Comparative Efficacy Of Suturing Techniques And Suture Materials For End-To-End Anastomosis Of Small Intestine in Dogs
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The small intestine is a tube-like structure, which extends between the stomach and largeintestine. It starts at the pylorus and terminates at the cecocolic junction. Small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids, carbohydrates, fats and electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions. Any disease condition of jejunum like neoplasia or devitalization due to foreign body necessitates the resection of it. This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different suturing techniques and suture material applied during end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine. The study was designed on eighteen stray dogs. The dogs were divided into 3 groups i.e group A, B, and C comprising 6 animals each. Each group was further subdivided into the subgroups as, Al, A2, Bi, B2 and Cl, C2. The dogs of group A was numbered from 1-6, group B from 7-12, and group C from 13-18 for the identification purpose. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia. In group A, Simple interrupted, group B modified Gambee and in group C interrupted Lembert suturing technique for end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine was used. In subgroup Al, B, C! chromic catgut and in subgroup A2, B2 an C3 polyglyconate suture materials was used.
In group Cl, operated dog No.2 died on day 16 post operatively. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of health status including vomiting, diarrhea, and weight gain or weight loss, wound healing, radiographic assessment, decrease in lumen diameter, alignment of tissue plane and quality of wound healing of the anastomotic site in all three group A, B and C. The leakage was checked at 2, 4, 6 and 12 week post surgery using contrast radiographs. During the study period the dogs were housed in the kennels available at Surgery Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
The present project is clearly indicated that modified Gambee suturing technique was found to be more suitable and compatible anastomotic technique with excellent clinical superiority. It resulted in the batter wound healing, minimal lekage, minimal reduction in lumen diameter at the anastomotic site, excellent in its alignment of tissue plane, satisfactory clinical layer to layer healing , is simple to duplicate under field conditions and minimal abdominal complication.
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Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Cattle
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great
economic importance in cattle industry. The current project was designed to estimate the
prevalence of anaplasmosis, ticks and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of
Anaplasma marginale among cattle in Sargodha, Khushab and Rawalpindi districts,
Punjab, Pakistan. Moreover, haematological changes in A. marginale infected cattle and
efficacy of chemosterilization regimens were evaluated using locally available drugs for
the elimination of adult naturally infected carrier cattle.
A total of 1050 blood, serum and tick specimens were collected from randomly
selected small holders (n=90) and private livestock farms (n= 12) using multistage cluster
random sampling technique. A total of 30 union councils, 34 cattle farms (30 small
holders and 4 livestock farms) and 350 cattle were selected as primary, secondary and
elementary sampling units from each district. Sampling unit was indigenous and
crossbred cattle of both the sexes.
Microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood mears revealed an overall
prevalence of blood parasites as 21.14%. Anaplasma marginale was the highe t prevalent
(5.81 %) haernoparasite of cattle followed in order by Theileria sp. (5.14%) and Babesia
bigemina (4.76%), respectively. Crossbred cattle were more susceptible to TBDs as
compared to the indigenous cattle. Highest prevalence of TBDs was recorded in summer.
The prevalence of tick-transmitted diseases was higher in small holders (31.3%) than
private livestock farms (17.5%). Chi square analysis indicated a significant association
(P<0.05) among indigenous and crossbred cattle to selected TBDs. Wherea. non-
significant association between different age groups, seasons, sex and farm sizes were
The overall seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle using cELlSA was
31.05%. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred cattle of more than 4 years of age and
there was a significant (P<O.OO I) association between different age groups and breed. The
seroprevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in summer season in Sargodha and
Khushab districts. Moreover, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in small holders
in all study districts.
The epidemiological data and relevant information regarding area, host and farm
management factors were collected on a questionnaire through interview from each dairy
farmer, attendant or manager from September, 2009 to August, 20 10. Multivariate
analysis of risk factors revealed that cattle of more than 4 year of age (OR=5.42), heavy
tick infested (OR =2.10), crossbred (OR = 1.59) cattle were significantly at higher risk for
seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale. Presence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)
microplus (OR=3.70), use of ivermectin (OR=3.97), moderate interval of acaricide
frequency (OR= 16.50), stall feeding (OR=4.90) and use of unhygienic needles
(OR=24.00) were significantly associated with seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale
in cattle (P<0.05). The Sargodha district was at higher risk (OR = 1.81) as compared to
Khushab and Rawalpindi.
The tick species identified from cattle were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum,
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguine us, Rhipicephalus
(Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. The overall prevalence of tick infestation
among cattle was 54.76%. The highest prevalence (57.71%) of cattle tick infestation was tick infested sites in cattle followed by dewlap (92%), inner thighs (90%), neck & back (54%), tail (26%), ears (13%), around eyes (10%), flanks (4%) and legs (2%).
The haematological changes were studied at different levels of parasitaemia " 7%, >7-15% and> 15%) in Anaplasma marginale infected Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. There was a significant difference (P<O.OS) among total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular
haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) at different levels of rickettsemia in both breeds. ignificant difference (P<O.OS) was noticed among RBCs, PCV and MCH blood parameters between Sahiwal and crossbred cattle.
A total of sixty Anaplasma marginale seropositive adult Sahiwal cattle were selected having their ages between 3-4 years ranging in weight from 246-341 kg. The animals were divided in four groups designated as OXY -group-I, E RO-group-II, IMC- group-III and control-group-IV, comprising IS animals each. The seropositive animals received oxytetracycline (22 mglkg IV once in a day for five days), enrofloxacin (S mglkg IV once in a day for five days) or imidocarb (S mglkg 1M twice, 7 days apart). Re ult of chemosterilization study indicated that oxytetracycline 13/1S (86.67%) and irnidocarb
dipropionate II/IS (73.33%) eliminated Anaplasma marginale infection in adult naturally infected carrier cattle on S6th day. The carrier clearance was confirmed by cELISA followed by subinoculation of blood in seronegative splenectomized calves.
It was concluded that TTBDs are widely distributed in Punjab, Pakistan. Host. management and area factors are involved with the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Haemolytic anaemia is the major haematological finding of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Oxytetracycline is more effective and safe In chemosterilization of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. There is a need for country wide epidemiological studies on ticks and TBDs using advanced serological
and molecular techniques. Moreover, the identification of the potential vector of anaplasmosis should be required for the effective prevention and control of anaplasmosis in Pakistan.
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Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Method And Staple Suture Technique For Intestinal Aanastomosis In Dogs
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Intestinal resection and anastomosis is frequently essential during abdominal surgeries. Indications for intestinal resection are malignancy, inflammation, stricture formation, injuries and ischemia. Several surgical situations necessitate the resection of intestinal segments and the formation of consistent anastomoses. Conventionally, a large diversity of suture materials has been used to make hand-sewn anastomoses. Surgical stapler was made for the first time at the beginning of 20th century but its use remained limited in gastrointestinal surgery. Currently, stapled anastomoses is an essential part of the majority of the gastrointestinal surgeries. The simple-interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique, in which absorbable monofilament suture material is used, is presently believed to be the technique of choice for end-to-end bowel anastomosis. This procedure is mostly used in gastrointestinal surgeries with comparatively lesser complications. Intestinal anastomosis with skin staples was started by military surgeons for the soldiers suffering from bowel trauma caused by gunfire. In this technique, stainless steel skin staples were used to create a seromuscular intestinal anastomoses. There are several types of staplers available in markets, e.g. circular ligators, clip appliers, endoscopic staplers etc. The circular stapler is a disposable anastomotic instrument that places a round, double staggered row of titanium staples connecting intervening tissues. It can generate an end-to-end, end-to-side, or side-to-side anastomosis. This round stapler is available with a variety of staple line diameters to be used according to need. In current years, there has been a large shift from hand-sewn method towards the use of intestinal stapler in gastrointestinal surgery. They present a possible reduction in operational timing and are easy to learn and use than for hand-sewn method. So, staplers are very popular in the trainee. This research project was tested on 12 mongrel dogs divided randomly into two different groups (A and B). Each group comprised of 6 dogs. Conventional hand-sewn method of end-to-end anastomosis was applied on group A and stapled anastomosis was made in the dogs of group B. Two surgical techniques were applied for end to end anastomosis of jejunum. In group-A conventional hand-sewn anastomosis technique was applied. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and then anatomosed with simple interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique. The absorbable, monofilament suture material was applied manually. This is currently considered the method of choice for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in small animal surgery. This technique is well described and has been used throughout the canine gastrointestinal tract with a relatively low complication rate. In group-B a circular mechanical stapler was used to construct anastomosis. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and end-to-end anatomosis was made using a mechanical stapler. Comparison of both techniques was made on the basis of clinical parameters (temperature, pulse, respiration, vomiting, diarrhea and blood in feces), radiographic evaluation, exploratory laparotomy, change in lumen diameter and duration of surgical procedure. There is a significant difference in change in diameter within each group before and after surgery but there is no significant difference in change in diameter or stenosis formation between these two groups. There is a significant difference in the duration of operation; stapled group significantly requires an average of 10 minutes less than conventional hand-sewn method. Conclusively it was inferred that there is no significant difference in change in diameter between stapled group and hand sewn group but the anastomosis construction time is shorter in stapled group. Stapled anastomosis is safe and faster technique than hand-sewn method. The prevalence of low complication rate makes it all the more ideal for application in routine practices.
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Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutic Study On Babesiosis In Different Breeds Of Cattle In Balochistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Babesiosis which is also called as piroplasmosisis, Texas fever, redwater or tick fever, is an emerging, tick-transmitted (by a vector ixodidea) disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia having considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. Keeping in view the importance of babesiosis under local conditions, the present study was designed to evaluate the status babesiosis in Balochistan. For this purpose field and experimental studies were carried in two districts Quetta and Sibi of Balochistan Province to find out the status of babesiosis in Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Crossbred cattle. During field study epidemiological status of babesiosis was highlighted by selecting 600 cattle randomly from each district. The animals were distributed into 2 major groups i.e. Young animals less than 12 months and adult over 12 months of age. These groups were further sub-divided into Young animals (less than 6 months, up to 9 months and up to 12 months) while Adults animals (up to 2 years, 3 years and over 3 years). The vector of babesia was also kept under keen observation for the prevalence/infestation rate, identification and economic losses caused during the course of study. Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for further confirmation of babesia infection. The blood samples were also processed for hematological study to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters. For experimental study 148 animals were selected through clinical signs of babesiosis, blood smear examination and PCR. Out of theses 40 animals were maintained for therapeutic trail to find out the cheapest and easily available drug against bovine babesiosis. For this purpose Neem leaves were used in decoction form while Imidocarb dipopionate was kept as standard control. The
results of epidemiological study revealed higher prevalence of babesiosis (20.5%) in district Quetta while 15.16% was recorded in District Sibi. Similarly higher prevalence was recorded in Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle respectively in both districts Quetta and Sibi. Furthermore higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in adult groups of Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle. Similarly season wise higher prevalence of babesia infection was noticed in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter respectively while higher prevalence was noted in female group of animals than male animals. Blood smears examination and PCR confirmed two babesia species i.e. babesia bigemina and babesia bovis. Similarly Boophilus tick species were identified as the vector of babesia parasites. During present study mixed hemoprotozaon infection of babesia mixed with theileria was recorded in both districts. The results of conventional method and modern diagnostic technique (PCR) revealed that PCR identified higher babesia infection during the entire 4 seasons as well as in all age groups whereas blood smears examination was capable to diagnose babesiosis in adult groups during the months of summer and spring season. Breed wise prevalence was also higher in samples treated with PCR than blood smears examination and even samples that were declared negative by blood smears examination were also found positive. The results of complete blood cell count from blood samples of infected experimental animal showed regenerative, macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Blood smear examination showed presence of many babesia with reticulocytes. Abnormalities in erythrocyte structure were seen. The result of blood parameters of total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin showed significant decrease in all three affected Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Cross bred cattle. The values of MCV and MCH were increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal value. No efficacy of neem decoction was noted against bovine babesiosis.
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