Prevalence Of Fasciolosis In Sheep And Goats Under Range Management Conditions In Azad Jammu And Kashmir
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Fasciolosis is the disease of sheep, goats, cattle and other ruminants. Human and equines are unusual hosts in which instead of liver the flukes may found in lungs or under the skin. Transmission depends on an intermediate host lymnae snail. Animal ingest metacercaria, the worm migrates to the liver where it causes extensive damage and mature worm lives in bile duct. The disease occurs as an acute, sub-acute or chronic infection. Chronic Fasciolosis characterized by anemia, hypoalbuminaemia, emaciation, submandibular edema and loss of condition. Clinical disease is well known but sub clinical infections are often unnoticed, leading to marked economic losses, reduced milk yield, weight loss, reduced fertility and immunity, consequently leading to significant economic losses. Fasciolosis has recently been recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease. Infections in human may be asymptomatic but sometimes nonspecific pain in abdomen, anorexia, dyspepsia and vomiting may occur. Pain in right hypochondrium, epigastrium and jaundice occurs in chronic phase. Sometimes ectopic migration of worm causes abscesses in many organs.
The present study investigates the prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats at different geographic locations on the basis of altitudes in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. 4662 (sheep n=2242; goat n=2420) fresh fecal samples from sheep and goats were collected from three village/towns each of Mirpur, Poonch and Muzaffarabad Divisions. Stool samples were collected from 566 pastoral families of AJK to determine the zoonotic potential of the disease. Prevalence of the disease was calculated on the basis of centrifugal floatation and sedimentation techniques.
The intensity of infection was calculated using the McMaster egg counting technique. The risk factors of the disease studied included altitude, season, sex, age, and effect of deworming and flock size on the rate of prevalence. An overall prevalence was recorded as
17.88%. Prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep revealed 26.49% and that of goats 9.91%. The data was analyzed using Chi-square test which revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease in sheep and goats. The overall prevalence rate in both species was recorded as15.09% at altitude <3000 feet, 25.00% at 3000-6000 and 15.74% at >6000. The highest prevalence was recorded at an altitude 3000-6000 feet. Chi- square values showed significant difference (P<0.05) among three different altitudes. The altitude of 3000-6000ft showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats. The overall prevalence showed 13.93% rates in spring and 21.77% in autumn. Chi-square values showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease, higher in autumn than Spring. Sex wise prevalence showed 16.67% in male and 18.59% in female animals. The data showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in Chi-square analysis. The prevalence of the disease in the age group below 1 year was 04.40%, 1-4 years revealed 17.73% disease and 36.18% in >4 year. The data showed significantly different (P<0.05) rates in all age groups. Highest prevalence was recorded in sheep and goats above 4 year of age and lowest in those below 1 year. The prevalence in animals with no recent history of deworming was recorded 23.22%. The data showed 15.37% disease in small flocks of sheep and goats <30 as compared to 18.72% in large flocks >30. Chi-square showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of the disease in large flocks.
Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was used to evaluate the contribution of risk factors (epidemiological factors) to the variations in the prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats. All the epidemiological factors i.e. altitude, species, season, gender, age group, deworming and flock size were processed. The deworming appeared to be the most significant factor in the model contributing maximum variations in disease with highest Odds followed by age groups,
species, season, altitude, flock size and gender. The risk factors for the Fasciolosis in sheep and goats were found, lack of practice of deworming, age group >4 year, species sheep, season Autumn, altitude 3000-6000 and flock size >30. The 75% of the disease prevalence was due to above mentioned risk factors. The deworming, specie goat, age group <1 year, season Spring, altitude <3000, and flock size less than 30 were appeared to be the protective factors in the Generalized Linear Model.
The intensity of infection was analyzed through Factorial analysis for difference in species, altitude and season. The difference in eggs per gram of feces was found significantly different (P<0.05) in sheep and goats. The effect of season on egg per gram (EPG) of feces showed a higher mean values in sheep (191.49) and goats (219.72) in Autumn as compared to 158.04 and 180.61 in Spring. In both seasons the mean for goats was found higher than sheep. The effect was found significant (P<0.05), higher during Autumn. Factorial analysis of the data showed significant interaction (P<0.05) between species and altitude. The data showed mean values for sheep 174.04, 191.87 and 168.33 at altitude <3000, 3000-6000 and >6000 feet respectively. The mean values for goats were 232.22, 194.95 and 170.59. The data revealed higher mean for goats as compared to sheep on all three altitudes. Goats revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) number of EPG. POST HOC Tukeys test showed a non-significant difference in intensity of disease between <3000 and 3000-6000 feet, rest of the differences were significant (P<0.05).
The overall prevalence in pastoral communities of AJK was 0.88%. The samples were collected from male and female of 4 age groups <10 year, 11-20, 21-40 and >40. The prevalence in male was 0.76 and in female was 0.98%. The data showed that age groups below 20 year were
the susceptible groups in both sexes. The highest prevalence (2.25%) was found in female age group 11-20 year. Age groups above 20 year did not revealed any positive sample.
227 adult liver flukes were collected from livers of infected animals of different animal species (sheep, goats. cattle and buffaloes) and geographic locations for morphometric and molecular identification of the species of Fasciola. Flukes were identified on the basis of measurements of body length, body width, diameter of suckers, distance between oral and ventral sucker and distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of the body. The measurements of F. hepatica showed a body length range 13-34mm with an average length of 21.51mm whereas, F. gigantica ranged from 28-52mm with an average of 42.27mm. The average body lengths of F. hepatica below 3000ft was 21.9, at 3000-6000ft was 21.07 and above 6000 ft was 22.00mm and that of F. gigantica was 42.05 and 42.44mm at 3000 and 3000-6000 feet. The measurements of F. hepatica revealed an average body width of 10.05mm, average diameter of oral and ventral suckers of 0.74 and 1.28mm respectively and average distance between the two suckers of 1.34mm. The readings for F. gigantica were 9.46, 0.89, 1.55 and 1.72mm respectively. Average distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of the fluke in case of F. hepatica was 18.35mm at all three altitudes and host species of animals and it was 38.26mm in case of F. gigantica. The overall mean worm load was 13.56 worms per liver of animal with a range 5-26. The mean worm load of F. hepatica was 10.9 and that of F. gigantica 13.11. Mixed infections were noted at altitudes below 6000 ft. Infestation with F. gigantica was not found at altitudes above 6000ft and F. hepatica was encountered at all three altitudes. 51.98% of the recovered flukes were F. gigantica which showed the equal chances of infection with either species of Fasciola in AJK. The results revealed that F. hepatica was the fluke affecting animal population at altitude above 6000 ft and F. gigantica was the major fluke below
3000 ft. At altitudes between 3000-6000ft, 36.20% of flukes were F. hepatica while its prevalence was reduced to 17.30% below 3000 ft. Once the species of the liver flukes were identified morphologically they were subjected to molecular conformation through amplification of the genomic DNA of the two species through PCR using two sets of species specific primers. In the PCR based on primer set 1, a product of 391 bp was generated from the genomic DNA of Fasciola hepatica whereas no product was generated from the DNA of Fasciola gigantica. PCR based on primer set 2 amplified a 235-bp product from the DNA of Fasciola gigantica. The molecular identification in the present study showed that morphometric identification of the two species is valid and standard population of both species were found present at different geographic locations and species of the animals of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir except F. gigantica not found above 6000 feet altitude.
The ethno veterinary practices for Fasciolosis were documented through Participatory Rural Appraisal. A total of 173 respondents/key informants were interviewed during the study period in the study area. The majority of the traditional healers (n=33) elders of pastoral families (n=53) and sheep/goats owners (n=56) were above the age of 40 year. Veterinary officers (n=6) and assistants (n=25) were interviewed as a part of verification process. 31.69% of the respondents were found using allopathic anthelmintic along with ethno veterinary medicines. 53.52% of the respondents were using ethno veterinary medicines because of non-availability or cost effectiveness of allopathic anthelmintic. 95.18% of the respondents were using plants or part of the plant as traditional anthelmintic in their sheep or goats.18 plant families were identified during the survey which include Acanthaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Boraginaceae, Cannabinaceae, Chenopodaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae,
Gentianaceae, Juglandaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Oxalidaceae, Punicaceae, Rhamnaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae. The species of medicinal plants identified during the study were Berberis lyceum, Nicotiana tabacum, Asparagus officinale, Calotropis procera, Aloe vera, Mallotus philippensis, Adhato davesica, Artemisia scoparia, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Artimisia maritime, Verbascum Thapsus, Acacia Arabica, Cordlia myxa, Cannabis sativa, Rhamnus purpurea, Juglansregia, Oxalis corniculata, Punica granantum, Artimisa fragrans, Swertia petiolata and Abutilon indicum.
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Assessment Of Avian And Mammalian Diversity At Selected Sites Along River Chenab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The River Chenab is an important wetland of Punjab province and the tree plantations around the
river are the part of tropical thorn forest. But as a consequence of deforestation much of the
natural forested areas have been turned to agricultural land. The main objective of study was to
assess the avian and mammalian diversity of the study area; to identify and assess anthropogenic
impacts on avian and mammalian diversity of the study area; and to explore the level of humanwildlife
conflict selected sites of river Chenab i.e. district Sialkot, district Gujrat and district
Gujranwala from May, 2013 through April. Surveys were made during dawn (5:00 am to 8:00
am) and dusk (4:00 pm to 7:00 pm).
During the waterfowl study recorded 51 species belonging to 33 genera, 16 families and 8 orders
were recorded from the study area. Throughout the year a total of 2531 birds from recorded from
head Marala, 2026 from the head Khanki and 2230 from head Qadirabad. Diversity indices were
analyzed through statistical software PAST version 2.17 C. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index
at head Marala was 2.62, at head Khanki it was 2.64 while at head Qadirabad it was 2.78. It can
be concluded from the present study that the River Chenab is waterfowl rich and should be
declared as protected site for waterfowls.
The study area was divided into different habitat types on the basis of vegetation and
urbanization and was designated as forest habitat (FH), wetland habitat (WLH), rural forest
habitat (RFH), agriculture habitat (AH), agriculture rural habitat (ARH), urban non vegetative
habitat (UNVH) and urban vegetative habitat (UVH). A linear count method was applied and
data was collected through direct and indirect observations. Habitat preference of the birds varied
f declined from forested habitats to the urban landscapes. It can be concluded from the study that
many of the avian species are habitat specific and the connection/corridors between similar
habitat types might be fruitful for the conservation of avian species.
The anthropogenic impacts and habitat preferences of mammalian species along river Chenab,
Pakistan was also assessed the mammalian diversity was recorded along forested landscapes,
cultivated plantations, semi-urban and urban areas. The data on diversity and distribution of
various mammalian species was collected through point count method viz. direct observation
(personal count and record voices) and indirect observation (presences of carcasses, fecal pellet,
pug marks and meeting with local communities). The habitat preferences of large, medium and
small mammals varied significantly. A decline in mammalian diversity was observed from forest
habitat to urban landscapes. Indian wild boar, Asiatic jackal, Indian fox, jungle cat, Indian
pangolin and long eared desert hedgehog preferred forested areas as well as slightly modified
habitats while Northern palm squirrel, house mouse, house shrew and rat species preferred
human habitations. Similarly, few species such as the small Indian mongoose, Soft-furred field
rat, short tailed mole rat, Asiatic jackal and Indian gerbil preferred cultivated areas. It can be
concluded that many of the mammalian species are habitat specific and corridors and
connections between different landscapes are important for the conservation of mammalian
Medicinal and cultural significance of avian species along the River Chenab were assessed
through Relative Popularity Level (RPL) and Rank Order Priority (ROP). One hundred and nine
persons were interviewed and data regarding socio-economic status of the respondents,
qualitative data on cultural significance from three selected districts. The compiled data are
analyzed using different quantitative tools, such as relative frequency of mention (RFM),
fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level RPL and rank order priority (ROP). Out of total 155
avian species recorded from the study area, 28 have medical importance while local people were
using feathers of almost all the bird species for making different toys. Ten species were most
popular and highest RFM values (0.58) were recorded for house sparrow (Passer domesticus).
Similarly, highest FL values (100%) were recorded for house sparrow (P. domesticus) and
domestic chicken (Gallus gallus). These studies indicated that the area is rich in avian diversity
and many of these species have medical and cultural significance for the locales.
Mammals are source of food and medication for humans from ancient times. A survey was
conducted along the Rver Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan and 109 persons were interviewed to
investigate the extent of human dependency on mammalian species of the area. A total of 30
mammalian species were recorded from the study area. Highest relatively frequency of mention
(RFM) values (0.5) were observed for desert hare, Lepus migricollis dayanus while maximum
(100%) fidelity level (FL) was recorded for cow Bos gaurus, sheep Ovis aries and cat Felis
domesticus. Seven species were most popular. It can be concluded from present survey that local
people have strong association with mammalian species of the study area and dependent for
food and medicines on these species. In depth studies are recommended to explore medicinal
importance of the species.
The study area was part of tropical thorn forest but a larger portion has been changed into
agricultural land or human habitations. Data regarding socio-economic value of area, financial
losses to crops and livestock, peoples’ attitude and tolerance towards wildlife, protection
methods for livestock and crops from predators and profile of 150 respondents were collected
through a questionnaire. The age of the respondents was between 20 to 65 years, out of them
54% were literate, 99% were Muslims and all these respondents were from different professions
viz. farmers (32%), livestock managers (37%) and others (31%). Most of the respondents (52%)
were unaware about the role of wild species in ecosystem, certain respondents (28%) disliked
wild species in their areas and 20% respondents had positive view about wildlife in the area. The
collected data revealed that crops are mostly damaged by the Indian wild boar (42%), Asiatic
jackal (34%), diseases (11%), Indian crested porcupine (6%) and others (7%) including rats,
squirrels, crows and sparrows. Similarly, the livestock animals are affected mostly by diseases
(36%), Asiatic jackal (34%), jungle cat (10%), Indian fox and others (6%) including raptor birds.
Most of the respondents were of the view that wildlife is declining in the area.
The River Chenab is an important wetland of Punjab, Pakistan. Water of the river is becoming
pollutedt due to anthropogenic impact i.e. industrial waste, urbanization, agriculture
intensification. The main objectives of the study were to know the diversity and distribution of
fish species of river Chenab. Both, direct and indirect methods were applied to find out fish
diversity of the area. The diversity indices were analyzed through statistical software PAST
version 2.17 C. During the sampling 34 species was recorded from the river Chenab. The
diversity indices indicate that higher diversity is present at the head Qadirabad than head Khanki
and Marala. The reason is that there is present large number of natural and manmade ponds;
during the flood these pond fishes move to the river further eggs and fingerlings move to rivers
through birds and fisherman.
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Relationship Of Parent’s Level Of Education And Socio-Demographic Variables With Child’s Immunization Status: A Cross-Sectional Study In The Rural Areas Of District Layyah
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Immunization is a very important element of public health. It is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, generally by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infections. It prevents against various communicable diseases such as Tuberculosis, Tetanus, Pertussis, Diphtheria, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis B and Measles.
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 parents having at-least one child under five years of age. Data was collected from the rural areas of district Layyah. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between parent’s level of education and child’s immunization status on one hand and the effect of sociodemographic variables on child’s immunization status on the other hand. In this study, it was concluded that there was a significant association between parent’s level of education and the socioeconomic variables with child’s immunization status.
Low rate of parent’s literacy, especially health literacy, poor socioeconomic status, large population size, parent’s refusal, difficulty in accessing immunization services and lack of health facilities were identified as the main barriers to immunization completion. As parent’s level of education is considered to be the corner stone in the progress of modern nation so education is a very important element as educated parents play a significant role in achieving the health of their children. It was concluded that there was a significant association between literacy status of parents, income status of parents and the immunization status of children. The immunization status of children in the rural areas can be improved by higher household income, literacy, better
health knowledge, exposure to media, maternal empowerment and mother’s participation in decision-making process. The policy makers should stress on the education of the people especially female education. Health awareness campaigns should be carried out so that parents can gain the benefits of vaccination.
Ho: there is no significant relationship between parent’s level of education and child’s immunization status.
H1: Parent’s level of education has significant relationship on child’s immunization status
6.2 Methodology A cross-sectional study of six months duration from July 2016 to December 2016 was conducted in the rural areas of district Layyah in which parents of children under 5 years of age were interviewed about the immunization status of their children. Convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data. Data was collected from 200 parents living in the rural areas of district Layyah. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0.
6.3 Statistical Design
The dependent variable “child’s vaccination” and independent variables “parent’s educational level, household income, parent’s occupation and family composition” were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 and Microsoft Excel. Data entry and analysis was done on SPSS-16. Chi-square test was used for statistical testing. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Cross
tabulations were done among dependent and independent variables. Chi-square test was applied on different sociodemographic factors and child’s immunization status to define the significant associations.
6.4 Study Outcomes It is concluded that there is a significant association between literacy status of parents, income status of parents and the immunization status of children. The major benefit of this study is that, the research findings can be used to assess the relationship of parent’s education with child’s immunization status and to find out those factors which are the main hindrance in child’s vaccination coverage. It will also provide new dimensions for further research related to child immunization and the health managers will find new facts and figures that will help them to make national decisions with the certainty of success.
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