Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Fusobactemium Necrophorum In Dairy Cattle
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
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A Clinico - Hematological Study On Hepatic Regeneration After Variable Degrees Of Resections In Rabbits
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Liver is the largest visceral organ in the body and has a paramount importance. Its multi-functional abilities make it absolutely necessary for survival. It performs numerous functions in a living organism and plays its role in various physiological and biochemical regulatory processes in the body. It is also the only organ that has the capability to undergo the phenomenon of regeneration in case of cellular injury induced by chemicals or surgery.
According to Craige (1948) Liver is the largest gland of the body. It is an extension of the gastro-intestinal track and connects with GIT to the common bile duct.It has two surfaces. The anterior or dorsal surface is convex while the posterior surface is concave and lies over the stomach. Liver is thickened in its dorsal portion and tappers to a thin ventral margin. The liver is incompletely divided into a right and a left liver lobe, each of which have anterior and posterior lobules. The right posterior lobule lies closely to the dorsal body wall and it accommodates right kidney in a depression called renal fossa. The gall bladder is a thin walled pouch located in a deep depression on the ventral surface of right anterior lobule. The quadrate lobe extends from the right lobe and is usually notched on its medial margin. The caudate lobe is small and well separated. The portal fissure is a large depression filled by the portal vein and it also contains some branches of hepatic artery. The liver is held in place by four ligaments namely falciform ligament, round ligament, coronary ligament and left triangular ligament.
According to Borley & Achan (2005) Liver plays a key role in several regulatory processes in an organism. It is involved in various metabolic pathways comprising variable interactions with proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Liver is the main site for gluconeogenesis, converts galactose and fructose into simple sugars (glucose) and stores complex carbohydrates (glycogen).It aids in the production of different types of proteins and has a role in the formation of urea. Numerous types of fats like phospholipids, cholesterol and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver. Liver also uses different carbohydrates and proteins to form certain fats. Liver serves as a vault for the storage of several vitamins (A, B2 and D) and iron. It helps in the complex process of coagulation by aiding in the synthesis of several important coagulation factors including prothrombin, protein C, and factors VII, IX and X.Several hormones including oestrogen, aldosterone and cortisol are metabolized in the liver. It is involved in the metabolism of a number of drugs and also has a key role in the production and excretion of bile. In fetal life, haematopoiesis is one of the key functions which is performed by liver.
Liver resectioning is a technique employed for correction of numerous ailments or for the purpose of experimental study. Diseases such as tumorous growths on the liver, hepatic necrosis, cyst formation, hepatic abscess, hepatic lobe torsion and numerous others require the removal of the affected part of the liver(Martin et al. 2003; Pignon et al. 2013). The remaining liver usually recovers by regeneration through hyperplasia and hypertrophy of healthy cells of the un-affected part of the liver (Palmes and Spiegel, 2004). For experimental reasons, where different aspects of liver regeneration process are to be studied, liver resectioning technique is employed (Mao et al. 2014; Fausto et al. 2012).
Numerous studies have been done to see the regeneration rate of liver in different species. In rats it has been noticed that liver can regenerate to its original size after two-third hepatectomy in only five to seven days (Mao et al. 2014).Another author states the recovery to occur in less than two weeks in rodents (Gilgenkrantz and Hortet, 2011). In humans it has been shown that resectioning up to 50 percent has resulted in complete regeneration of liver mass in only a period of two weeks (Häussinger, 2011).
Rabbits being small laboratory animals with comparative ease of handling have been used extensively for research purposes. Regeneration has been studied in rabbits post chemical insult on liver or through portal branch ligations (Palmes and Spiegel, 2004).
As opposed to general perception, Carpenter (2003) states that the rabbits fall under the category of rodents, they in actuality are lagomorphs. Two families composed of twelve genera and eighty-one species fall under the umbrella of order lagomorpha. They are cosmopolitan in their distribution. The main difference between rodents and lagomorphs is the presence of two pairs of upper incisors in the former group, whereas the later have only one pair of upper incisors. Despite having a great degree of similarity which these two groups share together, they are not thought to be closely associated. The animals of both the categories evolved into nine creatures separately and their similar dental patterns resulted from parallel evolution. All legomorphs consume foliage and practice caprophagy.
All lagomorphs are blessed with acute tactile and olfactory senses with a considerable long-haired fluffy body coat. Lagomorphs have big side-to-side set eyes giving them a broader circular vision. Testes are in the scrotum in front of the penis. Baculum is absent in males. Females bear two to five pairs of mammary glands.
Deficiency has been observed in terms of study of liver regeneration when liver resectioning is performed. The present study aims to focus on this aspect of research on soft tissue, which would enhance our understanding of liver regeneration and its rate in this specie.
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The Effects Of Xylazin-Butorphenol And Detomidine-Butorphenol On Clinico-Biochemical Parameters During Castration in Dog
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Anesthesia is a reversible process and derived from Greek word “anaisthaesia” meaning “insensibility” and used to desensitize the whole or any part of the body. Anesthesia is classified by method of administration i.e. intramuscular, inhalational and intravenous. Injectable anesthesia includes Propofol, Diazepam, Acepromazine, Medetomidine, Xylazine and Ketamine. Anesthetic agent can be used alone or in combinations (Gonzalez et al. 2003).
The purpose of Anesthesia is to produce a convenient, safe, effective, and economical means of facilitating surgical procedures while minimizing stress, pain and discomfort and adverse side effects. There are many routes of administration of anesthesia; in intravenous route, the onset of action is immediate. Peak effect is rapidly obtained, duration of action is short, and effects are more intense/ profound than other routes.Many combinations of anesthesia are in use in dogs for different surgery xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with butorpjanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with oxymorphone (0.05mg/kg IV) , xylazine (0.4 mg/kb IV) combine with morphine (0.25mg/kg) , Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg combine with butophanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg IV) combine with oxymorphone (o.05 mg/kg) Xylazine (0.4mg/kg) combine with Ketamine (5 to 10 mg/kg IV) acepromazine (0.05 to 0.2mg/kg IV or SQ) in combination with morphine (0.4 to 0.8mg/kg IV) and diazepam or midazolam(0.2 mg/kg IV) with hydromorphone or oxymorphone( 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg IV) use in dog and cat (Greene 1999).
Detomidine is a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with useful sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxation properties and is widely used as a tranquilizing or pre-anaesthetic medication in veterinary medicine But it induces cardiovascular side-effects such as hypertension, hypotension, bradycardia and dysrhythmia.detomidine. It produces prolonged and intense analgesia. Nature of the analgesic effect appears to be wide, producing a reduced response to be a secondary result of the central nervous system experimental stimulation and exhibiting a clinical effect in the horse with colic. Detomidine can be used as a safe and effective pre anaesthetic resulting in smooth induction and recovery (EL-Kammar et al. 2014).
Xylazine Hcl has been widely used as a preanesthetic drug and for immobilizing dogs for diagnostic procedures (Short 1987).Xylazine is the shortest acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist..A problem with alpha2-adrenergic agonists is that they may respond suddenly to stimulation, especially to touch. The combination of opioid drugs with the alpha2-adrenergic agonists appears to reduce such sudden reactions and a synergistic effect regarding sedation and antinociception has been suggested. Additionally, all alpha2-adrenergic agonists have a dose-dependent effect on cardiovascular function. By adding an opioid drug, dose requirements of alpha2-adrenergic agonists may be reduced and cardiopulmonary function improved. The addition of opioids does not further impair cardiovascular function.The combination of xylazine and butorphanol at the doses generally used in clinical practice produces minimal and transient haemodynamic effects and no significant respiratory depression. There is no ‘blinded’ randomized crossover study regarding the xylazine sparing effects of butorphanol on sedation of horses. There are limited reports on the respiratory effects of butorphanol alone or in combination with the α2-agonist xylazine in horses, but the effects of the combination on pulmonary gas exchange have not been clarified (Ringer et al. 2012).
Butorphanol is an opioid agonist-antagonist with good analgesic effects. Butorphanol is used in veterinary medicine as pain reliever and cough suppressant. It induces only mild sedation and has minimum adverse effects to the cardiovascular system. It may cause mild lowering of the heart rate and arterial pressure or slight respiratory depression. It exerts a depressive action on the respiratory system. It should not use in patient with liver disease because it cannot be eliminated and may accumulated to toxic level (Raušer and Lexmaulova, 2002).It is believed to be more effective against visceral rather than somatic pain. The antagonist property towards μ-receptors results in a ceiling analgesic effect with increasing doses. However in dogs doses between 0•2 and 0•8 mg/kg have been reported to provide visceral analgesia in vivo .Butorphanol is a dose-related respiratory depressant and causes small decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (Vettorato and Bacco 2011).
Castration is indicated for reproductive neutering, modification of behavior patterns, testicular neoplasia, severe testicular or scrotal trauma or injury, refractory orchitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, perianal gland adenoma, perineal hernia, and scrotal urethrostomy in dogs. There is no specific anesthetic method for castration. Routinely castration surgery can be performed under general anesthesia or local anesthesia (Kim et al. 2004).
Unlike other laboratory animals that are commonly used forresearch purpose, non-human primates and dogs are also used for research work. Their use in the biological researchrequires special considerations, regarding their care and housing, and more specifically their handling and restraining. Since non-human primates and dogs present special hazards to handlers, particularlybecause of the danger of bites and zoonotic infections (Fortman et al. 2001).
Deaths due to anesthesia are lesser in dogs (1 in 601) than rabbits (1 in 72) that are the third most commonly anaesthetized pet animal in the United Kingdom (Brodbelt et al. 2005).
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Comparative Efficacy Of Different Nsaids Against Bovine Ephemeral Fever
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Dairy sector has significant role in Pakistan economy with a share of 46.8% in agriculture and 10.8% to Pakistan GDP. Pakistan ranks 4th among largest milk producing countries in the world (Anonymous 2012-13).In last decade, dairy sector in Pakistan has seen tremendous growth and corporate investment. More than 40000 exotic cross bred high producing cattles have been imported. Earlier this sector used to rely primarily on local low producing cattles and small scale subsistence farming, now different commercial dairy farms having high producers exotic cattles are also becoming major contributor in this sector. Trend is changing, different issues concerned with sector are rising. Sensitivity level of commercial dairy farmer is far high as compared to small scale traditional farmers, they can not accept or tolerate any factor affecting economy of their dairy business due to heavy investment.
One such issue rose to headlines in July-August 2014, Pakistan dairy industry was struck badly with an outbreak of viral disease called Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF). It caused colossal damages to dairy industry in terms of decreased milk production, mortalities and treatment costs. This was not an out rightly a new disease in Pakistan its episodes have been seen in past in local cattles and buffalo (Asi et al. 1999) and locally it was termed as “will” (Prof Khushe personal communication). But it never got such a hype and attention in past as local animals were already low producers and their production was never affected at substantial level. Local animals were generally weak having low Body Condition Score, a character which does not support the intensity of this disease, Ectoparasite resistance is another factor considered to be a source of protection for local animals.
During initial phase of outbreak, it was considered as a common local epidemic Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and few signs also confused it with Milk Fever. But once outbreak progressed, it became clearer that it in neither HS and nor FMD it is something different. After going through literature it was clinically suspected as BEF and later was confirmed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by University Diagnostic Laboratory (UDL), UVAS, Lahore.
BEF is a viral disease caused by genus Ephemerovirus and family Rhabdoviridae. (Uren et al. 1992).It is a noncontagious, vector borne disease of water buffaloes and cattles proposed to be communicated by midges (Culicoides biting) and mosquitoes.(Walker et al. 2012). Ephemeral fever, stiff sickness, three-day-sickness, bovine influenza and bovine epizootic fever have been used to name this viral disease in the different nations at different eras (Chiu 1986; Chiu and Lu 1986; Lin and Inoue 1969; St.George1981). BEF happens seasonally in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Middle-East and Australia and this is a disabling disease with significant economic effect due to reduction of milk production, loss of health status in beef herds, abortion and infertility. Characteristic clinical signs comprise of a sudden onset of fever as high as 41 °C, an abrupt and austere drop in milk production, lethargy, inappetence, salivation, depression, nasal discharge, stiffness, dyspnea and ruminal stasis (Walker et al. 2012).
Primarily, pathogenesis of BEF is based on vascular inflammation (Young and Spradbrow, 1980) so this provides the rationale for its treatment through anti-inflammatory drugs. Different NSAIDs have been used in previous studies phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen (Uren and Murphy, 1985; St George et al. 1984) but no study has been found using most common field NSAID of Pakistan, meloxicam. So, here a comparative study was carried out between three NSAIDs meloxicam, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone on naturally infected BEF animal.
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Prevalence Of Tick Borne Hemoparasites And Identification Of Ticks With Their Treatment In Dogs
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Dogs are one of the most commonly owned companion pets worldwide. They are kept for various factors such as hunting, guarding, and amusement or for animal assisted therapy. Tick infestation is a common problem in dogs and its transmitted infections usually tick borne hemoparasitic diseases are emerging as a worldwide problem not just for animals but also for humans. Due to this phenomenon, ticks are now recognized as a major cause of various diseases in of urban environments. The current research has been conducted to study the prevalence of tick infestation, associated risk factors and chemotherapeutic trials of topical acaricides were used in order to study comparative efficacy, were conducted in dogs. Furthermore, prevalence of tick borne hemoparasitic diseases was also observed by performing microscopic blood smear examination in dogs of Lahore district.
A total of 300 dogs (n= 200 positive for tick infestation; n= 100 negative for tick infestation) having tick infestation were included in the present study. Dogs of different sex, age and breed were selected for tick collection. The ticks were collected with the help of forceps from the target sites of each dog, while adopting all necessary measures to avoid damage to the mouth parts of the ticks and skin of the host. The collected ticks were preserved in plastic containers containing 70% ethanol, which was separate for each specimen. Ticks were identified under stereoscope by observing morphological characteristics of each tick, according to the key. Blood sample for tick borne hemoparasitic diseases was drawn from cephalic vein of each dog using disposable syringe and was poured into EDTA vacutainer. Thin blood smear slide was then prepared from the blood of the animal, dried in air and was stained using Geimsa’s staining method. The hemoparasites observed in the blood of the dogs were then characterized and
identified by their morphological characteristics. For chemotherapy, a total of 30 tick infested dogs of different breeds viz. Rottweiler, German shepherd and Labrador was used in therapeutic trials. Each breed of dog was divided into 2 subgroups which were then treated with topical ivermectin and fipronil 1500μg/kg b.w and 15mg/kg b.w respectively. Efficacy of the drugs was then measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and reversal of tick infestation at day 2, 4 and 6 of post-medication. Data regarding the prevalence of tick borne hemoparasitic diseases and tick infestation was analyzed by using Non-parametric, Chi-square test whereas data on therapeutic trials was analyzed by Z-test, using statistical package for social science (SPSS). P < 0.05 was considered significant.
The results obtained showed us that the study area is at a risk of tick infestation and tick borne hemoparasitic diseases. In dogs, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick) species was observed and identified as a major tick infesting dogs of the study area during the course of study. Various determinants including tick density and its genus, host age, sex, predilection site host breed and season significantly affected the tick infestation in the study area. The prevalence for tick infestation was found highest in Pastoral dogs as compared to other breed types found in dogs. Among breeds German shepherd showed highest prevalence for tick infestation. Adolescence age group among dogs was more prone to tick infestation. The number of males affected by ticks was highest as compared to females in dog population. Among the dog population, majority of the animals infested by ticks were categorized under mild infestation. The most favorable predilection site for tick infestation in dogs was ear pinnae, followed by head and then neck. Monsoon was the most favorable season for tick infestation in dogs. September was found to be highest favorable month for tick infestation in dogs.
In tick borne hemoparasitic diseases, babesiosis was the highest prevalent disease in dogs (63.33%), followed by trypanosomiasis (0.66%) and mixed infection (0.33%). Age group among dogs showed non-significant factor affecting prevalence for TBHD’s. The number of affected dogs for babesiosis was greater in adolescence age group as compared to other age groups. On the other hand, trypanosomiasis and mixed infection adult age group was found highly susceptible. Males of canine group were slightly more susceptible than females in case of babesiosis. Similarly for trypanosoniasis and mixed infection males were more prone than females. For babesiosis, monsoon was the most favorable season in dogs. Whereas for trypanosomiasis and mixed infection, post monsoon was found to be favorable season in dogs. In breed type of dogs, prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in Pastoral dogs. In dogs the prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in German shepherd breed, whereas for trypanosomiasis and mixed infection Cross breed was the most susceptible breed. For trypanosomiasis and mixed infection Cross breed was the most susceptible breed type. The prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in the month of September. For trypanosomiasis and mixed infection, the month of October was found to be highest susceptible month for dogs.
Chemotherapeutic trial of topical acaricides against tick infestation in dogs revealed that Fipronil was more efficacious drug as compared to Ivermectin.
Such type of epidemiological data of tick infestation, TBHDs and its chemotherapeutic trial will help to control tick infestation and tick borne hemoparasitic diseases to save the life of companion animal.
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Prevalance, Diagnosis and Economic Losses Due to Bovine Cysticercosis in Punjab
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd.
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Detection Of Salmonella And Total Plate Count In Abattoir Meat And Premises
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Food safety is scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This include a number of routines that be followed to avoid potentially serve health hazards. The track within this line of thought are safety between industry and market and then between the market and consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety consideration include the origin of food include the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and guidelines for the certification system for food. In considering market to consumer practices the usual thought is that food brought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer.
Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In developed countries there are standard for food preparation, where as in lesser developed the main issue is simply the unavailability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item.
Foodborne illness is any problem resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, virus or parasite that contaminate food, as well as chemical or natural toxin. Beef and Mutton meat is an ideal food for all groups of ages, due to its high meat yield, low shrinkage, easy cooking and serving.
In my study all sampling was done from Lahore Meat Processing complex which is the most modern abattoir in Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of meat in human diet the total plate count and salmonella detection in abattoir meat was done.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Various Immunopotentiating Agents In Subclinical Mastitis In Dairy Cows
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Mastitis, an important disease of dairy animals influences the quality and quantity of milk. Mastitis, the inflammation of the udder regardless of the cause, is the most costly disease of dairy cows. It affects the milk quality and production of cow along with changes in the composition of milk and the extent to which various compositional changes occur depends on the inflammatory response. There is also fluctuation in complete blood count (CBC).
The study was conducted in dairy cow at different government and private dairy farms in and around Lahore Total n=30 cows were included in study trials and for treatment trials n=24 cows suffering from subclinical mastitis were taken and divided into 5 groups, 1st group was
Vit E + Se 2nd group was Garlic, 3rd group was Black pepper and 4th group was Lemon having n=6 cows in each group randomly. A 5th group was formed comprising of n=6 healthy cows served as negative control. The drug trials showed that it Vit E+ Se and Garlic were the most effective drugs by boosting immune system by increasing the hematological parameters and improving the milk compositional contents and after that Lemon showed the good results while treating subclinical mastitis. The Black Pepper showed significant role by enhancing immunity nut didn’t cure as much of subclinical mastitis.
The data on chemotherapy, hemogram and milk composition and milk sodium chloride level was analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired T test using SPSS 20.0. A probability levels <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
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Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutic Study On Babesiosis In Different Breeds Of Cattle In Balochistan
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Babesiosis which is also called as piroplasmosisis, Texas fever, redwater or tick fever, is an emerging, tick-transmitted (by a vector ixodidea) disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia having considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. Keeping in view the importance of babesiosis under local conditions, the present study was designed to evaluate the status babesiosis in Balochistan. For this purpose field and experimental studies were carried in two districts Quetta and Sibi of Balochistan Province to find out the status of babesiosis in Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Crossbred cattle. During field study epidemiological status of babesiosis was highlighted by selecting 600 cattle randomly from each district. The animals were distributed into 2 major groups i.e. Young animals less than 12 months and adult over 12 months of age. These groups were further sub-divided into Young animals (less than 6 months, up to 9 months and up to 12 months) while Adults animals (up to 2 years, 3 years and over 3 years). The vector of babesia was also kept under keen observation for the prevalence/infestation rate, identification and economic losses caused during the course of study. Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for further confirmation of babesia infection. The blood samples were also processed for hematological study to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters. For experimental study 148 animals were selected through clinical signs of babesiosis, blood smear examination and PCR. Out of theses 40 animals were maintained for therapeutic trail to find out the cheapest and easily available drug against bovine babesiosis. For this purpose Neem leaves were used in decoction form while Imidocarb dipopionate was kept as standard control. The
results of epidemiological study revealed higher prevalence of babesiosis (20.5%) in district Quetta while 15.16% was recorded in District Sibi. Similarly higher prevalence was recorded in Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle respectively in both districts Quetta and Sibi. Furthermore higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in adult groups of Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle. Similarly season wise higher prevalence of babesia infection was noticed in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter respectively while higher prevalence was noted in female group of animals than male animals. Blood smears examination and PCR confirmed two babesia species i.e. babesia bigemina and babesia bovis. Similarly Boophilus tick species were identified as the vector of babesia parasites. During present study mixed hemoprotozaon infection of babesia mixed with theileria was recorded in both districts. The results of conventional method and modern diagnostic technique (PCR) revealed that PCR identified higher babesia infection during the entire 4 seasons as well as in all age groups whereas blood smears examination was capable to diagnose babesiosis in adult groups during the months of summer and spring season. Breed wise prevalence was also higher in samples treated with PCR than blood smears examination and even samples that were declared negative by blood smears examination were also found positive. The results of complete blood cell count from blood samples of infected experimental animal showed regenerative, macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Blood smear examination showed presence of many babesia with reticulocytes. Abnormalities in erythrocyte structure were seen. The result of blood parameters of total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin showed significant decrease in all three affected Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Cross bred cattle. The values of MCV and MCH were increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal value. No efficacy of neem decoction was noted against bovine babesiosis.
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Clinico-Epidemiological And Experimental Observations On Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease Among Domesticated Cats
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Idiopathic Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (iFLUTD) has been known as a major as well as important problem throughout the world especially the veterinary profession. Nicks of this problem also found in Pakistan, however the veterinarians are usually unable to properly diagnose this disease due to lack of knowledge as well as the ancillary diagnostic equipment availability for this disease. Present study was divided into two phases. Phase – 1 included clinico-epidemiological data. To this end, target of more than 502 domesticated client-owned cats of either sex, age, breed, etc showing signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) as per Buffington (1994) were examined accordingly from 3 different cities (Lahore, Faisalabad, and Islamabad) of Pakistan). All data collected was based on a predesigned proforma by using structured interview of the owners. Diagnosis was solely based on serum-cortisol levels, urinalysis, radiography and ultrasonography. Phase II involved experimental trial. The data obtained from whole of the study was then presented in tabulated form as frequencies and percentages. Treatment and outcome of the disease were also analyzed accordingly.
According to the present study conducted it is proved that iFLUTD is present among the cats in Pakistan. Its proper cognizance among the Pakistani veterinarians is still non-existent and is misdiagnosed as colic or constipation issues in cats. The present study was undertaken to bring iFLUTD into the reportive of small animal practitioners working in Pakistan. The present study debunked various previous notions like iFLUTD is associated with commercial diets and canned foods only if we talk about this region majority of cases were noticed that had home-cooked food given by the owner. Moreover, cases in Siamese breed are larger than Persian breed. It has been strongly associated with Indoor housing management. Additional work is still needed to explore untouched areas of epidemiology including factors other than those being studied in the previous literature. Academicians in veterinary pathology and veterinary medicine of Pakistani universities should embrace this malady in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) curricula.
According to the present study results it is concluded that two factors like stress and pain accelerate the sympathetic nervous system outflow compared to normal felines leading to the inflammatory response. Thus the stress factor must be reduced in the form of making hiding places for cats at home to reduced down the fear factor along with enhancing the feeling of owes for that particular place. Moreover, some more practices should be performed by the owner to reduce down the stress factor like playing with the pet, giving full attention, placing toys and other attractive things like yarn balls at the feline places (where they live/placed). There was no significant difference found between the groups based on the food with health score along with the therapeutic judgment. Hence, it is recommended that more experiments should be performed on larger scale to assess GAG therapy on increased number of felines and need of hour is to conduct more veterinary studies to get information and authenticity for its use against iFLUTD.
From this study conducted, I recommend to the owners that the cats must be provided with the indoor hiding places and play with their pets in order to reduce the stress factor that increases the risk of idiopathic lower urinary tract disease. Moreover, the trend of home-cooked diet should be reduced along with increase in water intake by the cat.
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Sedative And Analgesic Effects Of Xylazine, Ketamine And Diazepam In Ducks
Material type: Book Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Mostly of the drugs given intramuscularly are ineffective in producing anesthesia in ducks. There are some combinations which have a synergistic effect for producing good sedation and analgesia. This combination includes ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-xylazine-diazepam. This study was conducted on ducks which are divided into two groups (A, B). The group A was given xylazine (5 mg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg) and the birds of group B was given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg), xylazine (2.5 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5mg/kg) cocktail. Anesthesia is the desensitization of body through nerve blockage. It is the reversible state of analgesia and loss of responsive-ness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes, decreased stress response, or all of these simultaneously. The average body temperature of ducks treated with KX and KXD was 105.02±0.12, and 104.97±0.18 oF, respectively. The average heart rate of ducks anesthetized by KX and KXD was 103.75±3.18, and 98.63±2.24 beats/min, respectively. The average respiratory rate of ducks treated with KX and KXD was 19.2±1.62, and 16.11±0.52 breaths/min, respectively. The onset of sedation in ducks anesthetized by KX, and KXD was recorded in 2.11±0.75 and 1.14±0.04 minutes after drug administration. The duration of sedation in the ducks anesthetized was 87.33±6.74, and 127.42±18.60 minutes, respectively. The recovery of ducks from sedation was recorded in 89.53±6.22, and 128.56±18.52 minutes. Onset of analgesia in ducks anesthetized by KX and KXD was recorded in3.22±0.54, and 1.67±0.77 minutes after drug administration. The duration of analgesia in the ducks anesthetized with KX and KXD was 39.76±3.89 and 81.15±11.17 minutes, respectively. The recovery of ducks from analgesia was recorded in 43.37±4.42 and 82.82±11.15 minutes, when anesthetized with KX and KXD respectively. The onset of sedation, onset of analgesia, duration was relatively delayed in KX
group; recovery from sedation and analgesia was observed in ducks anesthetized with KX group is early than KXD group. These effects can be obtained from a combination of drugs to achieve very specific combinations of results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sedative and analgesic effects of xylazine- ketamine and diazepam in different combinations.
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Study On Autologous And Homologous Platelet Rich Plasma As A Surgical Wound Healing Promoter In Rabbits
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Wound healing is a complex process in which tissue repairs itself with the complete or incomplete regeneration. During recent years, new advances have been employed in the monarchy of tissue healing by initiation of use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) as a wound healing promoter in both soft and hard tissue surgeries. Platelet rich plasma is highly potentiated with growth and healing factors that can lead to marked acceleration in the tissue adaptation, repair and healing as compared to PRP non-facilitated healing process. This study was conducted on 16 adult healthy rabbits contributing 2 different groups, each group with 8 rabbits. Rabbits of both groups were surgically operated for skin autogenous grafting. Group A received an application of autologous PRP subcutaneously and in the surroundings of the graft defect, while group B received homologous PRP. Efficacy of both autologous and homologous PRP was evaluated on the basis of selected macroscopic and microscopic (histopathological) parameters of tissue repair and healing. The results, obtained in form of grades, were statistically analyzed by graphical representations. A successful use of autologous and homologous PRP with the desired results did not only boost up the surgical success rate in the specie under study but it opened a new vista on the same lines for other species to bring a better wound healing process. This study uprooted the conventional methods of managing wounds associated with injuries and helped the animals to get confidently satisfactory health status.
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Prevalence Of Fasciolosis In Sheep And Goats Under Range Management Conditions In Azad Jammu And Kashmir
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Fasciolosis is the disease of sheep, goats, cattle and other ruminants. Human and equines are unusual hosts in which instead of liver the flukes may found in lungs or under the skin. Transmission depends on an intermediate host lymnae snail. Animal ingest metacercaria, the worm migrates to the liver where it causes extensive damage and mature worm lives in bile duct. The disease occurs as an acute, sub-acute or chronic infection. Chronic Fasciolosis characterized by anemia, hypoalbuminaemia, emaciation, submandibular edema and loss of condition. Clinical disease is well known but sub clinical infections are often unnoticed, leading to marked economic losses, reduced milk yield, weight loss, reduced fertility and immunity, consequently leading to significant economic losses. Fasciolosis has recently been recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease. Infections in human may be asymptomatic but sometimes nonspecific pain in abdomen, anorexia, dyspepsia and vomiting may occur. Pain in right hypochondrium, epigastrium and jaundice occurs in chronic phase. Sometimes ectopic migration of worm causes abscesses in many organs.
The present study investigates the prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats at different geographic locations on the basis of altitudes in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. 4662 (sheep n=2242; goat n=2420) fresh fecal samples from sheep and goats were collected from three village/towns each of Mirpur, Poonch and Muzaffarabad Divisions. Stool samples were collected from 566 pastoral families of AJK to determine the zoonotic potential of the disease. Prevalence of the disease was calculated on the basis of centrifugal floatation and sedimentation techniques.
The intensity of infection was calculated using the McMaster egg counting technique. The risk factors of the disease studied included altitude, season, sex, age, and effect of deworming and flock size on the rate of prevalence. An overall prevalence was recorded as
17.88%. Prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep revealed 26.49% and that of goats 9.91%. The data was analyzed using Chi-square test which revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease in sheep and goats. The overall prevalence rate in both species was recorded as15.09% at altitude <3000 feet, 25.00% at 3000-6000 and 15.74% at >6000. The highest prevalence was recorded at an altitude 3000-6000 feet. Chi- square values showed significant difference (P<0.05) among three different altitudes. The altitude of 3000-6000ft showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats. The overall prevalence showed 13.93% rates in spring and 21.77% in autumn. Chi-square values showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease, higher in autumn than Spring. Sex wise prevalence showed 16.67% in male and 18.59% in female animals. The data showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in Chi-square analysis. The prevalence of the disease in the age group below 1 year was 04.40%, 1-4 years revealed 17.73% disease and 36.18% in >4 year. The data showed significantly different (P<0.05) rates in all age groups. Highest prevalence was recorded in sheep and goats above 4 year of age and lowest in those below 1 year. The prevalence in animals with no recent history of deworming was recorded 23.22%. The data showed 15.37% disease in small flocks of sheep and goats <30 as compared to 18.72% in large flocks >30. Chi-square showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of the disease in large flocks.
Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was used to evaluate the contribution of risk factors (epidemiological factors) to the variations in the prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats. All the epidemiological factors i.e. altitude, species, season, gender, age group, deworming and flock size were processed. The deworming appeared to be the most significant factor in the model contributing maximum variations in disease with highest Odds followed by age groups,
species, season, altitude, flock size and gender. The risk factors for the Fasciolosis in sheep and goats were found, lack of practice of deworming, age group >4 year, species sheep, season Autumn, altitude 3000-6000 and flock size >30. The 75% of the disease prevalence was due to above mentioned risk factors. The deworming, specie goat, age group <1 year, season Spring, altitude <3000, and flock size less than 30 were appeared to be the protective factors in the Generalized Linear Model.
The intensity of infection was analyzed through Factorial analysis for difference in species, altitude and season. The difference in eggs per gram of feces was found significantly different (P<0.05) in sheep and goats. The effect of season on egg per gram (EPG) of feces showed a higher mean values in sheep (191.49) and goats (219.72) in Autumn as compared to 158.04 and 180.61 in Spring. In both seasons the mean for goats was found higher than sheep. The effect was found significant (P<0.05), higher during Autumn. Factorial analysis of the data showed significant interaction (P<0.05) between species and altitude. The data showed mean values for sheep 174.04, 191.87 and 168.33 at altitude <3000, 3000-6000 and >6000 feet respectively. The mean values for goats were 232.22, 194.95 and 170.59. The data revealed higher mean for goats as compared to sheep on all three altitudes. Goats revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) number of EPG. POST HOC Tukeys test showed a non-significant difference in intensity of disease between <3000 and 3000-6000 feet, rest of the differences were significant (P<0.05).
The overall prevalence in pastoral communities of AJK was 0.88%. The samples were collected from male and female of 4 age groups <10 year, 11-20, 21-40 and >40. The prevalence in male was 0.76 and in female was 0.98%. The data showed that age groups below 20 year were
the susceptible groups in both sexes. The highest prevalence (2.25%) was found in female age group 11-20 year. Age groups above 20 year did not revealed any positive sample.
227 adult liver flukes were collected from livers of infected animals of different animal species (sheep, goats. cattle and buffaloes) and geographic locations for morphometric and molecular identification of the species of Fasciola. Flukes were identified on the basis of measurements of body length, body width, diameter of suckers, distance between oral and ventral sucker and distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of the body. The measurements of F. hepatica showed a body length range 13-34mm with an average length of 21.51mm whereas, F. gigantica ranged from 28-52mm with an average of 42.27mm. The average body lengths of F. hepatica below 3000ft was 21.9, at 3000-6000ft was 21.07 and above 6000 ft was 22.00mm and that of F. gigantica was 42.05 and 42.44mm at 3000 and 3000-6000 feet. The measurements of F. hepatica revealed an average body width of 10.05mm, average diameter of oral and ventral suckers of 0.74 and 1.28mm respectively and average distance between the two suckers of 1.34mm. The readings for F. gigantica were 9.46, 0.89, 1.55 and 1.72mm respectively. Average distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of the fluke in case of F. hepatica was 18.35mm at all three altitudes and host species of animals and it was 38.26mm in case of F. gigantica. The overall mean worm load was 13.56 worms per liver of animal with a range 5-26. The mean worm load of F. hepatica was 10.9 and that of F. gigantica 13.11. Mixed infections were noted at altitudes below 6000 ft. Infestation with F. gigantica was not found at altitudes above 6000ft and F. hepatica was encountered at all three altitudes. 51.98% of the recovered flukes were F. gigantica which showed the equal chances of infection with either species of Fasciola in AJK. The results revealed that F. hepatica was the fluke affecting animal population at altitude above 6000 ft and F. gigantica was the major fluke below
3000 ft. At altitudes between 3000-6000ft, 36.20% of flukes were F. hepatica while its prevalence was reduced to 17.30% below 3000 ft. Once the species of the liver flukes were identified morphologically they were subjected to molecular conformation through amplification of the genomic DNA of the two species through PCR using two sets of species specific primers. In the PCR based on primer set 1, a product of 391 bp was generated from the genomic DNA of Fasciola hepatica whereas no product was generated from the DNA of Fasciola gigantica. PCR based on primer set 2 amplified a 235-bp product from the DNA of Fasciola gigantica. The molecular identification in the present study showed that morphometric identification of the two species is valid and standard population of both species were found present at different geographic locations and species of the animals of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir except F. gigantica not found above 6000 feet altitude.
The ethno veterinary practices for Fasciolosis were documented through Participatory Rural Appraisal. A total of 173 respondents/key informants were interviewed during the study period in the study area. The majority of the traditional healers (n=33) elders of pastoral families (n=53) and sheep/goats owners (n=56) were above the age of 40 year. Veterinary officers (n=6) and assistants (n=25) were interviewed as a part of verification process. 31.69% of the respondents were found using allopathic anthelmintic along with ethno veterinary medicines. 53.52% of the respondents were using ethno veterinary medicines because of non-availability or cost effectiveness of allopathic anthelmintic. 95.18% of the respondents were using plants or part of the plant as traditional anthelmintic in their sheep or goats.18 plant families were identified during the survey which include Acanthaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Boraginaceae, Cannabinaceae, Chenopodaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae,
Gentianaceae, Juglandaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Oxalidaceae, Punicaceae, Rhamnaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae. The species of medicinal plants identified during the study were Berberis lyceum, Nicotiana tabacum, Asparagus officinale, Calotropis procera, Aloe vera, Mallotus philippensis, Adhato davesica, Artemisia scoparia, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Artimisia maritime, Verbascum Thapsus, Acacia Arabica, Cordlia myxa, Cannabis sativa, Rhamnus purpurea, Juglansregia, Oxalis corniculata, Punica granantum, Artimisa fragrans, Swertia petiolata and Abutilon indicum.
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