lysine up to 28 days. The 3rd treatment was split into 03 different phases. The first phase was up to 9th, 2nd up to 19th and 3rd up to 28th day by allotting diet containing 1.5, 1.3 and 1.1 % lysine, respectively. Weekly data on growth performance were recorded and analyzed through ANOVA technique in CRD under factorial arrangement and the comparison of means was worked out using DMR test by the help of SAS 9.1. Maximum (P≤0.05) feed intake; body weight gain and improved FCR were observed in three phase dietary lysine regimen leading to maximum profit margins.
In the 2nd experiment same experimental design and phase feeding was practiced to observe organ development. Sexing with in treatment was done at the age of three weeks and quails were maintained separately for one week. At 4 week of age, 3 birds/ replicate from either sex were slaughtered through Halal Muslim method for studying carcass characteristics. Two birds per replicate from either sex were used for serum analysis of glucose, cholesterol, urea, albumen and total protein using standard procedures. The analysis showed three phase dietary lysine regimen than other dietary lysine regimens improved (P≤0.05) slaughter characteristics i.e. post slaughter weight (g), dressing percentage with and without giblets, breast yield (g), thigh yield (g), giblet weight (g), liver weight (g), keel length (cm), shank length (cm), weight of visceral organs including intestinal weight (g) and intestinal length (cm). However, heart weight (g), gizzard (empty) weight (g), serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, albumin and total protein were not significantly affected by dietary lysine regimen. While, different close bred stocks did not show any significant differences.
Third experiment was executed to examine the growth performance and economic efficiency of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) subjected to different feed restriction regimes at ART Centre, UVAS, Lahore. For this purpose a total of 3200 quail chicks from four different close-bred stocks were allocated to four different feed restriction regimes comprising four close-bred stocks (Imported, Local-1, Local -2 and Local-3) at the age of 10 days. The experimental quails in group 1 were fed ad-libitum (20.30% CP, 1.3% Lysine, as recommended by NRC) throughout the experimental period to serve as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were provided with 1 hour feed- 3-hour off, 2-hour feed- 2hour off and 3-hour feed-1hour off feeding regimes, respectively. The analysis of data showed that the maximum feed intake was observed in ad-libitum fed group whereas the highest body weight gain was observed in ad-libitum and 3 hour
fed quails. The best FCR leading to maximum profit margin was observed in 3 hour-fed group. Different close-bred stocks could not express any significant difference in growth parameters.
In the 4th experiment same dietary plan of time restriction as in 3rd experiment was adopted to observe organ development. At the termination of the experiment (at the age of 38 days), 6 birds (3 male and 3 female) from each replicate were randomly picked up and slaughtered (by Halal method) to study different slaughter parameters. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) carcass weight, mean dressing % with and without giblet, mean thigh weight was observed in ad-libitum and 3 hours fed quails while significantly lower mean dressing %, liver weight, gizzard weight, giblet weight, breast weight and mean intestinal length and weight in one hour fed quail.
Blood profile showed significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum glucose, urea, albumin and total protein level in ad-libitum and 3-hours fed quails while significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum cholesterol level was observed in one hour fed quails. Heart weights (g), keel length (cm), shank length (cm) were not affected significantly among different treatments and close-bred stocks.
Based upon the findings of the present study it may be stated that
1. Maximum (P≤0.05) feed intake; body weight gain and improved FCR were observed in three phase dietary lysine regimen leading to maximum profit margins.
2. Significant improvement in carcass characteristics was recorded in three phase dietary lysine regimen.
3. The best FCR leading to maximum profit margin was observed in 3 hour-fed group in Japanese quails when subjected to different feed restriction regimens.
4. Three hour fed quails showed superior carcass characteristics at par with ad-libitum fed groups especially in terms of carcass weight, dressing percentage and thigh weight.
5. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum glucose, urea, albumin and total protein level were recorded in ad-libitum and 3-hours fed quails while significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum cholesterol level was observed in one hour fed quails.
Suggestions and Recommendations
Four lysine dietary regimens having 1 week each may successfully be employed in Japanese quails in order to get maximum profit. It may further be recommended that Japanese quails may be subjected to feed restriction of 1-hour after 2nd week.
The present series of experimentation is a step towards optimizing the nutritional and managemental strategies in Japanese quails, however, a lot more is still needed to be worked out in this direction.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2340-T] (1).
Supplementation Of Glycerin In Rearing Diets And Its Subsequent Effect On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Hatchability In Japanese Quails
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Glycerin has gained attraction being a low cost and energy rich compound that can partially replace the major ingredients including corn and some other energy rich stuffs. It may work as an alternative energy source without any detrimental effect on production performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quails. This study evaluated subsequent effect of glycerin on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quail. A total of 200 birds were arranged according to completely randomized design into 5 treatment groups having 5 replicates of 8 birds each (6 female + 2 Males). Treatment consisted 5 levels of glycerin i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 % and control group. Birds were fed with different levels of glycerin during rearing period of six weeks and their subsequent effect on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed. Data were collected regarding productive performance for 16 weeks, however, egg quality and hatching traits were recorded during pre-peak (at 4th week), peak (at 12th week) and post peak (at 16th week) phase. No significant effect of glycerin on subsequent productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed throughout the experimental period. Regarding productive performance, initial and final body weight, feed intake, hen housed and hen day production%, egg weight, egg mass, FCR / dozen egg and / kg egg mass did not show any major significant difference in all three phases. However, glycerin had significant effect on subsequent egg weight during peak and post peak phase. In egg quality, no significant effect of glycerin were observed on subsequent egg shell thickness, shell weight and yolk index in all three phases, whereas, albumen height and Haugh Unit score during pre-peak and peak phase were effected significantly. In terms of hatching traits, hatchability, fertility, dead in shell and dead germ% did not show any significant difference in all phases. However, clear egg % showed significant difference during peak phase of production.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2477-T] (1).
Effect Of Selenium Supplementation On The Growth Performance Of Quail Chicks From Different Parental Body Weight Categories
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Quail farming, despite having enormous potential, is still one of the neglected components of the poultry sector in the country, reason being very little research work done on its breeding, incubation, housing, nutritional requirements, feeding and overall management. Interaction factor between different parental body weight categories and Selenium sources has never been studied earlier: Therefore, it is of much importance to investigate the effect of selenium on growth performance, body measurements and slaughtering characters of progeny from the parents of variable body weight in Japanese quails. Supplementation of feed with organic selenium may affect growth performance, morphological traits and carcass characteristics of the chicks from parents of different body weight categories. Present study was conducted at Avian Research and Training Center, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS, Lahore for the duration of 04 weeks. Standard managemental conditions were followed, where, birds were maintained in well ventilated octagonal quail house (33×12×9 cubic ft.) equipped with French made multi deck cages. The birds were fed quail ration according to NRC (1994) recommendations. Quail broiler starter crumbs (CP 24% and ME 2900 Kcal/Kg) were provided with addition of Se from different sources. Through nipple drinking system availability of fresh, clean drinking water was ensured. Treatments consisted of 3 parental body weight categories (Heavy, medium and low) and three Se sources (Control, Organic Se @ 0.2mg/kg and Inorganic Se @ 0.4mg/kg). Effect of different Selenium sources on different parental body weight categories was studied regarding progeny growth performance, body measurement and slaughter parameters. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) under Randomized complete block design (RCBD in factorial arrangements using PROC GLM in SAS software. Means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Present study showed that parental body
weight, selenium and their interaction did not show significant effect on growth performance except livability% for which maximum value was observed in heavy x organic group. For body measurements, parental body weight (heavy) interacting with selenium (control) sources resulted in highest measurement of shank length and circumference. Keel length was maximum in heavy x control group. Drumstick length was found highest in medium x inorganic while its circumference was highest in medium x control. Wing spread was found to be the highest in heavy x control group. Regarding slaughtering characteristics live weight was found to be maximum in heavy x control group while regarding dressed weight, heavy x organic group showed the highest value. Dressing% was non-significantly affected by parental body weights, selenium sources and their interaction.
On the basis of the results of present study, it can be concluded that
Parental body weight, selenium and their interaction did not show any significant effect on growth performance of Japanese quail except livability%. The interaction of heavy x control for livability was found to be better.
For body measurements, parental body weight and their interaction with selenium sources significantly affected shank length, shank circumference, keel length, drumstick length and circumference. Wing spread only significantly responded to parental body weight. Selenium was found to be non-significantly affecting all other morphometric measurements.
Regarding slaughtering characteristics parental body weight and their interaction with selenium sources significantly affected live weight and dressed weight. Selenium sources had only significant effect on dressed weight. Live weight was not effected by selenium
supplementation. Dressing% was non-significantly affected by parental body weights, selenium sources and their interaction.
The dose rates of organic and inorganic Selenium especially for Japanese quail need to be fixed.
Carefully planned and well executed studies are needed to fix the dose rates of selenium for Japanese quail.
Organic selenium seems better but again, further experimentation is recommended to use this trace mineral in Japanese quail feeds.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2682-T] (1).
Quality, Nutritional And Organoleptic Evaluation Of Eggs From Different Chicken Genotypes In Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Egg is a miraculous food having all essentials of life. In the recent times, consumer
consciousness regarding egg and egg products is increasing and people prefer to eat eggs from
indigenous breeds over commercial breed, as they consider them of high nutritional value and
good quality. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare egg quality,
proximate composition, macro minerals analysis, fatty acids profile, and organoleptic
evaluation of eggs from 6 different breeds of chicken in Pakistan. For this purpose, 5 bird of
each of the 6 breeds (White Leghorn, White Plymouth Rock, Naked Neck, Aseel, Rhode Island
Red and Fayoumi; 40-50 week of age) were kept under Completely Randomized Design on
litter floor. A total of 10 eggs from each breed were used for egg geometry (Egg Shape index,
surface area, volume) and quality analysis (Egg specific gravity, shell thickness, shell %,
albumen %, albumen index, haugh unit score, albumen pH, yolk pH, yolk %, yolk index, yolk
color, blood and meat spots), 3 from each breed were used for proximate analysis (Moisture
%, Crude Protein %, Lipids %, Ash %, Carbohydrates %), macro minerals (Calcium,
Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Iron) analysis, and fatty acid analysis, respectively. For
organoleptic evaluation, a semi trained panel of 20 people evaluated egg samples randomly
which were boiled at same time peeled and sliced into pieces. The panel evaluated Color,
Aroma, Flavor, Taste, mouth feel, and overall quality of Albumen and Yolk separately on 15-
point hedonic scale. The data were analyzed with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique
under Completely Randomized Design. The significant means were compared using Duncan’s
Multiple Range (DMR) test using SAS 9.4. Results showed no difference among breeds for
egg geometry and shell quality parameter, however, egg specific gravity was significantly
higher in Fayoumi chicken. In albumen quality, Rhode Island Red eggs showed highest
albumen percentage, while Haugh unit score was best in eggs of Aseel, Fayoumi, Naked neck
and Rhode Island Red as compa red to other breeds. But, Albumen index and Albumen pH
remained unaffected by different breeds. Similarly, in yolk quality traits, yolk percentage was
significantly higher in Aseel, Fayoumi and Naked neck, and yolk color in eggs of Fayoumi,
but yolk pH and yolk index remained unaffected by different breeds. Proximate analysis
showed significantly highest moisture and carbohydrate contents in White leghorn eggs while
Protein contents were highest in Aseel, Naked neck and White Plymouth rock. Moreover,
White Plymouth rock eggs also showed more lipid contents, while Ash percentage remained
comparable among different breeds. Macro minerals analysis showed higher Iron contents in
eggs of White leghorn breed, while Fayoumi eggs were higher in Magnesium, Potassium, and
Sodium contents. Naked neck eggs also showed higher Potassium and Calcium contents. Fatty
acid analysis showed higher Myristic acid (C14:0), DPA contents in eggs of White leghorn,
Stearic acid (C18:0) in eggs of Fayoumi and Aseel, Saturated Fatty acids in eggs of Fayoumi,
Palmitoleic acid (C16:1), Oleic acid (C18:1), Linoleic acid (C18:2), Arachidonic acid (C20:4),
EPA, DPA, DHA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-3 fatty acids in White Plymouth rock, n-6 fatty acids
in eggs of Rhode Island Red, While α-Linolenic acid (C18:3) was lowest in eggs of Naked
neck breed as compared to rest of the breeds. But, Naked neck showed higher total lipid
contents as compared to other breeds. During organoleptic evaluation, White Leghorn eggs
showed highest intensity for yolk taste, flavor and mouth feel, whilst, yolk color, aroma and
overall quality remained comparable among different breeds. Likewise, in albumen
organoleptic evaluation, Albumen color was least intense while Albumen Aroma was highest
in Aseel eggs. Albumen taste, flavor and overall quality was highly intense in White Leghorn
as compared to other breeds.
On the basis of the results of the present study it can be concluded that egg geometry was not
affected by genotype variation, however, very interestingly, huge variation was observed
regarding internal egg quality traits, proximate and mineral composition, fatty acid profile as
well as sensory evaluation of the eggs from different chicken breeds.
Suggestions and Recommendations:
Based upon the findings of present study it is suggested for future researchers that:
1. There is a dire need to conduct thorough studies to investigate the genetic basis of
differences among different breeds regarding egg quality attributes.
2. In future breeding plans, egg quality and sensory properties of different breeds must be
kept in mind and incorporated accordingly.
3. Improvement in production performance of indigenous breeds through selection should
be made as these breeds have better egg characteristics and preference by the local
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2683-T] (1).