Epidemiological Studies And Chemotherapy Of Postparturient Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: The district Gujranwala lies at northern part of the Punjab in Pakistan. It is situated between two main cities, in North is Gujrat and in South, there are Sheikhupura and Lahore. The majority of the population lives in the rural areas and mainly earns their livelihood through agriculture. The source of irrigation is perennial and non-perennial canals supplemented by tube wells. This area is heavily populated with buffaloes rather than cattle. Buffalo is playing a foremost role in the national economy by producing milk, meat and draught power. Out of total milk produced in the country, buffalo contributes about 68 %. Due to high fat contents of buffalo milk, it is the ideal species in Pakistan (Bilal et al. 2006). Buffaloes suffer from many fatal diseases throughout the year causing irretrievable economic losses in the GDP. Among these fatal diseases, Postparturient haemoglobinuria is a frightening problem for the economy of Pakistan and as well as for the whole world.
Postparturient haemoglobinuria is a periodic condition seen worldwide that most frequently affects high-yielding dairy animals at the onset of lactation. It is characterized by development of per acute intravascular hemolysis and anemia with potentially lethal results. Beef and non-lactating cattle are hardly ever affected. The exact cause is unidentified, but phosphorus reduction or hypophosphatemia is known to be a major predisposing factor. Decrease in the Phosphorus level of RBCs is known to raise osmotic tenderness of the RBCs, probably predisposing to intravascular hemolysis. A parallel condition reported in New Zealand was linked with copper depletion, potentially building
RBCs were more prone to oxidative trauma. Other potential causes were hemolytic or oxidative plant toxins (Michael A. Moses and Aiello 2014).
In buffalo rearing countries mainly in India, Pakistan and Egypt, Postparturient haemoglobinuria was a major problem as described by (Pirzada and Hussain 1998). Acute hypo phosphataemia was linked with high producing buffaloes and characterized by intravascular hemolysis (Kurundkar et al. 1981).
Postparturient haemoglobinuria was a disease of high yielding buffaloes in district Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Faisalabad where soil was deficient in mineral contents. The disease was distinguished by icteric and inflexible constipation in pregnant animal (Hussain et al. 1991). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was mainly disease of buffaloes and found in almost all the districts of Pakistan (Pirzada and Hussain 1998).
In buffaloes, Postparturient haemoglobinuria occurred mostly after 3rd week of parturition during 3rd to 5th lactation having a period of 5 to 6 days of illness (Nagpal et al. 1968). The occurrence of hypophosphatemia was highest in buffaloes in progressive pregnancy or in 3rd to 6th lactation (Gautam et al. 1972).
Multiparous females were mostly affected by Hypo phosphataemia and a range of etiological factors were reported to be related with the disease in unusual parts of the world (Singari et al. 1991). Dietary phosphorus shortage and rations containing cruciferous plants were supposed causes of rigorous hypo phosphataemia and had been associated with hemolytic anemia in cows and buffaloes (Heuer and Bode 1998).
Mucous membranes turned pale or might become icteric with the development of anemia and breathing became rapid and shallow with tachycardia (Spears 2003). During third to sixth lactation of adult dairy buffaloes, this disease was more frequently seen, showing weakness and recumbency (Macwilliams et al. 1982). The occurrence of the disease in the total cattle population was very stumpy with a case fatality rate ranging from 10% to 50% (Madsen and Nielsen 1939). Sporadically, farms with a predominantly elevated incidence might be encountered but typically only one or two cases were clinically evident at one time (Freudenberg 1955). In Australia, about 70% cases were reported within 30 days of calving (Mulijns and Ramsay 1959). Bulls, ante partum cows, heifers less than two years old and beef cows were rarely affected. A disease called as "red water" in Ontario, was allied with numerous predisposing factors which integrated recent parturition, intense milk production, dietetic phosphorus absence, utilization of turnips, rape, kale, green alfalfa and sugar beet pulp (Macwilliams et al. 1982).
Postparturient haemoglobinuria was one of the foremost and economically important diseases of dairy animals in Pakistan, India and elsewhere in the world (Macwilliams et al. 1982; Chugh et al. 1996; Pirzada and Hussain 1998). Diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical signs, urinalysis and hematological reports of the examined animals (Madsen and Nielsen 1939).
In a survey conducted during 1996 in Punjab (Pakistan), mortality rate due to Postparturient haemoglobinuria in buffaloes and cattle was 5% which translated into estimated annual losses of Rs. 490.2 and 153.1 million, respectively (Farooq et al. 2007).
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Comparison Between Aspiration And Slicing Methods For Retrieval Of Oocytes In Bovine
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Livestock contribution to agriculture stood at 55.9 percent while it contributes 11.8 percent to the national GDP during 2013-14. Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat population in Pakistan is 34.6, 39.7, 29.1 and 66.6 million numbers during 2013-14. Total milk production from buffalo and cattle as major milk producing animals is 31,252 and 18,027 (000 tons) (Economic Survey of Pakistan 2013-14).
Advanced biotechnologies coming from different areas of biological sciences exhibit great promise to enhance the efficiency of livestock production. From these technologies one such biotechnology is the use of in vitro maturation of follicular oocytes and in vitro fertilization for production of livestock embryos in laboratory. Proper oocytes recovery and their selection in the laboratory are of great importance for successful in vitro embryo production. Total one hundred and forty four ovaries (n=144) from cattle (72 ovaries) and buffalo (72 ovaries) were collected and 223 oocytes were retrieved from these ovaries. Average oocytes per ovary were 1.66 + 0.43 oocytes per ovary were obtained via aspiration and 1.89 + 0.00 average oocytes per ovary through slicing method from cattle ovaries. Average 1.55 ± 0.55 oocytes per ovary via aspiration and 1.53 ± 0.20 oocytes per ovary through slicing from buffalo ovaries.
Overall grade-A oocytes were 28 (40) percent with aspiration in cattle and 25(36.76) through slicing method. In buffalo overall grade-A oocytes retrieval was obtained in percentage as 20 (44.44) and 26 (52) through aspiration and slicing methods respectively. Grade-B oocytes recovery obtained was in percentage as 23 (33.82) with slicing and 19 (31.67) through aspiration technique from cattle ovaries.
Commonly used methods of recovery of oocytes from slaughterhouse animals are aspiration and slicing. Recovery rate of oocytes is different from slaughterhouse ovaries. Aspiration is the best method for retrieval of good quality oocytes from slaughterhouse bovine ovaries because it gave more good quality oocytes in less time than slicing method. In this study, it is found that weight of ovary and no. of follicles/ovary in cattle have strong correlation of 71% existed between weight of ovary and no. of follicles /ovary in buffalo was observed. Correlation between average number of follicles on ovary and weight /ovary was stronger in cattle. The more the number of follicles present on the ovaries and more weight of the ovary, the more will be the recovery of oocytes.
In cattle average number of follicles was 10.09 ± 0.30 and when it was checked in buffalo, differed significantly and it was found as 7.16 ± 0.19 on an average per ovary. Likewise weight of buffalo in this study was differed significantly from cattle 4.04 ± 0.10 and 7.62 ± 0.15 respectively. It is suggested that oocytes retrieval should be done in buffalo using aspiration method to retrieve better quality oocytes.
It is concluded that aspiration is the suitable method for retrieval of good quality oocytes from slaughterhouse buffalo ovaries because it gave more good quality oocytes in less time than slicing method. But both methods have minor difference between recovery rates but aspiration is more convenient than slicing and it yields more quality oocytes. It is also found that there is very strong correlation existed between average weight of ovary and number of follicles per ovary and the both parameters play a great help for more quality and quantity oocytes.
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Effect Of Royal Jelly On Post Thaw Semen Quality Parameters Of Beetal Buck
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Pakistan is an agricultural country. Livestock plays a major role in the agriculture. Among livestock goat population is highest. In Pakistan Beetle is the most important breed of goat and is known as poor man’s cow. This goat is kept for dual purpose for milk and meat production. Artificial insemination is most valuable technique to improve the production and genetic potential of the goat. Cryopreserved semen has many biochemical, structural and functional problems. These detrimental effects produced by cryopreservation compromise the fertility of goat by decreasing post thaw motility, concentration, viability, plasma membrane and DNA integrity. These detrimental effects are due to many reasons among them production of reactive oxygen species is the most important ones. For last many years’ various solutions have been made to overcome the detrimental effect of reactive oxygen species. Various antioxidants are added in all domestic animals and their positive results have been demonstrated by many researchers. RJ is among these antioxidants which improve the sperm parameters.
RJ administration in the semen extenders has been shown to improve the post thaw motility, viability, DNA and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) of Beetal buck semen.
The study was conducted at Al-Haiwan Sires district Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan. For this study 3 regular semen donors Beetal bucks were used for semen collection. Semen was collected twice a week and total 7 collections was taken from each buck. After each collection semen of bucks was pooled to avoid individual buck variations and was divided into 5 equal parts in test tube containing extender with different concentration of royal jelly. These concentrations were . 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% RJ. Semen was cryopreserved in LN2.. On post thaw motility, livability, plasma membrane, DNA and acrosome integrity was evaluated.
Different royal jelly concentrations were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA).Duncan Multiple Range (DMR) test was used to compared the significant differences. Results of different group were expressed as mean ±SEM.
The results show that motility%, Plasma Membrane Integrity %, viability %, Normal Apical Ridge % and DNA integrity% of sperms was significantly high at 1% royal jelly concentration as compare to control and other treatment group.
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