Cross Sectional Study To Identify Risk Factors Of Appendicular Bone Fractures In Canine And Felines At Pet Clinics In District Lahore
Material type: Book Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: With increasing trend in pet animal’s ownership, bone fractures constitute a major
problem including those caused by traumatic injuries. Orthopedic diseases are common in canine
and felines especially those caused by traumatic injuries. Appendicular fractures affecting femur
and tibia were most common in canine and felines. Forelimb fracture is particularly challenging
in orthopedic surgery as dogs bear most of their weight with the thoracic limbs. Pectoral limb
fractures were due to high energy trauma and therefore can result in both lives threatening
injuries, severe and permanent disability. Understanding the different types of fracture will be
helpful to develop improved techniques of fracture fixation in dogs. Young dogs above one and a
half month to six months are most commonly affected. Therefore management of pet’s
environment by the owner can play an important role in the preventing traumatic injuries in pets.
Recording the occurrence and pattern of appendicular bone fractures in canine and felines to
determine the principal causes is important for their management and control. Fractures in
animal bones have not received the required attention and there are few publications that deal
specifically with their epidemiology. Appendicular bone fractures due to trauma were most
common in canines and felines.
All canine and felines with appendicular bone fractured coming to pet clinics during 4
months and their owners willing to participate were enrolled in the study irrespective of age,
breed, and geography. Pet owners not willing to participate were excluded from the study. Data
about age, sex, breed; clinical signs, radiography report and other risk factors were obtained from
the pet owners on a pre-designed close ended questionnaire. Radiographs of the fractured area
were taken for confirmation of fracture. A cross-sectional study was conducted to classify
different types of fractures and to identify the risk factors associated with appendicular fractures
in canine and felines. The study was conducted for four months. The samples consisted of those
canine and felines brought to the selected three pet clinics with fracture during the study period.
Cases were confirmed after taking their radiographs.
The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0.The dependent variable
“appendicular bone fracture” and independent variables “owner’s education, profession, monthly
income, pet sex, pet breed, weight and physical condition” were analyzed by using SPSS version
20.0. Data entry and analysis was done in SPSS 20.0. Chi-square test was used for statistical
A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Frequencies and percentages of
categorical variables were calculated. Cross tabulations were done among dependent and
independent variables. Chi square test was applied to different risk factors associated with
appendicular bone fracture in canines and felines status to define the significant associations.
The present study collected descriptive epidemiological data on appendicular bone
fractures in canine and felines important for control and prevention of fractures. Also, risk
factors associated with appendicular bone fractures in canine and felines were evaluated that
would be helpful in controlling in future such as accidents and falls.
The current study was conducted at three different pet clinics in District Lahore
namely Pet center UVAS, Dr. Asim Pet clinic Faisal town Lahore, Dr. Zia Pet Hospital DHA
Phase-I Lahore, to evaluate the risk factors leading to the appendicular bone fracture in canine
and felines so that these factors can be identified and possible strategies are taken to avoid bone
fractures in canine and felines. The chi-square test result identified the following 10 factors
strongly associated with the appendicular bone fractures in canine and felines during the study
period, which is
1) Owner’s education.
2) The physical condition of the pet.
3) Taking pet daily for outside walk.
4) Wandering habits of pet.
5) The habit of traveling with pets.
6) Not giving balanced diet daily to the pet.
7) Early weaning within two weeks after birth.
8) Aggressive behavior of the pet.
9) Road accidents.
10) Falling from a height.
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Characterization And Antibiotic Resistance Profile Of Listeria Monocytogenes Isolated From Fish And Broiler Meat
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Gram positive rod shaped, non-spore former Listeria monocytogenes is the major food-borne pathogens for humans and animals. It can cause serious foodborne infection. The bacterium is saprophyte and can grow on wide range of temperature (0-45°C). Due to this it contaminates different food products. Consumption of this contaminated food products can cause serious problems in neonates, pregnant women and immunocompromised peoples. Its signs may develop between day one to three months after ingestion of the organism. The neonates can develop septicemia, respiratory diseases and meningitis. The pregnant woman may develop influenza like symptoms, or keep an asymptomatic infection that ends in abortion, premature birth or sepsis in the newborn. Healthy people hardly develop clinical signs but a febrile gastroenteritis syndrome has been reported. No doubt this disease is associated with unhygienic food consumption and is characterized by fever, nausea, diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain and sometime myalgia. These symptoms may be resolved in one to three days Listeria monocytogenes was isolated by conventional methods and suspected colonies were identified by Gram staining and biochemical tests catalase and oxidase test. The DNA was extracted from isolated colonies by 10% chelex method. The isolated strains were confirmed through PCR by targeting prfA gene of 479bp. Antibiotic resistance were also checked for confirmed isolates. A total of 160 (Fish meat n=80, Broiler meat n=80) samples were taken for the present study for screening Listeria monocytogenes. The bacterium was found in 19/80 (23.75%) samples of Fish and 5/80 (6.25%) of broiler meat samples through PCR detection.
Later the confirmed isolates were tested to check the resistance profile of the bacterium to different commonly available antibiotics. For this 24hrs old culture were used. Three to five colonies were picked by sterile loop and transfer to test tube containing 10ml normal saline. To check the turbidity the tube was compared with 0.5 Macfarland standard. Then by sterile cotton swab the bacterium was spread on Mueller Hinton agar. Antibiotics were placed by sterile forceps on agar. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24hrs. Zones of inhibition were measured in mm by the help of ruler and then compared with staphlycoccus aureus break points in CLSI. The susceptibility result shows that the bacterium was resistant to gentamicin. Mostly L. monocytogenes isolates were susceptible to antibiotics used in this study. This study suggested ampicillin as drug of choice for treatment of listeriosis. Preventive measures should be adopted to avoid the risk of the disease.
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Descriptive Epidemiology And Risk Factors Of Antenatal Depression Among Women Visiting Tertiary Care Hospital In Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Mental health is an important but neglected component of reproductive health. Mental health problems among women of reproductive age group (15–45 yrs.) contributes to 7% of Global Burden of Diseases of women of all ages. During pregnancy prevalence of depression ranges from 4% to 20%. Women with perinatal depression experience full-blown major depression during pregnancy or after delivery (postpartum depression). The feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion that accompany perinatal depression may produce or create difficulties to perform daily care activities for themselves and for their babies. Several risk factors predispose to depression during pregnancy are poor antenatal care, economic deprivation, previous history of psychiatric disorders, previous events during pregnancy like previous abortions, and modes of previous delivery like past instrumental or operative delivery age, marital status, gravidity, whether pregnancy was planned. Antenatal depression was the strongest indicator of postnatal depression. A hospital based cross sectional survey for duration of 4 months (December 2016 to March 2017) was performed in Lady Aitchison hospital Lahore. Pregnant women who visited to the obstetrics and gynecology departments for routine prenatal or perinatal care. Woman belongs to lower middle class was included and women with physical disabilities such as deafness and dumbness as well as those with a history of or ongoing mental illness/retardation was excluded in this study. Sampling was done by using convenience sampling technique and sample size was 300. Information regarding risk factors of antenatal depression was collected by using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh postnatal Depression Scale to assess depression after taking written consent. Data was obtained by face to face interview. Data was analyzed by using SPSS software with 95% confidence
interval. Descriptive analysis was conducted in terms of who, when and where. Frequency distribution and graphs were be made. Chi- Square test was applied to see the association of risk factors. Depression and various risk factors have been identified among pregnant woman. Association found among various risk factors like age, education of woman and husband, occupation of husband, Husband income, Family type, number of persons living in home, number of children’s, number of daughters, trimester of pregnancy, mode of delivery, pregnancy status, fear from childbirth, Bitter experience/Complication in current /previous Pregnancy and Family Support. Through assessment provide an opportunity in need of intervention to safeguard the well-being of mother and baby and reduce the impact of antenatal depression on the mother, her baby, and her family.
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Risk Factors Of Severe Pneumonia Among Children; A Hospital Based Case Control Study In Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Pneumonia is an infectious disease which causes inflammation of alveoli and airway structure of lungs. Pneumonia causes infant and children morbidity and mortality significantly.. It spreads through droplet infection. Epidemics of pneumonia occur in winter and spring. The sign and symptoms of the pneumonia are fever, cough, stridor, wheezing, tachypnea and respiratory distress. Pneumonia is transmitted through coughing and sneezing via air-borne droplets. Risk factors of pneumonia are less socio economic status, indoor crowding, indoor pollution, and contact with the persons having acute respiratory illness, poor access to health facilities and lower maternal education status.
A case-control study for duration of 4 months (December 2016 to March 2017) was performed in tertiary care hospital Lahore. Target population was the children 2- 59 months of age admitted in Pediatrics and Accident and Emergency Department in tertiary care hospital Lahore. Children 2-59 months of age meeting the case definitions admitted in the Tertiary Care Hospital Lahore. Children meeting the control criteria were selected as control visiting the Tertiary Care Hospital Lahore and children’s guardians who were willing to participate in the study were enrolled. Sampling was done by using convenience sampling techniques and sample size was 162 cases and 162 controls. Data was obtained by face to face interview with child’s guardian. A detail questionnaire regarding various risk factors was filled after taking written consent from the child’s guardian. Data was analyzed by using SPSS software with 95% confidence interval. Chi square test was used to compare the impact of various predictors on prevalence of pneumonia and odds ratios was calculated using logistic regression test at a significance level of 95%.
Many risk factors were significantly associated with severe pneumonia among children 2-59 months of age like low socio economic conditions, low maternal and parental education, contact with the member having upper respiratory tract infection, having contact with member suffering from URTI, hospitalization due to diarrheal illness and being underweight were found strongly associated with severe pneumonia (having odds ratios more than 1) among children 2-59 months of ages in this study.
Health education should be given to promote exclusive breast feeding. Awareness campaign should be started to give awareness on the importance of vaccination programmes. Government should provide more health care facilities. People should be encouraged to involve themselves in income generating activities in order to reduce the poverty levels.
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Spatial Ecology And Distribution Of Soil Borne Burkholderia Mallei In Punjab, Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Burkholderia mallei is a causative agent of glanders, the disease of equines. The disease is characterized by pulmonary, nasal and cutaneous forms. B. mallei is excreted through nasal discharge, lacerated skin/wounds and expiration. Diseased animals shed bacteria through the discharges contaminating soil, water, fodder and other susceptible animals in its vicinity. The present study was designed to map and investigate the association of different physical factors and soil chemistry analytes with persistence of B. mallei genome in soil of 10% percent villages (n=456) from eight selected districts of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Eleven (0.48%) out of 2, 280 soil samples were positive for B. mallei genome in varied locations of Punjab. Higher prevalence (2.37%) for genome was detected in Sheikhupura district followed by Chakwal district (2.10%). None of the samples from Gujranwala, Sahiwal, DG Khan, Attock, Faisalabad and Sargodha districts were found positive for B. mallei genome. The genome of B. mallei was distributed in 25% study districts of Punjab, Pakistan. In Chakwal district, the genome of B. mallei was strongly associated with moisture (p=0.008) in all positive samples ranging from 0.80 to 39.20%, Phosphorous (p=0.050) ranging from 1.74 to 21.75 mg/Kg. While, this association in Sheikhupura district soil samples was with Sodium (p=0.018) and moisture (0.026) ranging from 1.90 to 133.59 mg/Kg and 0.80 to 39.20%, respectively. The odds of detecting DNA of B. mallei were recorded higher (1.4, 6.8, 5.0, 2.8 and 10.6 ) when soil sample sites were < 500 meters away from vehicular traffic roads, < one kilometer from animal markets, < 100 meters from canal, animal density < 1,000 animals and human population < 300 houses/village. While the odds of detecting DNA of B. mallei were 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.5 when soil sample sites were > 500 meters from vehicular traffic roads, > one kilometer from animal markets, > 100 meters from canal, animal density > 1000 animals and human population > 300 houses/village, respectively. Soil-borne B. mallei DNA is more likely to be detected in areas closer to roads with vehicular traffic along the interstate routes in Punjab and soil containing low level of moisture.
It was concluded that soil of two districts out of eight selected was positive for B. mallei genome in Punjab province. Odds of less distance from main road to animal farm and high animal density at farm were positively associated with B. mallei DNA persistence in soil. Moisture, sodium and phosphorus were positively associated with persistence of B. mallei DNA in soil.
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Study On Contamination Of Toxigenic Staphylococcus Aureus In Frozen Desserts And Its Public Health Significance
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Frozen desserts are ice cream and other ices which are kept frozen or at low temperature that are said to be frozen dairy desserts. Frozen desserts include ice cream, ice milk and other edible ices. Ice cream is mainly prepared with milk fat which is about 10-16% according to manufacturer standard, without fat milk solids is almost 9-12%, sugar mainly sucrose is about 9-12%, it has water about 55 - 64% and 0.200.50% are stabilizeror emulsifier
In this study 100 samples of commercially prepared frozen desserts were collected and analyzed microbiologically. Nine towns of Lahore were studied, 10 samples were collected from each town from the street venders/local manufacturer, total 90 samples from venders/local manufacturers and 10 samples were collected from the brands outlets. Frozen desserts include dairy frozen dessert, synthetic frozen dessert and some frozen dairy desserts. These samples were culture on Baird Parker agar and the isolated bacteria were further confirmed by PCR tests for detection and identification of the genes encoding Staphylococcal Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcal Enterotoxin type B.
Total 100 samples were processed microbiologically to identify the S. aureuscontamination in frozen desserts. Samples were taken from street vendors and local manufacturers. The results showed that 64% of the dairy frozen desserts were found positive by Staphylococcus spp. 56.25% of the isolates were coagulase positive. The PCR results showed that 17.8% of the S. aureusisolates possess type A gene, while 12.5% had the type B gene, and 9.3% carry both genes.
Laboratory results showed that street vendors which do not have any hygienic conditions as well as temperature maintenance system for their product, they were found contaminated with S. aureus. Major factor of S. aureuscontamination is the personnel handling involvement in the manufacturing frozen desserts. Personnel who were not following hygienic rules to manufacture frozen desserts were found contaminated withS. aureus.S. aureuscan survive at low temperature but cannot grow and produce enterotoxins at low temperature whenever there is a temperature fluctuation S. aureus grows and produce enterotoxins, which could be public health hazard Street vendors don’t have any temperature control system when there is no electricity.Frozen dessert consumers are at risk to get food borne illness or food poisoning.
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