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101. Effect Of Different Dietary Levels Of Lysine During Phase Feeding On The Performance Of Male And Female Broilers

by Rabia Anjum | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom A. Jabbar | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1452,T] (1).

102. Evaluation Of Antiviral Activity Of Allium Sativum, Allium Cepa And Zingiber Officinale Against New Castle

by Azeem Ahmed Iqbal | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1453,T] (1).

103. In Vitro Evaluation Of Antiviral And Cytotoxic Activity Of Ginseng Root, Leaves Of Tulsi And Aloe Vera Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus

by Misbah Afzal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1457,T] (1).

104. Comparative Evaluation Of Mutagenicity And Cyhalothrin, Of Endosulfan, Lambda-Cyhalothrin,

by Umber Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Imran Altaf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1460,T] (1).

105. Quality Evaluation Of Different Brands Of Ceftriaxone

by Sana Tariq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Miss Huma.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: This study was designed to determine the physicochemical equivalence of selected brands of ceftriaxone sodium registered with the ministry of health government of Islamic republic of Pakistan. Out of 9 selected brands 3 were of lowest price distribution class, 3 from the intermediate price distribution class and remaining three from the highest price distribution class. For quality evaluation 3 parameters were selected which were physical, chemical and microbial. Physical characters analyzed were general appearance, pH, solubility and moisture content. Characters which determine the chemical equivalence were assay of active ingredient and percentage of impurities present in powdered drug. Both these parameters were quantified chromatographically using high pressure liquid chromatography. Clinical efficacy of selected brands of this valuable antibiotic was accessed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. Statistically all brands were significantly different from one another but all the parameters taken as quality indicators showed results within the range specified by united state pharmacopoeia. None of selected brands of ceftriaxone sodium were found to be counterfeit or even substandard. Irrespective of difference in price, no visible variation was found among different quality assessment parameters, all samples showed compliance with the international pharmacopoeial standards. Through this study it can be concluded that the quality of ceftriaxone in Pakistan is well regulated, all the registered brands are up to the mark and irrespective of variation in price there is no variation in the quality of brands. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1462,T] (1).

106. Determination Of Bacterial Etiological Agents ,Sensitivity Pattern And Clinical Outcomes Paediatrics Patients In pyogenic meningitis at children hospital Lahore,Pakistan

by Fauzia Tajdin | Dr. Muhammad Adil Resheed | Prof Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Background: Meningitis is inflammation of membranes of brain and spinal cord which are known as meninges collectively and these membranes provide protection. This study was designed to check the bacteriology and sensitivity pattern of pyogenic meningitis for their antibiotic susceptibility testing and pattern of resistance by meningitis isolates in patients suspected from meningitis is determined. It was conducted on different children suspected from meningitis in Children hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Hypothesis: By using CSF culturing and different biochemical tests bacterial etiological agents of pyogenic meningitis in children of less than 15 years was determined and their sensitivity pattern and clinical outcome was also evaluated. Material & Methods: Clinical manifestations of all patients admitted to Children hospital were examined at the time of admission and patients showing classic triads (fever, neck rigidity and seizure) their CSF samples were collected by using all necessary aseptic precautions with the assistance of trained professionals. These CSF samples were examined for their physiological, biochemical and cytological and microbiological analysis. The pathogens was isolated, identified and purified by selective culturing methods, which was subjected to active growth, during which sensitivity to different antibiotics were checked in vitro by Kirby Bauer Disk diffusion method. The sensitivity was measured by area marked by the zone of inhibition, and Clinical Laboratory Standards interpretations (CLSI). Standard limit was a key indicator towards resistance bacteria. Statistical Analysis: The collected data was analyzed by using ANOVA and Chie Square tests on SPSS software (16). Outcome: Different bacteria responsible for bacterial meningitis were isolated and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of different antibiotics against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were also evaluated. The effects of different regimens of treatment of acute pyogenic meningitis were also evaluated by evaluating the improvement in clinical condition, rate of complications of disease and incidence of death due to this fatal disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1463,T] (1).

107. Docking-Based Virtual Screening And Pharmacophore Studies To Explore Highly Selective Nuclear Factor Kappa

by Sher Muhammad Zaman | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1465,T] (1).

108. Prevalence And Therapeutic Studies On Diabetes Mellitus In Pet Dogs At Lahore.

by Salman Khalid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important maladies of endocrine glands in dog and cats. It is due to the insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas. The multi-factors such as obesity, feeding, exposure to toxic drugs etc. are involved for the onset of this chronic disease. The basic energy fuel of the body is glucose. In the absence of insulin the glucose level in the blood is increases which can be noticed as hyperglycemia (high blood glucose level). There are the three types of diabetes mellitus which includes insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I or IDDM), noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type II or NIDDM) and secondary diabetes mellitus. The dogs play a vital role in our society. The present study was conducted on diabetes mellitus to study its prevalence, its effect on various blood parameters and to evaluate the efficacy of insulin therapy in pet dogs in Lahore, Pakistan. The 500 blood samples were collected from the dogs of age ?5 years, presented at Pet centre of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore and various private clinics in Lahore, and was processed in Medicine Laboratory of UVAS, Lahore. The blood glucose level was measured with the aid of glucometer. Out of 500, 16 (n=5 male & n=11 females) were positive for diabetes mellitus. The 3.2% prevalence of diabetes mellitus was recorded in pet dogs in Lahore. The study concluded that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in female dogs (68.75%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of male dogs (31.25%). The results of this study showed that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher in old age dogs (>9 years) as compared with other age groups. Diabetes mellitus was found to be more prevalent in winter season same as in human beings. The clinical signs like Polyuria (81.25%), Polydipsia (68.75%), Hyperglycemia (100%), Dehydration (43.75%), Anemia (56.25%) and cataract (18.75%) were commonly observed in diabetic dogs. In the present study the pet dog breed like Yorkshire terrier, Samoyed, Pomuranian and Cross bred were prone to have diabetes mellitus whereas German shepherd, Bull dogs, Pugs and Labrador retriever were at low risk for this malady. In the present project, the haematological study was conducted on 28 dogs (n=14 diabetic and n=14 healthy dogs). The five ml blood sample were collected from each dog directly from the cephalic vein and were shifted into a sterilized plastic bottle coated with EDTA@1mg/ml and were further analyzed through haemtological analyzer. The results showed the decreased number of RBCs (4.63±0.42) and an increased in PCV values (62.91±4.18). The results also showed dehydration and anemia in diabetic dogs. In the present study the 21 dogs (n= 14 diabetic dogs, n= 7 healthy dogs) were selected for therapeutic trials. The dogs were divided into further three groups; A, B and C. Each study group was comprised of 7 animals. Group A (comprised of diabetic dogs) was treated with Humulin-N (Insulin) @ 0.5 U/Kg, q12h, SC for 7 days. The group B (comprised of diabetic dogs) was kept as positive control while the healthy dogs were kept in group C for negative control. After the seven days treatment of group A, the blood samples were collected every 2 hr interval for 12 hrs for measuring the glucose value. The process was repeated once in a week for one month. The four blood glucose curves were made. Each blood glucose curve has its own nadir value. The time of glucose nadir value was indicated the peak action of insulin. The blood glucose curves were made to evaluate the effectiveness of insulin. The therapeutic results of this study concluded that the Humulin-N (insulin) was much effective for management of diabetic dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1467,T] (1).

109. Chemical Equivalence Of Different Brands Of Oxytertacycline Hydrochloride And Its Minimum

by Sadaf Hina | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the chemical equivalence of various brands of Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (long acting, short acting & PVP) approved by the ministry of health and available in the local market for veterinary use. Oxytetracycline was measured by HPLC method developed and standardized in the laboratory. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the Oxytetracycline by HPLC assay method were determined. From stock solution of working standard (Oxytetracycline hydrochloride) different concentrations 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 10, 25, 50 and 100µg per ml were prepared for the determination of LOD. The LOD calculated was 0.100(µg/ml) and LOQ was 0.5 (µg/ml). Correlation coefficient was 0.99994050. Concentration of the active ingredient (Oxytetracycline hydrochloride) in all preparations was same as mentioned on the label except Oxytetracycline (74%), Terrasym PVP-100 (81%), and Onyx-LA (72%). MIC of Oxytetracycline hydrochloride against following bacterial isolates determined by micro-broth dilution test was Bacillus subtilis (50µg), Staphylococcus aureus (100µg), Eschericiha coli (50µg), Salmonella enterica (1000µg) and Pasturella multocida (50µg).It showed that all these bacterial cultures have developed resistance against Oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1468,T] (1).

110. Pharmaceutical Equivalence Of Different Brands Of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride And Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

by Sarmat Tamjeed Afzal | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1471,T] (1).

111. Effects Of Lycopersicon Esculentum And Citrus Limon Juice On Angiogenesis

by Nausheen Saba Khalid | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Lycopersiconesculentumand Citrus limonumare largely known for their anti cancer activity. Various investigations using various assays have been done regarding anti cancer activity of Lycopersiconesculentumand Citrus limonum. This study wasplanned to estimate the effects of LycopersiconesculentumandCitrus limonumjuice on angiogenesis using the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. LycopersiconesculentumandCitrus limonum wascollected, sliced to squeeze juice, centrifuged and then supernatant was collected. Different dilutions were prepared using distilled water. PH was adjusted in range of 6-7 and filtered using disposable syringe filter. Fertilized eggs wereobtained from local hatchery and sprayed with 70% alcohol then divided in to six groups containing five eggs in each group one group act as control. The eggs were incubated at 37C° and at60_65% humidity. On 4th day postincubationwindows were made in all eggs under strict aseptic conditions, albumin was aspirated (approximately 4 -5 ml) with a disposable syringe, sealed with sterilized adhesive tapes and kept in incubator for 24 hours.After 24 hours windows were opened, 200 ?l of each dilution waspoured on CAM with disposable syringe, sealed again with sterilized adhesive tapes and again kept in incubator till 6th day. After 24 hours pattern of development of new blood vessels were assessed in CAM by taking images with the help of digital camera.Decrease in length and diameter of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels were seen in a concentration dependent way. All images were quantified by using scan probing image processing software (IBM- Denmark). 3D surface roughness parameters were calculated that evidently showed antiangiogenic nature of tomato and lemon juice. All the calculated data was subjected to statistical analysis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1476,T] (1).

112. In Vitro Antiviral Activity Of Leaves Extracts Of Azadirachta Indica, Moringa Oleifera And Morus Alba Against Foot

by Ishrat Younus | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The project was designed to assess in vitro antiviral and cytotoxic activity of leaves extracts of Azadirachta indica (AI), Moringa oleifera (MO) and Morus alba (MA) against Foot and Mouth disease virus (FMDV). Ethanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of each plant were obtained by soxhlet apparatus. Chloroformic extracts were dissolved in cell culture media with the help of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Eight concentrations 1 µg/ml, 6 µg/ml, 12 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 200 µg/ml and 400 µg/ml of each plant were used for both assays. Confluent BHK - 21 cells were grown in 96 well cell culture plates. Cells were treated by each concentration of extracts and extracts containing FMDV for cytotoxic and antiviral assay respectively in triplicate manner. Positive control (BHK-21 cells & cell culture media) and negative control (BHK-21 cells, FMDV & cell culture media) were kept for antiviral assay. For cytotoxic assay, positive and negative controls were kept as BHK-21 cells plus media and BHK-21 cells, media plus DMSO (20%) respectively. Cells viability and cytotoxic activity were determined by MTT assay for antiviral and cytotoxic assay respectively. Each extract was analyzed as cell survival percentage and expressed as means ± S.D. Statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA. Seven plants extracts out of nine, exhibited antiviral activity against FMDV at a concentration non toxic to BHK-21 cell line. Ethanolic AI extract showed strongest anti-FMDV activity. Chloroformic MO leaves extracts showed significant antiviral activity. Chloroformic and aqueous MA leaves extract had no remarkable antiviral activity. At higher concentrations most of the plant extracts were cytotoxic Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1478,T] (1).

113. Cytocenetic Effects Of Anti-Breast Cancer Drugs, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin And

by Zainab Batool | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Imran Altaf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: In this study mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents used in breast cancer were evaluated. The drugs included in this study were Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin and 5-Flourouracil. They were tested alone as well as in combination for their cytogenetic effects. The mutagenicity of these drugs was tested by Ames test using two strains of Salmonella i.e. TA100 and TA98 with and without S-9 at different concentrations. While for cytotoxicity evaluation MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) colorimetric assay was selected. 96 well plate and BHK-21 cell lines were used to perform this assay. This study indicated that cyclophosphamide was mutagenic ( 62.5 µg/plate) to TA 100 with S-9 but non mutagenic to TA 98 with and without S-9, while the concentration of 250µg/ml and above was found cytotoxic. Doxorubicin was mutagenic to TA 100 and TA 98 with and without S-9 at 1 µg/plate and above, while cytotoxic dose was 10µg/ml and above. 5-FU was found non mutagenic in this assay to both test strains with and without S-9 at all test concentrations, however it was found cytotoxic above 5µg/ml in MTT assay. Cisplatin showed mutagenicity to both test strains at 2µg/plate and above , while at 5µg/ml and above it was found cytotoxic. When the combinations of these drugs were tested for cytogentic effects , it was found that the concentrations which were non mutagenic individually became mutagenic and cytotoxic when combined together. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1481,T] (1).

114. Effect Of Different Energy Levels On The Growth Performance Of Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica).

by Mubarik Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Use of poultry meat in the world is increasing substantially. To meet the requirements of the consumer, increase in meat production is too much imperative. Japanese quail can be used as an alternative to broiler to increase per capita protein availability. Due to short life span, it is also gaining popularity among poultry farmers. But for optimum production, availability of energy and protein sources is cost effective. Moreover, data on energy: protein is scanty. The present project had been planned with the objectives to examine the growth and production of the highly nutritious quail meat under local environmental conditions. To attain this goal, different energy levels were used in quail feed to examine its carcass quality, production and growth performance. For this purpose, different energy levels of 2700 k cals /kg., 2900 k cals /kg (which was control) and 3100 k cals /kg of feed, were offered to 600 day old quail chicks for 28 days. There were four replicates under each of the three groups; each replicate having 50 chicks. The birds were kept in cages throughout their life and had been offered ad libitum feed in crumbs form. During the trial, weekly feed consumption, weight gain and FCR were determined. After the trial 5 birds from each replicate were slaughtered to examine the dressing percentage, liver weight and breast meat percentage. The data thus obtained was statistically analysed by using completely randomized design through ANOVA Technique. The difference among treatments means was tested through Least Significant Difference test. The results of the experiment revealed that the feed consumption and body weight gain were significantly (p<0.05) higher in group containing 3100 k cals of energy per kg following the control group having 2900 k cals energy per kg while group possessing 2700 k cals was at the last in these respects. Feed conversion ratio was best seen again in high energy group following the lowest energy diet while the control group was intermediate in this respect. The higher energy group showed maximum value for dressing percentage and liver weights followed by lower energy diet and lowest energy diet. The characteristic breast meat percentage was, however, showing lowest value for highest energy diet. Data pertaining to economics of the experiment revealed a considerably high cost of feed per kg of the group C having 3100 k cal energy per kg followed by the group A which possessed 2900 k cals per kg and group B was prepared in less amount as compared to others. Conclusion Use of high energy in feed increased the body weight gain. Higher energy in feed gradually resulted in more feed intake but not up to the pace of body weight gain. Calories, CP, calcium, methionine and lysine intakes increased with increasing energy levels while phosphorus showed a negative relationship with energy. Feed conversion ratio was best exhibited by highest energy feed. Dressing percentage was higher for higher energy feed while breast meat percentage was higher for lower energy feed. More liver weight was there with increasing energy level was attributed to more burdens on liver in sense of digestion of energy rich compounds. From the results of above experiment it is concluded that inclusion of high energy ingredients in diet has many benefits which consequently results in improved performance and ultimately higher profitability of the farm. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1486,T] (1).

115. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Trichuriasis (Whi Worm) In Dogs.

by Muhammad Ramzan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. DR. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: In developing countries like Pakistan the trend of establishment of kennel clubs are increasing day by day. While the population of dogs increase the strong practice of vaccination and deworming increase as well. Parasitism is a major problem in our country. It causes great economic losses. The genus Trichiuris is one of the important nematode which affect the dogs. Therefore a study of genus Trichiuris was conducted in month of March to May, 2012. For this purpose 300 hundreds dogs of different breeds of dogs were selected for investigation of Trichiuris vulpis. Samples were collected and brought to the Clinical laboratory of Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. In laboratory positive samples for Trichiuris vulpis were recorded. The overall prevalence of Trichiuris vulpis was found to be 20% .The dogs positive for Trichiuris vulpis were divided into three groups A, B and C having 10 dogs in each group. Group A and B were treated with pyrantal pamoate and fenbendazole respectively. While the group C was positive control. The efficacy of both the drugs were measured by the decrease in egg per gram of faeces after medication. The egg counts were made at day zero, 7th and 14th. The efficacy of pyrantal pamoat recorded on day 7th and 14th was 95.30 and 98.61% respectively while the efficacy of fenbendazole recorded on day 7th and 14th was 90.76 and 93.84% respectively. The obtained data was tabulated and analyzed by ANOVA. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant (p<0.05) difference between the efficacy of payrental pamoate and fenbendazole after treatment of infected dogs at day 7th and 14th. This analysis showed that payrantal pamoate is significantly superior in its efficacy than fenbedazole. The purpose of the study for prevalence and estimation of comparative efficacy of two drugs against Trichiuriasis in dogs was accomplished. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1490,T] (1).

116. Therapeutic Studies Of Cryprosporiduim In Sheep In And Around Lahore, City

by Bushra Saleem | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Keeping in view the importance of sheep in global agricultural economy valued by humans for its multiple uses. The present study was conducted on cryptosporidiosis, and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of paromomycin and Kalvanji therapy in lambs in and around Lahore Pakistan. In this plan of research work 400 lambs, less than 1 month of age suspected for cryptosporidium infection on the basis of clinical signs were included. The fecal sample were collected from sheep presented at medicine outdoor hospital of University of Veterinary and animal sciences, various veterinary hospitals in and around Lahore and was processed in medicine laboratory UVAS ,Lahore for observing the oocyst of cryptosporidium by using Ziehl-neelsen technique. The prevalence was found to be 24.25%., The 40 sheep were divided into four groups=designated as A, B, C & D. Each group was comprised of 10 sheep. In group A the infected sheep was treated with paromomycin@ 100 mg/kg orally for 5 days, Group B infected sheep was treated with Kalvanji@1/2 tea spoon for 5 days. Group C infected sheep kept for positive control, whereas healthy sheep group D were kept in negative control. After the 5 days treatment The effect of drugs were checked, by reduction of oocyst, at 0, 7 and 14 day. Oocysts of cryptosporidium were counted by using Mc Master Technique. The therapeutic results of this study concluded that paromomycin was much effective for cryptosporidiosis. we also done hematological studies on 40 sheep(n=30 sheep with cryptosporidiosis and n=10 healthy sheep) was included to see the effect of drugs on various blood parameters i.e PCV,TLC, The 5 ml blood were collected from each lamb directly from jugular vein, and were shifted into a sterilized plastic bottle coated with EDTA@1mg/ml were further analyzed through hematological analyzer . In disease condition the TLC and PCV was increased. The results showed the decrease number of TLC and PCV. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The outcome of this study would helped to control cryptosporidiosis in lambs and reduce their substantial losses rendered by cryptosporidium. It was concluded that paromomycin is much effective drug against cryptosporidiosis, as compared to Kalvanji oil. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1491,T] (1).

117. Cytotoxic And Antiviral Evaluation Of Different Opuntia Species Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus In Vitro Cell

by Faryal Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The antiviral activities of Opuntia delinii, Opuntia manocantha, and Opuntia stricta were evaluated against Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in this study, as these plants are associated with a lot of antiviral activity as shown by literature review. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of all the three species of Opuntia were obtained by using soxhlet apparatus (Davey et al. 2010) but first crushed them into small pieces with a sharp knife to have better extraction results. The resultant extracts were dried in rotary evaporator using standard operating procedures until semisolid extract was obtained. Different dilutions were made by dissolving in double distilled water. Vero cells were made mildly affected by mild strains of Peste des petits ruminants virus. Dilutions of these extracts were applied on Vero cell line in triplicate manner that was first made confluent up to 90% in 96 well cell culture plates. For performing anti viral assay, Positive control and negative controls used were media plus cells and virus plus media respectively. These plates were incubated for a period of four days. After this incubation period, viability of cells was determined by MTT colorimetric assay i.e. number of living and dead cells. The cytotoxic activity of above mentioned three plant species was performed by treating the Vero cells with different dilutions as used in antiviral assay and incubating the 96 well plates for 4 days. Viability of cells was determined by MTT assay. The positive and negative control for cytotoxic evaluation was cells plus media and cells plus media plus DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) 5% respectively. Results were calculated in terms of cell survival percentage (CSP) for anti viral and death rate (%) for cytotoxic assay. At highest concentrations, i.e.500 to 1000 µg/ml, all the ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from all the plant species showed cytotoxicity but at the lower concentrations ranging from 7.81µg/ml to 125µg/ml, there was no cytotoxicity. Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts was evaluated by applying Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) and comparison between two extracts was performed by applying T-Test for statistical analysis. Statistically when these results were interpreted, they were insignificant because P value is more than 0.05. This research project has a lot of positive outcomes and future prospects. The extract of plants having good antiviral activity and with no cytotoxic activity will be good baseline for further evaluation. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY The antiviral activities of Opuntia delinii, Opuntia manocantha, and Opuntia stricta were evaluated against Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in this study, as these plants are associated with a lot of antiviral activity as shown by literature review. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of all the three species of Opuntia were obtained by using soxhlet apparatus (Davey et al. 2010) but first crushed them into small pieces with a sharp knife to have better extraction results. The resultant extracts were dried in rotary evaporator using standard operating procedures until semisolid extract was obtained. Different dilutions were made by dissolving in double distilled water. Vero cells were made mildly affected by mild strains of Peste des petits ruminants virus. Dilutions of these extracts were applied on Vero cell line in triplicate manner that was first made confluent up to 90% in 96 well cell culture plates. For performing anti viral assay, Positive control and negative controls used were media plus cells and virus plus media respectively. These plates were incubated for a period of four days. After this incubation period, viability of cells was determined by MTT colorimetric assay i.e. number of living and dead cells. The cytotoxic activity of above mentioned three plant species was performed by treating the Vero cells with different dilutions as used in antiviral assay and incubating the 96 well plates for 4 days. Viability of cells was determined by MTT assay. The positive and negative control for cytotoxic evaluation was cells plus media and cells plus media plus DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) 5% respectively. Results were calculated in terms of cell survival percentage (CSP) for anti viral and death rate (%) for cytotoxic assay. At highest concentrations, i.e.500 to 1000 µg/ml, all the ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from all the plant species showed cytotoxicity but at the lower concentrations ranging from 7.81µg/ml to 125µg/ml, there was no cytotoxicity. Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts was evaluated by applying Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) and comparison between two extracts was performed by applying T-Test for statistical analysis. Statistically when these results were interpreted, they were insignificant because P value is more than 0.05. This research project has a lot of positive outcomes and future prospects. The extract of plants having good antiviral activity and with no cytotoxic activity will be good baseline for further evaluation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1493,T] (1).

118. Effect Of Vitis Vinifera (Grapes) Fruit Juice On Angiogenesis.

by Shahzad Asghar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Angiogenesis, the novel blood vessels formation, is a mark of nearly every neoplastic and non-neoplastic degenerative disease. Thetreatment of angiogenesis with plant derived anti-angiogenic substances may be proved as more efficacious,harmless, and lowbudget therapies. Grapes contain many vital natural compounds which can significantly prevent diseases and maintain human health. In this work, we have studied the effect of grapes juice (Vitis vinifera) on angiogenesis by use of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. We took Fresh fertilized eggs and sprayed them with 70% ethanol for decontamination and incubated at 37?C and (humidity 65%-70%). At 5th day of incubation small windows were made on all eggs, 4-5 ml of albumin was extracted, windows were sealed with sterile Para-film tape and eggs were reincubated. Grapes juice was obtained from fully ripened grapes and various dilutions were formulated by using distilled water. Dilutions of the juice were filtered by special syringe filters used for experimental analysis and applied to the CAMs on 6th day of incubation. Changes in vessels were clearly observed macroscopically among all treated CAMs on 7th day of incubation. The total diameter & area of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels was observed to be reduced after treatment with grapes juice in a concentrationand dose related manner. Scanning probe image processor(SPIP)software was used for 3D surface roughness measurements which clearly demonstrated the antiangiogenic effect of grapes juice on CAM. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) juice inhibits angiogenesis, which is a common denominator of various major diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1501,T] (1).

119. Feeding Behavior And Performance Of Sheep And Goats Under Various Feeding Management Systems

by Nasrullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullan | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Sheep and goats have been bestowed with the capacity of surviving under a variety of environmental conditions including the coastal region, plains and high mountains. The profitable small ruminants farming depend upon feeding and management systems because the feed cost is 70% in any livestock farming. In Pakistan, mostly people grazed ruminants on summer and winter fodders for maintenance and production requirements. Commercial livestock production demands a change in feeding with a trend for more efficient utilization of scarce feed resources. The proposed study was planned in to three experiments under a factorial arrangement to evaluate the growth performance of sheep and goats. In experiment one a study was first conducted to compare the voluntary intake and digestibility of janter (coriandrum sativum), guar (cyamopsis tetragonolba), cowpea (Vigna sinesis) in sheep and goats. For this purpose, 90 female animals (sheep n=45 and goats n = 45) were selected randomly and divided equally in, 6 groups representing each species under 2×3 factorial arrangements, Groups A,B ,C represented goats while group D,E,F represented sheep. Results showed that goats spent more time on eating than sheep while ruminating time was higher in sheep than goats. Drinking time was not different (P>0.05) among the species. Goats spent more time on playing and resting than sheep fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. Dry mater CP, NDF, ADF and GE intake was higher in sheep than goats fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. DMD and CP were higher in sheep than goats fed guar. NDF and ADF digestibility was similar in both species. Average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain were similar in both the species. It is concluded that the jantar fodder in summer is most suitable fodder for sheep and goats compare to guar and Cowpea. In the second trial of the first phase study comparison of voluntary intake and digestibility maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americanum) in sheep and goats were compared. Statistical analyses showed that eating time was higher (P?0.05) in goats than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum while, sheep spent more time on ruminating, drinking and standing than goats. Goats showed higher playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter CP, NDF and ADF intake was similar (P>0.05) in both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter digestibility was similar in sheep and goats fed maize, millet and sorghum. NDF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep fed sorghum while this was different (P?0.05) when maize and millet were fed. ADF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep. Average daily weight gain feed efficiency and cost of gain was not significant (P>0.05) among both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Results of the study showed that the non leguminous fodders during summer are equally preferred by both species. In second the phase voluntary feed intake and digestibility of berseem, (Trifolium alexandrium) lucerne, (Medicago Sativa), oats, (Avena Sativa) in female sheep and goats was studied. For this purpose, female animals (n=90) of sheep (n=45) and goats (n=45) were randomly selected and divided equally in six in a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that eating time was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep, while ruminating time was more in sheep than goats fed berseem lucerne and oats, whereas time spent on drinking was similar in both goats and sheep. Goats utilized less time in standing, higher (P<0.05) time in playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Crude protein intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne. DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem, while it was similar when fed lucerne and oats fodder. NDF, ADF and GE (M cal/d) intakes were higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne fodder however it was similar in both the species fed on oats fodder. DM digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in sheep and goats fed berseem, lucerne and oats. CP digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. When fed Lucerne and oats there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between goats and sheep.. NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. Average daily gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain/kg was non-significant (P>0.05) between goats and sheep fed berseem, lucern and oats. Results demonstrated that during winter the most suitable fodder for sheep and goats is lucerne fodder. In the second experiment the study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under various feeding management systems in which ninety female animals were selected and divided into six equal groups with three groups of each species (sheep n=45, goats n=45) under a 2×3 factorial arrangement. These were in extensive, semi-intensive and intensive feeding management systems. Dry matter intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than goats kept under extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems. Crude protein intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in sheep than goats fed intensively. NDF and ADF intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than in goats. Average daily weight gain was higher in sheep than goats on the extensive system followed by the semi-intensive system. Feed efficiency was similar in goats and sheep while the cost of gain per kg was more economical in sheep than goats. Results of study revealed that both species performed better on extensive feeding system than the other systems might be of natural grazing behavior. The third experiment of study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under the intensive management system. Sixty female animals (lambs n= 30 and kids n=30) were used. The animals were divided equally in four groups A and B representing lambs while C, D was for kids. Both species were allotted two treatments i.e. fodder ad libitum with concentrate supplement (240 grams/animal/day) and total mixed ration ad libitum under a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Results showed that DM, CP, NDF and ADF intakes were higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids. Average daily weight gain was higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed total mixed ration. Feed efficiency was higher (P?0.05) in kids than in lambs fed fodder plus supplement. Dry matter and CP digestibility was higher (P?0.05) in kids than lambs fed a total mixed ration. NDF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed the TMR, it was also higher in kids than in lambs when fed fodder plus the concentrate supplement. ADF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than in kids fed the total mixed ration. The performance of lambs was better on TMR while kids showed good results on fodder plus the concentrate supplementation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1503,T] (1).

120. Studies On Genetic Diversity Of Labeo Rohita And Cirrhinus Mrigala By Using Molecular Markers In Punjab-Pakistan

by Fayyaz Rasool | Prof. Dr. Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The studies on genetic diversity of Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala by using molecular markers in Punjab-Pakistan were carried out to investigate the genetic structure of said Indian major carps by RAPAD marker and the levels of polymorphism and similarity amongst the different groups of five populations of wild and farmed types. The results obtained from the present study after statistical analyses are presented in section-4 of this dissertation. The samples were collected from the following sites; for farmed fish was collected from UVAS-Fish Hatchery, C-block Ravi campus Pattoki district Kasur and for wild fish; from Trimu Barrage at the junction of River Chenab and Jhelum near district Jhang, Taunsa Barrage at River Indus near tehsil Kot Adu district Muzaffar Garh, Qadirabad Barrage at River Chenab near district Mandi Bahuddin and Baloki Barrage at River Ravi near tehsil Bhai Phero district Kasur. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the different morphometric parameters of study and Pearson's correlation among the physico-chemical parameters of water quality was done by Minitab statistical computer software. The XLSTAT 2012 version 1.02 of the computer software was used for the Pearson correlation analysis of the morphometric parameters of study. The same computer program was used for Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) of the different genotype occurrence on the basis of differences in morphometric parameters was done by Agglomeration method by following the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA). The Principle Component Analysis (PCA) on the basis of differentiation in morphometric parameters by Eigenvalues and differentiation into factors of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by correlation bi-plot/coefficient of the correlation (n) method in the same program. This software was also used to analyze the RAPAD data for Jaccard's coefficient by following the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) for Hierarchical Clustering of the similar groups on the basis of similarity amongst the genotypes and the dendrogram generated is presented in the next section. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for grouping of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by Spearman Varimax rotation method for bi-plot generation of the co-occurrence of the same genotypes with similar genetic properties and specificity of different primersin the same program. Following results were obtained: Morphometric Parameters 1. Morphometric parameters of L. rohitashowed following trends: body weight, total length and average length of paired pectoral fins were nonsignificantly different (p > 0.05), fork length, dorsal fin length, caudal fin length and average length of paired pectoral fins were highly significantly different (p < 0.01) while anal fin length was significant different (p < 0.05) among the experimental sites. In case of C. mrigala, the body weight was non-significantly different (p > 0.05) while all other parameters were highly significantly different (p < 0.01) except the dorsal fin length which was significantly different (p < 0.05) among the study sites. 2. The results of the Pearson correlation of morphometric parameters showed that body weight of L. rohita developed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters, the fork length of the said species showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the parameters except with the caudal fin length where the correlation was also positive but non-significant (p = 161). In case of total length of the fish body, the correlation was highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive with all the parameters of study.The length of the dorsal fin showed highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters under study. The caudal fin length of L. rohita showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 161). The correlation of the anal fin length of the fish body showed a highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation trends. The average length of the paired pectoral fins showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters of study, the correlation of paired pelvic fins average length showed positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with other parameters. 3. The body weight of C. mrigala developed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters. The fork length of the said species showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with body weight, total length and dorsal fin length while this correlation was positive but non significant with the caudal fin length (p = 0.228), anal fin length (p = 0.168), average length of paired pectoral fins (p = 0.031) and average length of the paired pelvic fins (p = 0.106). In case of total length of the fish body, the correlation was highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive with all the parameters of study. The length of the dorsal fin showed highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters under study. The caudal fin length of C. mrigala showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.228).The correlation of the anal fin length of the fish body showed a highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation trends with all the parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.168). The average length of the paired pectoral fins showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters of study except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.031). InC. mrigala, the correlation of paired pelvic fins average length showed positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.106). 4. Dendrogram generated on the basis of morphometric parameters of study dividedL. rohita genotype in to five major clusters or classes with 19.24% for within class variation while 80.76% for the between class differences. While the dendrogram developed for C. mrigala divided the genotypes in to four major clusters or classes with 27.28% for within class variation while 72.72% for the between class differences. 5. The results obtained from the PCA for morphometric parameters of L. rohitaand C. mrigalaindicated clearly that the increase in the number of factors or components was correlated with the decrease in eigenvalues. The values showed that its trend reached its maximum at level of second factor. In the same way according to the Kaiser (1958) criterion based upon the eigenvalues greater than one, first two main factors accounted for 80.273% of cumulative variability for L. rohita and 82.558% for C.mrigala. The PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the L. rohita,the first group amongst the major two groups accounted for 64.245% of the cumulative variability while the second from these accounted for 16.028% of the cumulative variability. The PCA grouped C. mrigala,also into two groups, the first group amongst the major two groups accounted for 59.323% of the cumulative variability while the second from these accounted for 23.235% of the cumulative variability. 6. The physico-chemical parameters of the water samples of all study sites were analyzed for correlation among them. The results were as follows; the correlation of the pH with water temperature (r= 0.107) and dissolved oxygen (r = 0.905) was positively non-significant while the correlation with electrical conductivity (r = -0.798), salinity (r= -0.888), total dissolved solids (r = -0.857), total alkalinity (r = -0.736) and total hardness (r = -0.499) was negatively non-significant. The correlation of the dissolved oxygen with water temperature (r= 0.313) was positively non-significant while the correlation with electrical conductivity (r = -0.669), salinity (r= -0.828), total dissolved solids (r = -0.809), total alkalinity (r = -0.930) and total hardness (r = -0.300) was negative but also non-significant as like with the water temperature. The electrical conductivity was positively correlated with all the physic-chemical parameters as with water temperature (r= 0.482), salinity (r= 0.925), total dissolved solids (r = 0.889), total alkalinity (r = 0.452) and total hardness (r = 0.906) and this correlation was non significant.The salinity amongst the water parameters was correlated positively with water temperature (r = 193), total alkalinity (r = 0.717) and total hardness (r = 0.734) and it was non-significant but with total dissolved solids (r = 0.994) the correlation was also positive but highly significant (P < 0.001). The total dissolved solids values observed from the study sites were positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.172), total alkalinity (r = 0.734) and total harness (r = 0.657) and this correlation was non-significant. The correlation between the total alkalinity and total hardness was also positive and non-significant (r = 0.048). RAPAD Data 1. In case of L. rohita, OPB-1 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-3 polymorphism remained as 40.00%, OPB-4, polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-5 polymorphism remained as 20.00%, OPB-7 polymorphism was 28.57%, OPB-8 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-9 polymorphism was 25.00%, OPB-10 polymorphism was 28.57%, OPC-19 polymorphism was 14.29% and OPD-4 showed 50.00% polymorphism in amplification. In case of C. mrigala, OPB-1 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-3 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-4 polymorphism remained as 25.00%, OPB-5 polymorphism remained as 14.29%, OPB-7 polymorphism was 14.29%, OPB-8 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-9 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-10 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPC-19 polymorphism was 28.57% and OPD-4 polymorphism remained as 33.33% in amplification. 2. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA of RAPAD data of L. rohita by the randomly selected individuals with high scorable bands of the five populations grouped themselves in the first class/cluster while a single sample designated as Indus2 from the population from River Indus collected from Taunsa Barrage represents the second class/cluster and in same way only single individual designated as Ravi2 collected from River Ravi from the Baloki Barrage represents the third class. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA of RAPAD data of C. mrigala by the randomly selected individuals of the five populations grouped themselves in the first class/cluster and two samples designated as Indus2 and Qad2 from the populations from River Indus collected from Taunsa Barrage and River Chenab from Qadirabad Barrage represents the second class/cluster while one individual from the Trimu Barrage at the junction of Jhelum and Chenab Rivers designated as Trimu2 represents the third class and in the same way only single individual designated as Ravi2 collected from River Ravi from the Baloki Barrage represents the third class. 3. The PCA resultsfor L. rohitait can be assumedthat PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the fish RAPAD amplification data into two main components which all together accounted for 58.177% of the cumulative variation among the factors. The first group (F1) amongst the major two groups accounted for 33.327% of the cumulative variability while the second (F2) from these accounted for 24.850% of the cumulative variability. These results were also confirmed after the varimax rotation. By the PCA resultsfor C. mrigalawe can assume after observing the results that the PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the fish RAPAD amplification data into two main components which all together accounted for 70.866% of the cumulative variation among the factors. The first group (F1) amongst the major two groups accounted for 51.115% of the cumulative variability while the second (F2) from these accounted for 19.751% of the cumulative variability. This study in this way has provided the genetic information of the present fish species and how evolutionary processes are affecting the fish fauna. So this study along with the strengthening of the academic research area has also proven an applied research which will help the breeders to the chose most fit candidates for the breeding program in the Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1504,T] (1).

121. Effect Of Punica Granatum (Pomegranate) Fruit Extract On Angiogenesis

by Ghulam Jilany Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Angiogenesis is a physiological process which involves the formation of new blood vessels from vessels which are already present. It is a common and most important process in formation and development of vessels, so used in healing of wound and granulation of tissues. To maintain natural balance between formulation and inhibitory factors, body controls angiogenesis. When this balance is disturbed, the body results in either too much growth or extensive inhibition of expansion of blood vessels. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extract on angiogenesis using chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM). The phytochemicals in pomegranate include polyphenoliccatechins, gallocatechins and anthocyanins like prodelphinidins, delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin. CAM assay model is very helpful to proceed in research due to its easy and accurate observation of embryonic development and the process of angiogenesis. The proposed hypothesis was, is there any Effect of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) fruit extract on angiogenesis? To check the authenticity of this hypothesis pomegranate (Punica granatum) was collected from the locality of Lahore. Aqueous extract was obtained by maceration of dried powder. Forty fresh fertilized eggs were collected from local hatchery and divided into four groups, having 10 eggs in each group. These eggs were incubated and were windowed at day 5 of incubation. On the same day a specified portion of albumin was removed with the help of syringe. On day 6 various dilutions of fruit extract was prepared and applied on developing CAM on day 6 after incubation while the controlled group was treated with distilled CHAPTER-6 65 water only. After 24 hours, the pattern of angiogenesis in the developing CAM was evaluated by taking images with the help of digital camera and SPIP software program. 3D surface roughness parameters showed the clear decline in values as compared to control. The parameters are; Sa (surface area), Sq (root mean square), Ssk (surface deviation), , Sy (lowest valley), Sz ( average absolute height), Smin (minimum height), Smax (maximum Height), Smean (mean height), Sdr (developed surface area ratio), Svk (Reduce valley depth), Sci (ratio of void volume of the unit sampling at core zone over root mean square deviation), Sk (core roughness depth), Stdi (texture index). All of these parameters were assessed thoroughly for the quantification of angiogenesis. The length and diameter of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels as well as the area of CAM were measured with the help of calibration and measurement command. Changes in angiogenesis were observed with different percentage dilutions of fruit extracts and were statistically analyzed by using the analysis of variance where “p-value” of control and treated groups were calculated. With this application, significant differences in the results were observed at p<0.05 which collectively pointed toward antiangiogeic effect of the pomegranate fruit extract. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1514,T] (1).

122. Sero And Viro Surveillance Of Influenza Virus Sero Types Circulating In Equine Species

by Muhammad Sajid | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1526,T] (1).

123. Epidemiological And Molecular Profile Of Hepatitis-C Viral Infection Among Different Groups Of Population In And Around Lahore, Pakistan

by Dr. Abdul Majeed Akhter | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure, liver cancer or life-threatening esophageal and gastric varices. The present project was carried out to study the prevalence of laboratory based confirmed patients of Hepatitis-C in various public, private hospitals and in high risk groups among the population of Lahore metropolitan and its distribution and pattern with respect to person, time and place. Second part of the project was designed to study the risk factors of Hepatitis-C patients from out patient departments of various public and private hospitals of Lahore. Individuals at high risk from different organizations and occupations across the city population of Lahore metropolitan were also included in the study. The third part of the project was designed to investigate the distribution of genotypes of Hepatitis-C virus among patients through RT-PCR and theireffect on viral load, various haematological and biochemical parameters. Project-I Study-1: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C in various public and private hospitals of Lahore Metropolitan among different groups a total of 1399 individuals were tested to estimate the hospital based prevalence of HCV. Out of these 233 individuals produced positive result for Hepatitis-C virus infection. The overall hospital based prevalence was estimated to be 16.66% during the year 2009. The current study revealed that the highest prevalence was estimated in Dialysis patients and Organ recipients (41.17%) followed by General Patients of age > 12 years (14.60%) and pregnant women (10.84%). It was further observed that the least affected group was the Children of age ? 12 years (3.85%). Study-2: The results of estimated prevalence of Hepatitis C virus infection in high risk groups from the population in and around Lahore revealed that the highest prevalence was estimated in patients with HIV/AIDS (36.36%) followed by injecting drug users (36.09%), blood donors (17.78%), long rout truck drivers (14.70%), house hold and direct contact personal (14.6%) and prisoners (14.28%). It was also find out that the less affected groups were police department (10.66%), staff nurses and other health care workers (9.87%) and barbers and beauticians (6.97%) while doctors and dental surgeons were least affected (1.32%) among the high risk groups. Study-3: To find out the pattern and distribution of HCV patients with respect to person place and time a total of 924 patients were selected from the registry of Provincial Hepatitis Control Cell Lahore through systematic random sampling. Out of these, 154 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 90 were male and 64 were females. Average age of male and female patients was 35.88±10.49 and 37.78±9.12 years, respectively. The age difference between male and female patients was statistically non-significant (P-value>0.05). It was further observed that 147 patients were Punjabi and 7 were from other provinces. Moreover, It was found that the highest number of patients was observed during the month of December (n=18) followed by November, 2008 (n=15), March (n=15) and July, 2009 (n=14) while the least number of patients were observed during the months of September, 2008 and May, 2009 (n=10). Project-II To study the risk factors associated with HCV infection an analytical cross sectional study was conducted. Study-1: Lower socio economic class, place of birth (hospital), delivery assisted by whom and breast feeding were significantly associated with HCV infection in children of age ? 12 years. The mean age of reactive and non-reactive general patients was significantly associated (P=0.012) with anti-HCV status. Marital status (OR=2.042), socioeconomic status, blood donation (OR=2.15), prescription by doctor or non-doctor (OR=2.664), route of drug administration, relative having hepatitis and towel sharing (OR=1.987) were also significantly associated (P<0.05) risk factors for HCV infection. The mean age of reactive and non-reactive pregnant women was 27.55±3.43 and 25.37±4.24 years, respectively. Educational level (OR=3.093) and occupational status (OR=2.228) were the important risk factors associated with HCV infection. Tattoo on the body (OR=11.833), comb sharing (OR=20.86) and razor sharing (OR=4.786) were significantly associated (P<0.05) with HCV infection. Pregnant women who gave the history of dental procedures and tooth brush sharing were 3.15 and 4.12 times more prone to get HCV infection, respectively. In 205 patients having dialysis and organ recipients 41.17% patients were reactive for Anti-HCV. Blood transfusion, glass sharing and qualification of the patients were significant factors in this group. Study-2: In case of doctors/dental surgeons a significant association was observed with history of blood transfusion and duties in medical and surgical wards. The nurses who worked in surgical wards, visited beauty salons were significantly associated (P<0.05) with HCV infection. Among health care workers age, gender and other factors did not have any significant influence on the reaction of HCV. Among blood donors female to male ratio was 1:16.5. It was found that the occupational status (p=0.002), place of surgical treatment (p=0.035), history of blood transfusion (p=0.000), ever pricked by sharps (p=0.045), habit of injecting drugs (p=0.04) and glass sharing (p=0.017) were significantly associated with occurrence of hepatitis C in blood donors. In long route truck drivers geographical status, surgical procedure, dental treatment and family history were significantly associated (P<0.05). Among the injecting drug users, demographic factors like marital (P=0.007) and educational status (P=0.000) were found to be significantly associated with HCV infection. Furthermore, the behavioral factors; use of injectable drugs with reused syringes (P=0.003), sharing of syringes in groups (P=0.004), place of shaving (P=0.000), use of disinfected ustra (razor) (P=0.003) and razor sharing (P=0.000) were significantly associated with anti-HCV status for IDUs. Among HIV/Aids patients a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference was present among the ages of reactive and non reactive patients. Comb sharing has also a positive effect of HCV but all other factors were not contributing in this group. In Police personals odds ratio for married persons was higher (9.57) but statistically insignificant. The mean age for reactive persons was 39.75±8.24 years. A non-sexual contact with HCV patient and spoon sharing were significantly associated. In prison inmates skin infection and sexual involvement were significantly associated (P<0.000) with HCV infection. In the group of 43 barbers/beauticians age, working shift, tattoo on body (OR=19.5), injecting drugs (OR=19.5) and pre-testing for HCV (OR=19.5) were significantly associated with HCV infection. In house hold and direct contact group previous history of accidents and family history of HCV (OR=18.36) were significantly associated with HCV infection. Project-III A molecular epidemiological study was conducted in which the HCV reactive patients as tested by ELISA test were subjected to viral load and genotyping through RT-PCR. The positive cases of Project-I were included in this project. In the present study 558 patients were reactive for Anti-HCV. Out of these, 34 (6.09%) patients had Type-1 genotype, 67 (12%) patients were accounted for Type-2 and 410 (73.47%) patients were positive for Type-3. Multiple genotypes were seen in 19 (3.4%) patients, 9 (1.61%) patients had un-type able genotype whereas in 19 (3.4%) patients genotype could not be detected. According to the distribution of genotype-1, 1a was present in 30 (88.23%) while 1b was seen in 4 (11.76%) patients. In patients of Type-2 genotype, 2a and 2b were present in 54 (80.59%) and 13 (19.40%) patients, respectively. In patients having Type-3, 3a and 3b were identified in 353 (86.09%) and 57 (13.90%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, Bilirubin, ALT, AST, ALPT, viral load, Hb, TLC, DLC, Platelet and ESR were statistically same in all genotype. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1529,T] (1).

124. Chemical, Microbiological And Toxicological Screening Of Tannery Effluent Wastewater

by Lubna Shakir | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Over the last decade or so the chromium based tanning industry has shown rapid growth in Pakistan. However the rule and regulations promulgated by the government are not strictly followed for the processing of effluent discharged by the tanneries. Consequently tannery effluents have become a great source of water pollution in surrounding area. This project was designed to evaluate the hazardous effects of tannery effluent wastewater (TEW) through various bioassays. During the first phase of the project, composition of the TEW samples was determined by PIXE analysis. Besides this, we have also investigated the impact of TEW on trace element content of ground water in Kasur tannery area. The ground water from shallow tubewells (100 to 300 ft) in the area has shown very high content of chromium while the ground water from the deeper tubewells (upto 600 ft) generally does not contain the toxic elements except for one outlet of the water supplied by the Muncipal Corporation. This could be due to corroded pipes in the tannery area. Microbial load was determined during second phase of this research project by viable count method. The detected viable count was 7.5 X 104 to 3.0 X 107CFU/ml. Various strains of chromium tolerant bacilli were isolated and they were found tolerant up to 2600 µg/ml supplemented chromium sulphate. During the third phase of this research plan, dilutions of TEW were evaluated for their effects on angiogenesis using CAM assay. TEWD1 and potassium dichromate were found highly anti-angiogenic. Moreover, dilutions of TEW and potassium dichromate have demonstrated significant toxicity when assessed through marine shrimps mortality assay and phytotoxiciy assasy. Chronic toxicity study on Wistar rats was conducted in the last phase. Chronic exposure of TEW for three months to rats leads to the development of various lesions in lung, liver, kidney and heart of rats. In short, TEW and contaminated ground water of Kasur is imposing a great threat not only to local inhabitants of the city but also to the population of far distance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1531,T] (1).

125. Determination of in Vitro Antimicrobial Effecacy of Plant Extracts and Antibiotics Against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Isolated from Postoperative Wounds of Hospitalized Patients.

by Muhmmad Qamar Zeshan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Background Nosocomial infection is a worldwide problem causing high number of deaths. The major causative agent of infection is methicillin resistant Staphylococs aureus (MRSA). Surgical site infections in orthopedic surgery (SSIS) are mainly (48%) caused by Staph. aureus, out of which 68% are MRSA and causes a number of deaths annually. Hypothesis As medicinal plants like (Opuntia delinii, Acacia nilotica and Alo vera) have the anti bacterial activity, So these plants may be effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococs aureus (MRSA) And antibiotic like (Moxifloxacillin, Cefipime and Imipenem/Cilastatin and Ampicillin+Cloxacillin) selected in this study have antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria so may these have effectiveness against methicillin resistant Staphylococs aureus (MRSA). Material and method In this study MRSA isolated from the post operative wounds of one hundred hospitalized patients from three hospitals (Mayo Hospital, Services Institute of Medical Sciences and Jinnah Hospital) of Lahore. The isolates obtained from the wound identified as MRSA by cultural and biochemical characteristics. Methicillin resistant Staphylococs aureus strains are resistant to many antibiotics even vancomycin. In the present study the efficacy of three medicinal plants (Opuntia delinii, Acacia nilotica and Alo vera) studied against MRSA using extracts of the plants. The extracts also further used to determine MICs against methicillin resistant Staphylococs aureus isolated strains. MICs of four antibiotics and their combinations commonly used for treatment of post operative wounds like Moxifloxacin, Cefipime, Imipenem/Cilastatin and Ampicillin+Cloxacillin determined using Linezolid and Vancomycin as standards by micro dilution method in vitro. Statistical Design The data collected analyzed using SPSS version13.0X soft ware. Outcome The prevalence of MRSA found in different hospitals as under 72.5% in case of Mayo, 63.33% in case of Services Hospital and 66.66% in case of Jinnah hospital Lahore. The highest percentage found in Mayo hospital and lowest was observed in case of services hospital. MIC results found in this study indicate that Acacia nilotica and Alo vera contain antibacterial agents which showed the good results against MRSA while Opuntia dileinii showed not promising results against MRSA and high MICs found put a question mark on its efficacy. Average MICs found in case of acacia leaves and bark are as 84 (µg)/ml and 62.5 (µg)/ml respectively. Average MIC observed in case of Aloe vera is 32.25 (µg)/ml. The highest MIC value calculated in case of Opuntia dillenii is 1228 (µg)/ml. Antibiotics like Moxifloxacin and Imipenem/Cilastatin showed the good results and the average MICs value found 2.681 And 2.85 respectively closely resembles to the MICs of stander drugs e.i vancomycin and linezolid caluculated as 1.61 and 2.43. Cefipime showed the less activity against MRSA with the average MIC 57.81.The synergistic effects of Ampicillin+Cloxacillin was not so good as compared to the stander drugs and combination of ampicillin and cloxacillin exhibit the average MIC as 11.87. The lowest MIC in of plants extracts observed in case of Aloe vera and highest found in case of Opuntia dillenii. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1532,T] (1).

126. Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Method And Staple Suture Technique For Intestinal Aanastomosis In Dogs

by Hafiz Kashif Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Shehla Gul Bokhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Intestinal resection and anastomosis is frequently essential during abdominal surgeries. Indications for intestinal resection are malignancy, inflammation, stricture formation, injuries and ischemia. Several surgical situations necessitate the resection of intestinal segments and the formation of consistent anastomoses. Conventionally, a large diversity of suture materials has been used to make hand-sewn anastomoses. Surgical stapler was made for the first time at the beginning of 20th century but its use remained limited in gastrointestinal surgery. Currently, stapled anastomoses is an essential part of the majority of the gastrointestinal surgeries. The simple-interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique, in which absorbable monofilament suture material is used, is presently believed to be the technique of choice for end-to-end bowel anastomosis. This procedure is mostly used in gastrointestinal surgeries with comparatively lesser complications. Intestinal anastomosis with skin staples was started by military surgeons for the soldiers suffering from bowel trauma caused by gunfire. In this technique, stainless steel skin staples were used to create a seromuscular intestinal anastomoses. There are several types of staplers available in markets, e.g. circular ligators, clip appliers, endoscopic staplers etc. The circular stapler is a disposable anastomotic instrument that places a round, double staggered row of titanium staples connecting intervening tissues. It can generate an end-to-end, end-to-side, or side-to-side anastomosis. This round stapler is available with a variety of staple line diameters to be used according to need. In current years, there has been a large shift from hand-sewn method towards the use of intestinal stapler in gastrointestinal surgery. They present a possible reduction in operational timing and are easy to learn and use than for hand-sewn method. So, staplers are very popular in the trainee. This research project was tested on 12 mongrel dogs divided randomly into two different groups (A and B). Each group comprised of 6 dogs. Conventional hand-sewn method of end-to-end anastomosis was applied on group A and stapled anastomosis was made in the dogs of group B. Two surgical techniques were applied for end to end anastomosis of jejunum. In group-A conventional hand-sewn anastomosis technique was applied. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and then anatomosed with simple interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique. The absorbable, monofilament suture material was applied manually. This is currently considered the method of choice for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in small animal surgery. This technique is well described and has been used throughout the canine gastrointestinal tract with a relatively low complication rate. In group-B a circular mechanical stapler was used to construct anastomosis. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and end-to-end anatomosis was made using a mechanical stapler. Comparison of both techniques was made on the basis of clinical parameters (temperature, pulse, respiration, vomiting, diarrhea and blood in feces), radiographic evaluation, exploratory laparotomy, change in lumen diameter and duration of surgical procedure. There is a significant difference in change in diameter within each group before and after surgery but there is no significant difference in change in diameter or stenosis formation between these two groups. There is a significant difference in the duration of operation; stapled group significantly requires an average of 10 minutes less than conventional hand-sewn method. Conclusively it was inferred that there is no significant difference in change in diameter between stapled group and hand sewn group but the anastomosis construction time is shorter in stapled group. Stapled anastomosis is safe and faster technique than hand-sewn method. The prevalence of low complication rate makes it all the more ideal for application in routine practices. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1533,T] (1).

127. Epidemmiology Of Foot And Mouth Disease In Buffaloes Of Punjab Province

by Farhat Nazir Awan | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: This study indicates that the ranking order of buffalo diseases, with respect to their incidence in descending order in Punjab province is Foot and Mouth Disease, Mastitis, Diarrhea, Haemorrhagic Septicemia, Sudden Death Syndrome and haemoglobinuria. Similarly the disease ranking order in cattle in descending order is FMD, Mastitis, Diarrhea, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Haemoglobinuria and Sudden Death Syndrome. FMD is top most economic important disease both in buffaloes and in cattle in the province. Morbidity rate in the adult cattle and buffalo was higher as compared to the younger stock. However, the mortality rate was higher in young stock as compared to the adult animals of both the species. Moreover, adult and young males of both the species were more susceptible to the disease as compared to females. Cross-sectional survey revealed the economic loss of Rs. 41.32 million due to loss of milk, cost of dead animals and treatment cost of sick and complicated cases of FMD. The loss due to milk reduction was 57.3% of the total losses followed by mortality loss (26.4%), morbidity effect expenses (15.2%) and treatment charges in FMD complicated cases (1.0%). The findings of present study clearly indicate the association of age, feeding pattern, vaccination status and season as risk factors in the incidence of FMD in Punjab. Data obtained from the EPI-Unit Lahore showed that 719 FMD outbreaks occurred in the district of Punjab during 2007-2008. The highest number of outbreaks (212) was recorded in Rahim-Yar-Khan followed by Bhakkar (118), T.T. Singh (81) and Faisalabad (72). Of the total 309 disease outbreaks in buffalo, 174 (56.3%) were recorded in adults, whereas this number in cattle was 169 (61%). The incidences of the outbreaks increased gradually following the post-monsoon period. The greatest number of outbreaks was observed during the winter season, from December to February. Data from FMD Research Center, Lahore revealed the involvement of only FMDV serotype "O" in all the outbreaks during 2007-2008. Studies of the factors (age, feeding pattern, stage of pregnancy and species) on the immune response of local trivalent FMD vaccine revealed that buffaloes of all age groups responded well to vaccination against disease. It was also observed that 7-9 months pregnant buffaloes elicited significantly lower antibody response to vaccine as compared to the control groups. Similarly, buffaloes on grazing have shown lower anti-FMD-CF GM titer as compared to buffaloes on manger feeding. Sheep and goat were found to be late and poor responder to vaccine as compared to cattle and buffalo. Analysis of 300 serum samples from FMD affected buffaloes of 12 districts of the Punjab indicated the highest incidence of serotype "O" (62.3%) followed by Asia-1 (32.4%) and "A" (3.30%) in the population tested. FMD virus was inactivated at 61 ºC within 15 minutes and at pH 4, 8, and 10 within 24 hours. However, ultraviolet radiation was unable to inactivate the virus even after 45 minutes. The disinfectants/chemicals evaluated in this study including sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, citric acid, acetic acid, formalin, sodium hypochlorite, virkon-s, aldekol and Gas-G were effective in inactivating the FMDV at recommended concentration levels of 2%, 4%, 0.20%, 4%, 0.15%, 3.0%, 1.0%, 0.50% and 0.1% after 60, 30, 60, 60, 30, 30, 30, 60 and 30 minutes, respectively, at 300C. Sodium hypochlorite and Gas-G were equally good in inactivating the virus at half (1.5% and 0.05%) of the recommended concentration. Efficacy trial of local and imported oil based trivalent FMD vaccine in six villages, of the Faisalabad district clearly showed that 81.8% of FMD cases were prevented by the local inactivated vaccine in vaccinated animals whereas; this percentage was 70.6 in case where imported vaccines were employed. Moreover, efficacy of the local vaccine was higher than the imported vaccines. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1537,T] (1).

128. Evaluation Of Different Extenders For The Cryopreservation Of Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Semen

by Dawar Hameed Mughal | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Buffalo is playing an important role in our country's economy by producing milk, meat and draught power. Genetic potential of low producing animals can be improved by using artificial insemination technology. Unfortunately, less number of elite bulls are available and low fertility rate of buffalo by using cryopreserved semen has been obtained. Semen is exposed to osmotic and oxidative stresses during processing, cryopreservation and thawing before insemination. Fertilizing ability is lost due to spermatozoa damage and it ultimately results in poor conception rates in buffalo. In order to protect spermatozoa from these stresses and improve fertility in buffalo, five osmotic pressure based concentrations of three extenders i.e. Citrate egg yolk extender (CEYE), Tris egg yolk extender (TEYE), and Lactose egg yolk extender (LEYE) were prepared by varying the quantity of the solutes to obtain an osmotic pressure of 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295 mOsm/kg. Osmotic pressure was measured by an osmometer. In the first experiment, equal volume of semen obtained from four Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was pooled and used to study the effects of osmotic pressure on post thawed semen characteristics. For this purpose, three basic media: citrate fructose media, tris citric acid fructose media and lactose media were prepared and divided each media in to five equal parts to maintain osmotic pressures of 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295mOsm/kg. These basis media were stored in a biomedical freezer, which were later used in preparing three semen extenders i.e. Citrate egg yolk extender (CEYE), Tris egg yolk extender (TEYE), and Lactose egg yolk extender (LEYE). During each collection, fifteen extenders (each of three extenders having five osmotic pressures i.e. 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295mOsm/kg) were used to extend the semen. After freezing, semen characteristics like sperm motility rate, viability rate, acrosomal integrity rate, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) rate, MTT reduction rate, sperm DNA integrity rate and lipid peroxidation were noted. Post thaw sperm motility rate in (%) CEYE was significant (P<0.05) at 295mOsm/kg compared to 255, 265 and 275mOsm/kg. However, sperm motility rate of different osmotic pressures of TEYE and LEYE was non-significant (P>0.05). Sperm viability rate (%) was non-significant (P>0.05) in all three extenders. Sperm acrosomal integrity rate was non-significant in CEYE and LEYE. However, it was significant (P<0.05) at 265, 275 and 295mOsm/kg in TEYE. Sperm PMI rate, MTT reduction rate, sperm DNA integrity rate and lipid peroxidation were non-significant (P>0.05) in CEYE, TEYE and LEYE. On the basis of the individual and overall comparison of different semen characteristics of three extenders and their osmotic pressures, LEYE with 295mOs.kg was considered to be continued in the next experiment to upgrade the extender by adding taurine (TA) at 0.0, 30, 50 and 70 mM and trehalose (TR) at 0.0, 20, 40, 60 mM concentration. Semen collection, processing, freezing etc were done as per experiment-1 and same post thaw tests were carried out. Post thaw sperm motility rate was significantly (P<0.05) higher at TA-0.0 and TA-20mM and all concentration of TR. Sperm viability rate, acrosomal integrity rate, PMI rate, MTT reduction rate and lipid peroxidation at different concentrations of TA and TR were recorded non-significant (P>0.05). However, sperm DNA integrity rate was significant (P<0.05) higher at TA-0.0 and TR-0.0mM. On the basis of comparison of different semen characteristics under various concentrations of taurine or trehalose, supplemented in semen extenders. Concentration of TR-70mM was considered to be continued in the next experiment to test fertility of the optimized extender. Semen straws of LEYE supplemented with TR-70mM were used to inseminate the 50 buffaloes in heat (Supplemented group), while, traditionally used tris based buffalo bull semen extender was used (control group) to compared pregnancy rate (PR) of this experiment. Pregnancy rate in control and supplemented group was 38 and 54% respectively, which was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1538,T] (1).

129. Isolation, Characterization Of Chondroitin Sulphate And Its Efficacy In Osteoarthritis

by Humaira Majeed Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Chondroitin sulphate (CS) and Glucosamine sulphate (GS) are two main components of articular cartilage. It is believed that these molecules slow down wear and tear of cartilage. Moreover, if administered exogenously as drugs, these may initiate synthesizing capacity of cartilage. Among these, GS promotes the formation and repair of cartilage, whereas CS promotes elasticity and prevent cartilage breakdown by inhibiting degradative enzymes. Concurrent use of both structural units of cartilage as drugs in osteoarthritis (OA) may lessen the progression of disease. The present study was conducted to elucidate the chicken keel cartilage as an alternate and potential source for this endogenous component that may be used exogenously to repair or prevent damage to joints. Chicken keel cartilages were collected from healthy broilers. CS was extracted using MgCl2 solution (3M), dialyzed and digested with papain. The extracted material was purified by ethanol precipitation, centrifugation and then freeze dried. Proximate analysis of semi-purified polysaccharides revealed the presence of carbohydrates (65.49±0.10), crude protein (12.82±0.26), ash (11.12±.56), moisture (9.88±0.32) and fat (0.69±0.14). Fiber contents were found to be nil in the processed samples. Dimethylmethylene blue binding (DMMB) assay was performed for determination of percent contents of CS in extracted semi-purified samples and mean concentration was found to be 70.77±2.35. Semi-purified polysaccharides were further characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer) technique and characteristic Peaks of CS molecules were recorded at 854, 854 and 853 cm-1 and then compared with spectrum of standard CS. Protein content being a major impurity in extracted samples was determined by Bradford method quantitatively (4.64±0.29). Two protein impurities having 77.8 and 50.5 kDa molecular weights were revealed by SDS-PAGE. Efficacy of semi-purified CS from chicken keel cartilage, standard CS from shark source and GS, alone and in combination in experimental OA rat model was evaluated. To develop OA similar to spontaneous OA, 10mg papain/0.5mL (Sigma, Cat # P 3125) in buffered solution of 0.05 M sodium acetate pH 4.5 was injected intra-articularly in each right knee joint of fifty five albino rats (pre-anesthetized with anesthetic ether). Ten rats (n= 10) were injected with 0.5mL of normal saline (0.9%) in right knee joint that served as control group. Then from fifty five papain injected rats, twenty five were divided into five groups (n=5) for development and assessment of OA model (OA groups). Progression of disease was monitored by clinical scores, histopathological scores and concentration of CTX-II as biomarker in sera samples of experimental rats by ELISA using a commercial kit (serum preclinical CartiLaps ® ELISA kit) for control and OA groups (n=5) on day 0 (control group) and days 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post papain injection (OA groups). Highest mean clinical score (10.38±1.1) was observed on 1st day and least on 28th day post papain injection i.e. 5.00±.34. Highest mean histopathological score and CTX-II concentration was recorded on 28th day i.e. 12.82±1.64 and 36.82±3.81. Values of clinical scores, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentration reached to maximum on 21st day and then sustained thereon. Second phase of experiment is comprised of evaluating and comparing the efficacy of extracted CS samples (chicken keel cartilages), standard CS (shark source) alone and in combination with GS. For this purpose, remaining five rats out of ten injected with normal saline intra-articularly served as control groups along with treated and non treated groups of experimental rats. Remaining thirty OA induced rats were divided into six groups (five rats /group). Group 1 (n=5) called non treated group received only placebo till 60th day and served as negative control group. Treated Group 2 received GS alone, Group 3 CS (standard) and Group 4 were given extracted CS. Group 5 was treated with combination of GS plus CS (standard) and Group 6 with GS plus CS (sample). Doses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were administered as 1.2g/kg/day CS and 1.5g/kg/day GS alone and in combinations. Drugs were offered early in the morning in bolus form with feed (10g) after overnight fasting while non-treated group received only placebo (without any drug). Anti-arthritis activities of CS standard and extracted alone and in combination with GS were assessed clinically, analyzed statistically by using one way ANOVA. Level of significance (P<0.05) was recorded by using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) Post hoc Test. Mean scores of clinical, histopathology and CTX-II concentrations observed at 60th day in control rats (without OA) were 0.00, 0.00 and 2.55, respectively. OA induced untreated group showed mean score for clinical signs, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentrations 4.15, 12.24 and 36.70 and GS treated group 3.19, 3.96 and 6.12 at 60th day of treatment, respectively. For CS (standard), mean scores of clinical signs, histopathological lesions and CTX-II concentrations were recorded as 2.64, 2.44 and 4.48 and for CS (extracted) were 2.26, 2.28 and 4.40 in sera correspondingly at 60th day of treatment. The lowest mean values of clinical signs, histopathology and CTX-II concentrations in sera of treated group with standard CS plus GS were found to be 0.94, 0.94 and 2.62 followed by extracted CS plus GS treated groups 01.05, 1.27 and 2.74, respectively. Clinical, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentrations in group of rats treated with combinations were found to reverse the diseased condition after 60th days of treatment as the values were close to that of normal rats and far away from OA rats. It is concluded that extracted CS from poultry has comparable efficacy with CS standard from shark source alone and in combination with GS. Poultry by-product (keel cartilage) is found to be an alternate and cheap source for CS (chondroprotective agent) as compare to expensive, less available and religiously prohibited source for Islamic countries particularly. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1544,T] (1).

130. Mutagenic And Cytotoxic Evaluartion Of Piroxicam And Meloxicam

by Snober Khatoon Akram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Dr.Aftab | Faculty of Bio-Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Piroxicam and Meloxicam are enolic acid derivatives and belong to oxicam class of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They are therapeutically used in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. This study was designed to evaluate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of piroxicam and meloxicam by Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay and MTT assay. In this study, ten concentrations (100µg/ml, 300µg/ml, 500µg/ml, 700µg/ml, 900µg/ml, 1000µg/ml, 3000µg/ml, 5000µg/ml, 7000µg/ml and 10,000µg/ml) of piroxicam and meloxicam were used in Ames test against Salmonella strain TA100 in plate incorporation method, with and without metabolic activation S-9 mixture in triplicate manner. In MTT assay, confluent monolayer of BHK-21 cell lines was used and grown in 96-well cell culture plates treated with same concentrations of both drugs in triplicate manner. The results indicated that piroxicam had no mutagenic potential at concentrations of 100µg/plate to 3000µg/plate, possible mutagenic potential at 5000µg/plate and significant mutagenic potential at concentration of 7000µg/plate and 10,000µg/plate. Meloxicam had no mutagenic potential at the concentrations 100µg/plate to 7000µg/plate and possible mutagenic potential at highest concentration 10,000µg/plate. The cytotoxic effect of piroxicam and meloxicam at the concentrations of 100µg/ml to 5000µg/ml was none cytotoxic and at the concentration of 7000µg/ml and 10,000µg/ml cytotoxic to BHK-21 cell lines. There was significant increased in mutant frequency with increased in concentration of both drugs with and without metabolic activation S-9 mixture. There was significant difference in non mutagenic, possible mutagenic and significant mutagenic potential doses of piroxicam. There was no significant difference in none cytotoxic doses of both drugs. In comparison of both drugs, there was no significant difference in mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. It concluded that piroxicam and meloxicam were not mutagenic and cytotoxic at therapeutic doses. Piroxicam had mutagenic potential in dose dependent manner. Both drugs were cytotoxic at higher concentrations. They had same cytotoxic effect in dose dependent manner. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1548,T] (1).

131. Epidimiological Investigation Of Dengue Virus Maintenance Host In Lahore

by Mesam Abbas | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1553,T] (1).

132. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Bovine Coccidiosis In River Region

by Muhammad Shoaib Jahanzaib | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Bovine coccidiosis-is an infectious-disease affecting cattle and buffaloes resulting in great economic losses to the beef and dairy sector all over the world. Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease and usually associated with poor growth, bloody diarrhea and sometimes death of young animals. As bovine coccidiosis is commonly found in cattle and buffaloes, therefore it severely affects the production of milk and beef in Pakistan. 500 fecal samples-were collected (250 from-cattle and 250 from buffaloes) randomly to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in River Ravi Region Lahore. Overall prevalence of coccidiosis was recorded 57.2 % and 58.8 % in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Slightly high prevalence was found in female animals. Highest prevalence (66.66% and 70.31%) was observed in animals below 6 months of age, while lowest (44.87% and 48.91%) prevalence was found in animals above 1 year of age in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. The study further revealed that highest prevalence occurs in August, followed by September and October while lowest prevalence was observed in July. The infection rate was a little high in crossbred (59.26 %) and Sahiwal cattle (57.89 %) as compare to imported breeds. Seven Eimeria species were identified from fecal-samples of cattle while Six species were identified from buffaloes, where E.bovis and E.zurnii were found most prevalent among them. Coccidiosis was prevalent significantly higher (P < 0.05)-in animals housed in confined-and dirt yard (72.13 % in cattle, 74.13 % in buffaloes) as compare to animals housed on paved (58.49 % in cattle, 61.22 % in buffaloes) and those having outdoor access. Coccidiosis was most prevalent in stall fed (71.64% and 73.68 %) as compare to grazing (28.58% and 31.91%) cattle and buffaloes. Highest (73.07 % and 72 %) prevalence was found in animals with Poor body condition (score-1), while animals with body condition score 3 (Good) were found with lowest prevalence (37.5% and 47.76%). Highest (82.35 % and 84.21 %) prevalence was found in diarrheic while lowest (36.19 % and 42.85%) prevalence was observed in animals with normal fecal score (1) both in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against coccidiosis in buffalo calves was also determined in current study. Non-significant difference-(P > 0.05)-was observed-in percentage efficacy of all three anticoccidial drugs at day 28 onward, i.e. 100 % for Amprolium (Amprovil), 99 % for Furazolidone (Furasym) and 99 % for Trimethoprim+Sulphadiazine (Trisym). All the three drugs showed satisfactory results against coccidiosis in buffalo calves and no toxic effects were found during and after treatment. The current study also determined the effects of coccidiosis on various blood parameters of buffalo calves. A significant reduction in Total Erythrocytic Count (TEC), Hemoglobin concentration, PCV, MCH, MCHC and statistically significant increase-(P < 0.05) in TLC, DLC (except Lymphocytes) and MCV was observed in infected animals. Also a statistically significant difference-(P<0.05)-was observed in mean hematological-values of infected not-treated and treated animals at day 28, where treated groups showed an improvement to the normal values. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1566,T] (1).

133. Vitro Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Testing Of Artemisinin, Digoxin And Silymarin

by Saran Siddique | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three drugs artemisinin, digoxin and silymarin were evaluated against vero cell lines in this study. Thesolution of drugs was prepared in phosphate buffer saline(PBS) after dissolving in DMSO. For cytoticity dilutions of these drugs were applied in triplicate manner on Vero cells that were confluent in 96 well cell culture plates. MTT (3-[4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2.5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide)assay was used for the cytotoxicity testing of these drugs and the cytotoxic doses of these drugs was 100µM for artemisinin, 100nM for digoxin and 380 µM for silymarin. After the cytotoxicity testing we also evaluated the genotoxic potential of these drugs against the same cell lines. For the genotoxicity testing we have used alkaline comet assay.For that base slides was prepared with normal melting agar and then a layer of pretreated cell suspension in low melting agar is used and after that another layer of low melting agar is coated on the last layer on the slides.Then lysis was carried out of the cells in lysing solution after that electrophoresis was done after that the slides was washed with neutralizing buffer and after that ethedium bromide stain is used and then slides were viewed under fluorescent microscope and we have observed that artemisinin showed genotoxic potential at 250µM, digoxin had shown genotoxic potential at 1000nM and silymarin have showngenotoxic potential at 500µM. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1568,T] (1).

134. Docing-Based Virtual Screening Studies For Ets-1 Inhibitors Using Indian Plant Anticancer

by Sara Mehreen | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: This study is designed to screen drug molecule against phosphorylation site of transcription factor Ets-1. Molecular docking was carried out by using AUTODOCK 4.02. One compound (Picrocrocin) was selected with binding energy of -4.23kcal/mol, making 3 hydrogen bonds with active site residues after molecular docking. Picrocrocin is present in saffron. Ethanolic extract of saffron stigmas was prepared and preserved in laboratory. CAM (chick chorioallantoic membrane) assay was performed. The aqueous solutions of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 3%, 6%, and 12% of ethanolic extract of saffron were prepared. All of eight concentrations were applied to CAMs on fifth day of incubation of chick embryos. One group was treated as control receiving distilled water without any extract. The diameters of primary, secondary, tertiary blood vessels of control were 12µm, 8µm, 6µm respectively, for 2% treated samples values were 2µm, 1µm, 0.3 µm respectively and for 3% treated samples diameter was 3µm, 2 µm, and 1 µm respectively. Area of abbott curves for control, 2% and 3% treated samples were 0.0545 mm², 0.0538 mm² and 0.0540 mm² respectively. At 25 & 3% concentrations, values roughness parameters were lowest of all other samples. The present study results with discovery of novel antiangiogenic compound that is constituent of plant saffron. Inhibitory effect of saffron on cell reproduction, cytotoxicity and anti-angiogenic effect presents saffron as efficient candidate in cancer chemotherapy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1572,T] (1).

135. Rheological And Microstructural Study Of Commercial Cheddar And Mozzarella Cheeses By Using Farinograph

by Saima Inayat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: A series of five experiments were conducted using Brabender Farinograph-E to study rheological properties of different brands of cheeses. This is a computerized machine having data recording capacity. It was found that Farinograph was a use full machine for preparing cheese and studying its rheology. The data recorded in the form of Farinogram showed that torque (resistance against flow of farinograph paddles) depended on fat content, temperature employed and time given to cheese formation. Also, the texture of cheese was influenced by these factors. Sensory tests are not capable of measuring results more accurately as compared to Instrumental tests. To study cheese properties and effects of many manufacturing factors the fundamental methods will help researchers to develop cheeses with required and persistent textural and rheological properties. The instrument most frequently used all over the world for determining water absorption and mixing characteristics of wheat and rye flour in baking industry is Brabender Farinograph®. The present study was conducted by using Farinograph-E as a major tool to measure rheology of cheeses. In this study cheeses of different ages, and kinds e.g., Mozzarella, medium Cheddar, mild Cheddar, old Cheddar, extra old Cheddar, Ricotta and Parmesan were included. The parameters for operating Farinograph-E were developed and initial trials were conducted in various directions to finalize the procedure. Farinograph-E (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) was used in this study by using its bowl W-50. The tests were performed by cutting whole cheese bars into small pieces and shifted into air tight containers. The grated cheese was loaded with the help of spatula into Farinograph bowl. Water bath was adjusted at various temperatures like 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C. The temperature was continuously monitored through a temperature probe, inserted into the bowl contained cheese sample. The speed of paddles/ spindles was fixed in Newton meters (Nm) and was kept as constant for all the trials. The lid was closed after filling the bowl and clamped in order to avoid any disturbance. The test was allowed to run for specified time for 35 and 60 minutes. After completion of time durations the test was stopped automatically. The readings were recorded in the form of a graph (torque, time and temperature) of cheese dough resistance over mixing time. Besides Farinographic studies, the results of Mozzarella and medium Cheddar Farinographic samples of (brand No name) were examined through Cryo-scanning electron microscopy and Fluorescence microscopy to study their microstructure at different stages and their relationship with quality of cheeses. The present study revealed that temperature, time and different fat percentages of different cheese brands shows significant effects on torque values. The results indicated that by increasing fat percentage the torques value decreases. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed finer details of cheeses. Shape, size and distribution of fat globules were observed through fluorescence microscopy. The changes in globule sizes and their interaction with casein matrix was also observed. Size of globule was estimated using image analysis technique. Aggregation of globules and their rupture was also observed. These changes in fat globules shape and sizes affected flowability, meltability and viscosity of cheeses and thus affected production of torques which were observed in graphs produced by Farinographs. By studying microstructure it was obvious from micrographs that Stage 1 showed smaller fat globules in large numbers. In Stage 2 the globules became larger in size and lesser in number and like bubbles in shape, as shown in plates. At stage 3, there was no particular change from Stage 2 texture, except slight change in colour. The same changes are depicted in the shape of curve, that moved up and downwards and then upwards. Full fats at stage 1, showed smaller fat globules those enlarged at stage 2. In stage 3, only enlarged globules were observed, and the resistance increased against paddles of farinograph and sharp increase was seen in the slope of graph. Globules retained their features at next stage and slope in graph became horizontal to x-axis after reaching maximum value. These results suggest that size distribution of fat globules tended to impose influence on Farinographic results. Overall it is indicated that Farinograph is a suitable instrument for measuring rheology of cheeses. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1578,T] (1).

136. In-Vetro And In-Vivo Anti-Theilerial Activity Of Medicianal Plants

by Mukhtar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In vitro study was carried out in order to estimate the anti-theileria effect of Calotropis procera and Peganum harmala. Water and chloroform extracts of each plant were used in-vitro study along with standard drug Buparvaqoune (Butalex®). For this four concentrations i.e.4, 8, 12 and 16mg/ tested solutions of each extracts of each plant were applied on cultured lymphocytes exposed to theileria parasite infection. ELISA reader findings showed that the mean OD were found less in treated theileria infected lymphocytes cell culture as compared to untreated culture wells mean OD values. The highest cell reduction (94.36%) with C. procera chloroform extract treatment was observed at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. Lowest concentration (1mg/ml solution) of C. procera chloroform extract reduced non-significant (P>0.05) lymphocytes cell proliferation (40.97%) as compare to control negative group. P. harmala water extract was effective against the theileria parasite as significantly lower (P<0.05) mean OD value (1.802 ±0.341) was measured at a concentration of 4mg/ml solution and maximum inhibitory effect (92.20) was seen at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. ELISA reader findings showed that P. harmala chloroform extract treatment failed to inhibit lymphocytes cells propagation even at highest concentration. The highest inhibitory effect (85.33%) against theileria infected lymphocytes propagation was seen at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. Plant extract was evaluated in respect of feed intake in rabbits. It showed that when administered extracts of C. procera in rabbits at dose of 3 mg and 5 mg/kg body weight, did not affect on feed intake in rabbits. However the chloroform and water extracts of both plant i.e. C. procera and P. harmala when were administered in rabbits parentally at dose 10 of mg/kg body. It showed that the feed intake of rabbits was non-significantly reduced as compared to other treatments groups. Hematological parameters such as WBC X103 count, RBC X 106 count and Hb g/dl values were measured at various days. Findings showed that significantly lesser RBC X 106 count was in group A3 and D3 than control at day 30 of experiment. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in RBC X 106 count and Hb g/dl measurements in all treatments groups. Kidney and liver functions were evaluated by measuring biochemical parameters, uric acid, creatinine and ALT at 0 days, 9 days and 30 days. Findings showed that serum creatinine and urea enzyme levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in group A3 as compare to control group at day 30 of experiment. Serum level of urea was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in group B3 and D3 at day 30 of experiment. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in ALT in all treatment groups at day 30 than control. Post-mortem was performed at day 30 of experiment. Gross lesions consisting of hemorrhages, congestion, and lung emphysema were seen in rabbits treated with high dose i.e. 10 mg/kg of both extract of C. procera. Rabbits treated with P. harmala chloroform extract at dose 10 mg/kg showed moderate gross lesions. Histopathology of organs such as lungs, kidney, liver and heart was performed. Toxicity lesions were seen in rabbits treated with high dose i.e. 10 mg/kg of both extract of C. procera. Rabbits treated with P. harmala chloroform extract at dose 10 mg/kg showed histopathological lesions in lungs, liver and kidney. Theileria infection was studied in vivo by developing through theileria infected Hayalomma ticks in crossbred calves (n=30) through. At day 15 of infection maximum increase in mean rectal temperature (105.24 ± 0.46F) was observed, twenty four calves had pyrexia (104.1- 105.6 F) and six claves were showing pyrexia > 105.6 F. A significant increase (P<0.05) in pre-scapular lymph node enlargement score of challenged calves was seen by day 7 of infection and maximum lymph node score (grossly enlarged size) was noticed in twenty calves (Table 4.14 , Plate 4.16) with peak mean score (2.73±0.44) on day 13 of infection. The piroplasm peak score (3.80±0.83) was observed in challenged calves at 22 day of infection and remained significantly higher (p<0.05) (2.60±0.54) in untreated calves until the 36 day of infection (Fig.4.29 and Table 4.16). A significant increase (P<0.05) in mean schizonts was observed in pre-scapular lymph node biopsy smear from day 7 of infection to onwards. Blood samples of challenged calves (n =30) were confirmed theileria positive through PCR test. The amplification of Theileria species were amplified at 1098 bp (Plate 4.20 and Theileria annulata was amplified at 721 bp (Plate 4.21). In order to estimate the pattern of disease severity, severity score was measured by summation of mean score of piroplasms, schizonts, lymph node swelling and rectal temperature. From day 7, mild response (3-5 score) was seen in infected calves (n=10). With increase in the severity of disease a significant decrease (P<0.05) was observed in mean values of the Hb g/dL amount, WBC and RBC count, Hct (%) concentration and lymphocytes percentage from day15 of infection onward to 36 day of infection. A non-significant decrease (P>0.05) in the mean values of MCH pg was seen throughout the experiment. A significant decrease (P<0.05) in mean values of MCHC g/dL along with significant increase (P<0.05) in the mean measurement of MCV fL (64.14±3.53) values was seen at day 36 of infection as compare to day 0 values, indicating macrocytic hypochromic anemia in challenged calves. These findings showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in excretory products (uric acid and creatinine) from day 15 of infection and onward as compared to day 0 values, indicating damaged kidney in infected calves. Biochemical analysis showed the significant increase (P<0.05) in liver enzymes (ALT, AST) from day 15 infection and onward. Anti-Theileria activities of drugs were estimated by evaluating clinical manifestation of the disease and parasitological findings. Beside this treatment effect on hematological and biochemical reactions of liver and kidney functions was determined. A significant difference (P<0.05) in rectal temperature of calves groups (B and E) was observed than control positive (group F) at day 21 of post-treatment. On other hand calves treated with treatments A, C and D had a non-significant difference (P>0.05) in rectal temperature compared with untreated calves (group F). It was found that calves (n=5) dosed with C. procera chloroform extract (group A) had rectal temperature in normal range by the day 7 of post-treatment. Similarly calves (n=5) treated with Butalex were found with normal rectal temperature from the day 7 of pos-treatment. On other hand, at day 21 of treatment 40%, 20%, 40% and 80% calves were found with pyrexia in treatments groups B, C, D and F, respectively (Table 4. 46). By the day 14 of treatment, calves of treatment groups B and E showed no parasitemia (piroplams ?1). Disease severity was estimated on accumulative score of rectal temperature, lymph node swelling and parasitological findings (piroplasms and schizonts score). It was found a significant decrease (P<0.05) occurred in the disease severity of score of disease in calves of groups B and E as compare to A, C and F at day 3 of post-treatment. At day 21 of treatment all treated calves were recovered from anemia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1580,T] (1).

137. Biomass Production Of Pasteurella Multocida By Using Biofermentor For Preparation Of Montanoid Based Vaccine

by Noreen Sarwar | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Atif Hanif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic septicemia is a contagious bacterial disease of large ruminants principally in cattle and buffalo with high morbidity and mortality. The disease is endemic in nature and outbreaks are common during hot, humid and wet season. The acute and fatal nature and brief duration of the disease limit the antimicrobial therapy. In Pakistan, the disease causes heavy economic losses to dairy industry. Vaccination therefore, is an option for controlling the disease. For a quality vaccine, biomass production of P. multocida along with well developed capsule (immunogen) is necessary. The problem associated with the production of a quality vaccine is poor biomass production of P. multocida when grown in ordinary or routine media. Present study was designed to isolate P. multocida from sick animals and its molecular characterization in the laboratory and study factors (temperature, media composition, pH incubation time and agitation or shaking) affecting its immunogen production and "in process quality control" factors (biological titer, dry mass, adjuvant and storage time) that affect antibody response. Finally, biomass production of the organism using biofermentor and monitoring of the antibody response of buffaloes to inactivated Montanide ISA-70 based P. multocida vaccine. Each of the field isolates showed grey, viscous, mucoid, translucent and non hemolytic colonies on blood agar. There was no growth on MacConkey's agar. It was Gram negative coccobacilli or thin rods and bipolar when stained with Leishman's stain. The isolates were positive for Catalase, Oxidase, Hydrogen sulphide and Indole production along with nitrate reduction while it was negative for urease production, citrate utilization and gelatin liquefaction. The bacteria fermented glucose, sucrose, mannitol, mannose, but failed to ferment arabinose, maltose, salicin, lactose, dulcito and inositol. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on isolated colonies by using P. multocida specific and HS causing serotype B specific primers. P. multocida specific PCR gave product of 465 bp while HS causing serotype B specific primers amplified a product of approximately 590 bp. Growth of the bacteria in casein yeast sucrose broth was optimized under different conditions. CSY broth showed dense growth of P. multocida during incubation for 18 hours. A temperature in between 35°C and 40°C showed its optimum growth. Poor growth was observed below 30°C and no growth was detected at 50°C and above. No growth occurred at pH 0.5 and 10.0 but best growth was obtained at pH 7.0 and 8.0. There was positive correlation between shaking in terms of rpm and growth. There was optimum growth at 500 rpm for 24 hours. Inactivated HS Vaccine was prepared from dense growth in biofermentor on the basis of dry mass and bacterial count. The effect of biomass, adjuvant, storage of the vaccine, priming alone or with boosting on its potency was also studied along with boosting effect of montanoid ISA 70 oil based vaccine. Dry mass 1.7 mg/dose produced protective antibody titer while bacterial count 10-14/ml was sufficient to produce the protective antibody titer. Montanoid ISA 70 based vaccine provided immunity to buffalo calves better than aluminium hydroxide gel and bacterins. Boosting with oil based vaccine can help to keep the animal immunized for whole year. For better results of vaccine, it can be stored at 4oC for six months. It is concluded that the proposed study improved quality of the vaccine and reduced volume of the vaccine dose, cost of its production and frequency of vaccination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1581,T] (1).

138. Epidemiological, Haematological & Serological Studies Of Leptospirosis In Dogs And Human At High Risk In And Around Lahore City

by Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis of global importance capable of causing significant subclinical and clinical syndromes both in humans and animals. The disease is characterized by fever, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia and other signs consistent with renal and hepatic disease. Considering the significance and the substantial losses rendered by Leptospirosis, the present project was designed to study epidemiology and haematology in dogs and humans at high risk in Lahore district and its peri-urban areas. The study was accomplished in 4 phases. In phase-I, sero-prevalence both in dogs and human was studied including case fatality rate and associated risk factors through cross a sectional study. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from dogs attended at the Pet Centre of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and other private clinics situated in and around Lahore area through systematic random sampling technique over a period of one year (1st Dec. 2010 to 30th Nov.2011). Blood samples from every fifth un vaccinated dog were collected, but if the dog was vaccinated then the sample was collected from the next unvaccinated one. In this phase 100 sera samples from human volunteers which were at maximum risk (veterinarian, pet and livestock owners, para-vet staff) were also collected. All samples were screened out by using ELISA kits like Canine Leptospira IgG ELISA Kit Catalog no. BG-CAN11485, NovaTein Biosciences, Woburn, MA, USA and Serion Elisa Plate, Virion/Serion GmbH, Wurzburg, Germany for dogs and humans respectively at the Medicine Laboratory and University Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. To study overall prevalence of Leptospirosis in dogs a total of 429 dogs were examined and it was found that out of 429 blood samples 155 were found positive for Leptospira antibodies. Thus an overall prevalence of Leptospira was recorded as 36.13%. Prevalence of Leptospirosis in dogs during different months of the year was also recorded. The months of September, October and June showed ere the highest prevalence and recorded as 50%, 48.57% and 45% respectively. Although, a few cases were seen during the months of December, January and February while moderate number of cases was recorded during the rest months of the year. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the prevalence of Leptospirosis during the different months of the year. Out of these 429, 93 pups and 336 adults were examined for Leptospirosis and found that 26 pups and 129 adults were positive i.e. a prevalence rate of 27.95% (26/93) and 38.39% (129/336) for Leptospirosis was recorded in pups and adult dogs respectively and this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). In this study a prevalence rate of 38.49% (102/265) and 32.31% (53/164) for Leptospirosis was recorded in male and female dogs respectively and this difference between the sexes was also non-significant(p>0.05). According to the results of this study a sero-prevalence of 21.24% (24/113) in winter, 35.82% (24/63) in spring, 40.34% (71/176) in summer and 49.32% (36/73) were recorded in fall season and this difference was significant (p<0.05). The highest prevalence rate was observed in fall and summer seasons of the year during higher rain fall seasons of the year. To study overall prevalence of Leptospirosis in humans, a total of 100 blood samples were examined through random sampling technique during the whole study period and overall prevalence rate of 44.00% was observed in human population. Different risk factors like different months of the year, age, sex and season were also studied and that the highest prevalence of Leptospira in humans was observed in the months of March, April and August i.e. 66.66%, 66.66% and 60.0% respectively. No significant difference (p>0.05) in the sero-prevalence of Leptospirosis in human during the different months of the year was observed. Sex-wise prevalence rate of 48.71% (38/78) and 27.27% (06/22) for Leptospirosis was recorded in male and female respectively and this difference was significant (p<0.05). The results of this research project revealed a prevalence rate of 47.29% (35/74) and 34.61% (09/26) for Leptospirosis in adults and young ones respectively and this difference was again non-significant (p>0.05). According to the results of this study a sero-prevalence of 41.93% (13/31) in summer, 40.00% (06/15) in fall and 25.92% (07/27) in winter, while 66.66% (18/27) was recorded in spring season of the year and this difference was significant (p<0.05) and the highest prevalence rate was observed in spring. In phase-II, the effect of Leptospirosis on various blood parameters were determined in both dogs and human. The results of present study revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) between the Hemoglobin (Hb), Erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR), Packed cell volume (PCV), Total Leukocytic count (TLC), Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes of healthy and Leptospira affected dogs, while a non-significant difference was observed (P >0.05)among values of lymphocytes. It showed that values of Hb forthe diseased dogs were lower than healthy ones while ESR, PCV, TLC, Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes, were more than in normal dogs. Likewise, in humans all the studied parameters were significantly (P <0.05) different between infected and healthy ones. The values of Hb concentration in diseased humans were lower than the healthy ones while ESR, PCV, TLC, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, and Monocytes were higher than in healthy people. A negligible change was observed in the percentage count of lymphocytes. In phase-III, the comparative efficacy of commercially available vaccines against Leptospira was studied. Two commercially available vaccines, Vaccine #1 with protection against two serotypes of Leptospira (Canicola, Icterohaemorragiae) and vaccine #2with protection against four serovars of Leptospira i.e Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa and Pomona were compared After six months it was observed through ELISA screening that the vaccine #2 provided better overall protection compared to the vaccine #1 to the pups as well as adult dogs against the Leptospirosis but this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). In the last phase of this study the chemotherapy trial was conducted. Results found that the efficacy of Penicillin G was 70%, while in group B Amoxicillin produced 60% results and in group C Sarsaparilla proved to be 40% effective against this infection although this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). It is concluded that among therapeutic agents used to treat Leptospirosis in dogs, Penicillin G , Amoxicillin and Sarsaparilla are ranked in respective order of efficacies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1588,T] (1).

139. Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic And Antipyretic Activities Of Terminalia Citrina Fruit In Mice.

by Ammara Saleem | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1589,T] (1).

140. Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic And Antipyretic Activities Of Fruit Of Grewia Asiatica

by Bushra Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1591,T] (1).

141. Phenotypic And Genetic Aspects Of Some Performance Traits Of Buchi Sheep In Pakistan

by Maqsood Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1598,T] (1).

142. Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory And Analgesic Potential Of Aqueous Methanolic Extract Of Thuja Orientalis In Albino Rats

by Muhammad Zahid Tanveer | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In the present study in vivo anti-inflammatory assay, central analgesic assay and peripheral analgesic estimation of methanolic extract of Thuja orientalis was performed by using carrageenan induced paw oedema model, hotplate test and acetic acid induced writhing test on albino rats, respectively. For anti-inflammatory assay, the experimental animals were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals and three groups of six animals were arranged each for central and peripheral analgesic evaluation. In all groups of animals in antiinflammatory assay, oedema was produced by using 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan. The group II served as standard control group and was additionally treated with 10mg/Kg p.o indomethacin (a standard drug). The Groups III, IV and V received 50, 100 and 300 mg/Kg p.o of aqueous methanolic extract of Thuja orientalis (TO-Cr) respectively. All the treatment groups (II, III, IV and V) were treated 1 hour before injection of carrageenan. The volume of paw of rats was measured at 0 h and 3 h and the results of all treatment groups were compared with group I. In the present work, central analgesic study was done by using hot plate method. Tramadol was used as the standard drug in positive control group. Peripheral analgesia was determined by acetic induced writhing test using aspirin as standard analgesic drug. In the writhing test 1 % solution of acetic acid at dose of 0.1 ml / 10 grams was injected intra peritoneal. All the groups were pre treated 30 min before chemical stimulus with the standard drug and extract dose. Number of writhings was counted for 20 min. after injection. The statistical analysis of these values showed that results at 0 hour are non significant as P > 0.05 (Table 3).But it is evaluated from the study of paw volumes after 3 hours that there was significant decrease in oedema in group treated with standard drug i.e. indomethacin (79.70 % decrease) as compared with the 60 negative control (Fig. 11). The response of the extract under study was dose related. There was 13 % decrease in paw oedema as compared with negative control at 50 mg / kg dose of TO-Cr (Table 7). Similarly there was 34 % and 59.57 % decrease in paw oedema as compared with negative control at 100 mg / kg and 300 mg / kg doses of TO-Cr (Table 7). In central analgesic model of hotplate, there was significant increase in latency time in treatment group at 60 min interval (Table 15) and then it remained almost same after 90 min (Table 18). In peripheral analgesia of acetic acid induced writhing test, there was significant decrease in the number of writhings in positive control (7.33+1.63) and Thuja orientalis extract (12.50+2.35) also decreased the number of writhings significantly as compared with the negative control group (20.67+2.16) (Table 22). It is concluded from the results that aqueous methanolic extract of the fruit of Thuja orientalis has significant anti-inflammatory activity and produced dose dependant reduction in inflammation and it also has both central and peripheral analgesic properties. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1599,T] (1).

143. Investigation Of Post Spawning Mortality In Selected Carps

by Shahid Sherzada | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sharif Mughal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1381,T] (1).

144. Effect Of Mannan Oligosaccharides On The Performance Of Neonatal Cross Bred Calves

by Muhammad Adeel Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr. Jalees Ahmed Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1418,T] (1).

145. Prevalence And Molecular Diagnosis Of Staphylococcus Aureus Subclinical Mastitis Innili Ravi Buffaloes At Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara.

by Muhammad Altaf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1484,T] (1).

146. Epidemiology Of Endo And Ecto Parasites Of Small Ruminants And Its Effect On Their Hematology Profile In District Bannu

by Niomat Ullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammd Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1607,T] (1).

147. Comparative Efficacy Of Finney Pyloroplasty And Jaboulay Pyloroplasty As Method Of Treatment For Pyloric

by Mumtaz Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1608,T] (1).

148. Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal Preparations Of Leaves Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) And Guava (Psidium Guajava) and Anticoccidial Drug on Coccidiosis in Pigeons (Columba livia)

by Abdul Qudoos | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The background of this study is that world health organization (WHO) reports that neurological disorders affect one billion people worldwide, including 50 million affected by epilepsy. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, periodic, spontaneous and unprovoked seizures. Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder and a heterogeneous familial condition in which family members express absence seizures initially, and then show multiple phenotypes of myoclonic epilepsy including partial or absence seizures and generalized tonic conic seizures. Molecular genetics techniques have identified various CAE associated mutations in many genes i.e. ion channels (CACNA1H, CACNA1G, CACNA1N), sodium channel genes (SCN2A, SCN1A, and SCN1B) and some GABA receptor genes (GABRG2 and GABRD). CACNA1H ion channels are the principal intermediaries of fast neurotransmission in the CNS and have been frequently reported to play a significant role in a number of seizures. CACNA1H gene encodes the alpha (?) subunit and is usually located in post synaptic. Various parameters are used in the present study was aimed to investigate coding regions of CACNA1H gene for analyzing the mutations involved in epilepsy. Blood samples of unrelated true representative of CAE were collected from psychiatry departments of different hospitals of Lahore. DNA were extracted with the standard protocol and amplifications of the CACNA1H regions were done with specially designed primers. Later on, analysis of the results is done by sequencing of target fragments is carried out. Sequences are analyzed through BioEdit software and then aligned with the help of clustalW2 software. It has been identified by the recent study on the absence epileptic patients of Pakistan that the gene CACNA1h has SNPs in the exon 9 and 10 at the position (2025G>A) and (4867 G>T) respectively which eventually alters the protein, making it hyperactive as the mutations are in the sensor regions of the protein, thus giving a 'gain in function' property to the ion channel. In the conclusion, we must say that further study, with much larger sample number, is required to revise the effects of this polymorphism and accurately identifying the associated factors. There is a need to explore the other gene mutations causing epilepsy in local population of Punjab and Pakistan that will ultimately help to develop genetic counseling strategies, gene therapies and prenatal diagnostic procedures for the population of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1622,T] (1).

149. Reproductive and Productive Performance of Dairy Animals Maintained at Mulitary Dairy Farm Lahore Cantt.

by Abrar Ahmed | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: NILI RAVI BUFFALOES Average age at maturitywas 829.11 ± 30.34 days. Heiferscalved in1999 and 2008 were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. Heifers calved during the winter and dry summer season were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. Mean birth weight of calves was found 28.16±2.8 kg. The effect of birth weight on age at maturity was found to be significant and it was observed that 1 kg increase in birth weight resulted in 16 days decrease in age at maturity. Average age at first conception was 923.37 ± 30.34 days. Heifers calved in 1996 and 2008 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. Heifers calved during the winter and dry summer season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. Average age at first calving was 1295.66 ± 62.91 days. Heifers calved in 2002 and 2008 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. Heifers calved during the dry summer andautumn season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. Average service period was 164.1 ± 30.15 days. Maximum and minimum service period was in year of 2002 and 2008, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 11th and 10thlactation, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively.Average services per conception were 1.95 ± 0.23. Maximum and minimum services per conception were in 2005 and 2008, respectively. In humid summer and autumn season, services per conception were maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 9th lactation, the services per conception were maximum and minimum, respectively. Average gestation period was 310.90 ± 3.07 days. Maximum and minimum gestation periodwas in 2000 and 2009 2009 respectively. In humid summer and dry summer season, gestation period? was maximum and minimum respectively. In 12th and 8th lactation, the gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average calving interval was 474.59 ± 29.88 days. Maximum and minimum calving interval was in 2005 and 2001, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, calving interval was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 10th lactation, calving interval was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average milk yield was 1973.15 ± 53.23 liters. Maximum and minimum milk yield was in 2010 and 2002, respectively. In winter and spring season, milk yield was maximum and minimum respectively. In 4th and 11th lactation, milk yield was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average lactation length was 295.23 ± 64.30 days. Maximum and minimum lactation length was 2001 and 2000, respectively. In spring and humid summer season, lactation length was maximum and minimum respectively. In 10th and 11th lactation, lactation length was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average dry period was 184.93 ± 30.99 days. Maximum and minimum dry period was in 2005 and 2001, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, dry period was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 10th lactation, dry period was maximum and minimum, respectively. CROSSBRED COWS Average age at maturity was 828.33 ± 20.39 days. Heifers calved during the year of 1998 and 1997 were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. Heifers calved during the humid summer and winter season were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. In 15/16 and 1 /2 crossbred level, age at maturity was maximum and minimum, respectively. Mean birth weight of crossbred cow calves was found 23.35 ± 2.8 kg. The effect of birth weight on age at maturity was found to be significant and it was observed that 1 kg increase in birth weight resulted in 07 days decrease in age at maturity. Average age at first conception was 944.18 ± 30.42 days. Heifers calved in 2004 and 1996 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. Heifers calved during the humid summer and dry summer season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. In 15/16 and 1 /2 crossbred level, age at first conception was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average age at first calving was 1245.29 ± 40.96 days. Heifers calved in 2008 and 1995 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. Heifers calved during autumn and winter season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. In 7/8 and 5/8 crossbred level, age at first calving was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average service period was 252.83 ± 32.56 days. Maximum and minimum service period was in year of 2006 and 2010, respectively. In winter and humid summer season, service period was maximum and minimum respectively. In 10th and 8th lactation, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 7/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average services per conception were 2.13 ± 0.31. Maximum and minimum services per conception were in 1999 and 2002, respectively. In winter and dry summer season, services per conception were maximum and minimum respectively. In 9th and 8th lactation, the services per conception were maximum and minimum, respectively. In 15/16 and 5/8 crossbred level, services per conception were maximum and minimum, respectively. Average gestation period was 278.90 ± 4.36 days. Maximum and minimum gestation period was in 2010 and 2003 respectively. In autumn and winter season, gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 2nd and 7th lactation, the gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 7/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average calving interval was 507.03 ± 33.61 days. Maximum and minimum calving interval was in 2006 and 2000, respectively. In winter and humid summer season, calving interval was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 10th lactation, calving interval was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 5/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, calving interval was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average milk yield was 2141.05 ± 90.10 liters. Maximum and minimum milk yield was in 2008 and 2003, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, milk yield was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 1st lactation, milk yield was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 15/16 and 3/4 crossbred level, milk yield was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average lactation length was279.31 ± 8.33 days. Maximum and minimum lactation length was 2001 and 2003, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, lactation length was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 5th lactation, lactation length was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 3/4 and 15/16 crossbred level, lactation length was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average dry period was 238.64 ± 33.93 days. Maximum and minimum dry period was in 2006 and 2000, respectively. In winter and humid summer season, dry period was maximum and minimum respectively. In 5th and 11th lactation, dry period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 5/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, dry period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1624,T] (1).

150. Qualitative Comparison Of Yoghurt Prepared From Conventional And Probiotic Culture

by Muhammad Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Mr. Muhammad Junaid | Mr. Nisar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1626,T] (1).



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