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151. A Case Control Study To Determine The Risk Factors Of Tuberculosis In Dairy Animals In Peshawar City And Its Suburbs

by Atta Ullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is chronic infectious disease of animals and human beings, which is characterized by progressive emaciation, nodules formation in lungs and involvement of local lymph nodes. Tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium species and it is endemic in Pakistan. In the world ranking regarding tuberculosis patients, Pakistan is on 6th position. A case control study was conducted in Peshawar city and its suburbs in order to determine the risk factors of tuberculosis in dairy animals. Prevalence of tuberculosis in dairy animals recorded in this study was 18.27%. A total of 750 dairy animals were included in the study in which 250 were positive cases and 500 were controls on the basis of tuberculin skin test. Controls were divided into two groups, group 1(animals above 1 year of age) group 2(animals under 1 year of age). All these animals were selected from civil veterinary hospital Peshawar and veterinary teaching hospital (University of Agriculture Peshawar); and villages located on ring road of Peshawar city. Data was collected from the owner on pre designed questionnaire to determine different risk factors associated with tuberculosis and it was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0. The calculated odds ratio in descending order were 2.70 for rotational grazing practice, 2.52 for keeping donkey with dairy animals, 2.22 for not having own bull for breeding, 2.05 for keeping animals inside the shed at night, 2.02 for living in rural geographical environment, 1.87 for low socio-economic status, 1.65 for not using tap water, 1.59 for herd size more than 16-30 animals, 1.47 for non lactating animals, 1.47 for illiterate owners, 1.42 for contact with wild animals, 1.30 for keeping old animals within the herd, 1.25 for using fertilizer on crops that offer to animals, 1.22 for cattle, 1.17 for dung disposal weekly and 0.45 for deworming practice in dairy animals. Odds ratio more than 1 was considered being a risk factor while less than 1 was being considered as a health promoting factor. P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Tuberculosis is disease of zoonotic importance, and its incidence increasing day by day both in humans and animals. Therefore further research is the need of time to control and eradicate this disease globally. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1627,T] (1).

152. Detection of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) Gene Polymorphism in Native Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck Chicken Breeds in Pakistan.

by Asad Ali | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Afzal Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Growth traits in chicken production system have an important role. Molecular analysis is an easier mean to identify desirable genotypes for growth. Candidate gene (s) for growth trait like insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has imperative function for growth, body composition, metabolic and skeletal traits. The polymorphism of Insulin-like growth factor-1 was detected in native Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck chicken breeds of Pakistan. Fifty, fifty birds of Aseel and Naked Neck breed were selected from Indigenous chicken genetic resource center, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS, Lahore, Ravi Campus. While Desi birds were procured from conventional production farm for genetic analysis. Insulin-like growth factor-1 plays very important role in the cell growth, cell differentiation, food intake of cells and have role in overall body growth, this is why it is being used as a marker to study traits like growth. The polymorphism of IGF-I gene was detected by PCR-RFLP-Pst-Iand this revealed two alleles A (364 and 257 bp), B (621 bp),and three genotypes AA, AB, BB.Genotypic data was analyzed with the help of Pop-gene 1.32 software to calculate genotypic and allelic frequencies. GenotypeAB had the highest frequency in all three native breeds. Genotypic frequency of AA, AB and BB in Aseel was 20, 66 and 14% and in Desi it was 12, 64 and 24 % respectively. While in Naked Neck genotypic frequencies of AA, AB and BB were 18, 60 and 22 %. The highest frequency of allele A (0.53) was found in Aseel while highest frequency of Allele B (0.56) was found in Desi. Genotypic frequency of heterozygotes was highest in all three native breeds i.e. 66, 64 and 60 % in Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck respectively. As the frequency of heterozygotes is significantly higher in all three breeds, so all these native breeds have potential to improve through selection.Furtherstudies are needed to link these polymorphisms with performance traits and then using that information in future breeding plans for high producing individuals would be very helpful for animal breeder in marker assisted selection (MAS). As Aseel carried highest frequency of allele A so, it can be reared for selective breeding program especially for meat type line development in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1637,T] (1).

153. Assessment Of Tanneries Based Heavy Metals In Fish, Water & Sediment Of River Sutlej (Near Kasur)

by Usman Atique | Dr. Noor Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sharif Mughal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1640,T] (1).

154. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Blood Biochemistry And Immune Response Of Broilers Under Two Rearing Systems Withinthree Different Housing Zones

by Khalid Bilal | Mr. Shahid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1647,T] (1).

155. A Study On Variable Degrees Of Angles In Z-Plasty Technique To Evaluate Extent Of Relaxation Of Contracted Skin

by Muhammad Asif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1648,T] (1).

156. Community Trials Of Haemorrhagic Septicemia Vaccines In District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1649,T] (1).

157. Efficacy Of Composted Poultry Litter/Dead Birds In Broiler Quail Rations

by Shoukat Ali | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The aim of study was to find out the method for disposal of waste material, dead birds and poultry litter and their proper utilization in the poultry industry. Secondly to evaluate the efficacy of composted poultry litter/dead birds in broiler quail ration. The experiment was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre and Avian Research and Training Center, UVAS, Lahore in two different phases. The first phase was of 8 weeks duration in which composting of dead birds was doneusing advance windrow pile technique and proximate analysis of the composted material wascarried out. During the second phase, a quail ration was formulated according to dietary recommendations of NRC (1994) with inclusion of 0, 2, 4 and 6% compost and fed to quails,For this purpose, a total of 1200 day old Japanese broiler quails were randomly divided into 4 different experimental groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was control and group B, C, and D contained 2, 4, and 6% composted ration respectively. The birds in each group were replicated six timescomprising 50 birds in each replicate. After 4 weeks of age three birds per replicate were slaughtered and their slaughtering parameters were recorded. The data thus obtained were analyzed through ANOVA in completely randomized design (Steelet al.1997) and means were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test (Duncan, 1955) using SAS (Statistical Analysis System) version 9.1. In production performance feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and FCR showed positive response when fed different levels of composted diet while mortality % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. In slaughtering parameters live body weight (g), carcass weight %, dressing Weight %, Giblet weight %, Gizzard weight % and Heart weight % showed positively when fed different levels of composted diet while liver weight % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. Key Words: Composted ration, Japanese quail, Production Performance, Slaughtering Parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1650,T] (1).

158. Effect of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) on the Follicular Dynamics, Estrus Eepression, Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Control Internal Drug Release (CIDR) Based Estrus Synchronization Protocol in NIli-Ravi Buffalo.

by Muhammad Ilyas Naveed | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Buffalo is unique to livestock and dairy industry in Pakistan as its share is major (65%) in milk production major. Reproduction is crucial for profitable production in dairy sector. Buffalo reproduction is hampered due to small size ovaries, poor ovarian reserves, and less pronounced estrus intensity, ultimately leading to substandard fertility. Synchronization technology including CIDR based protocols are well established in cows and gaining popularity in buffaloes. However, this needs modifications based on estrous cycle physiology in buffaloes. It is hypothesized that addition of eCG at the time inducing luteolysis in CIDR based synchronization protocol will promote follicular growth, ovulation and pregnancy rates. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of addition of eCG to a CIDR based synchronization protocol on ovarian follicular dynamics, estrus rate, ovulation, and pregnancy rates in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Lactating multiparous suckled Nili-Ravi buffalo (n=63) milked twice daily were assigned in a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone Pfizer Co, USA) synchronization regimen. Animals were divided randomly to receive either saline (n=31) or 1000 IU eCG i.m. (n=32) (Chronogest PMSG, Intervet, Holland) concurrent with PGF2á (Dalmazine, cloprostenol, Fatro, Italy) treatment of the CIDR protocol (Day 6). Fixed time, two inseminations were performed at 48 and 60 hours after CIDR removal (Day 7). Number of follicles of variable size recruited at CIDR removal, dominant follicle size, its growth rate and ovulation time did not differ significantly between the groups. The estrus response was not higher significantly (P>0.14) in eCG group than control group but estrus intensity was significantly higher (P>0.001) in eCG group. Ovulation rate and 26 pregnancy per AI was higher (P>0.05 & 0.004) in buffaloes in eCG group. Therefore, It is concluded that eCG is helpful to improve estrus expression, ovulation rate and pregnancy per AI in FTAI program in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1653,T] (1).

159. Evaluation Of Immunomodulatory Activity Of Meloxicam In Mice.

by Ghulam Fatima | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In the present study, the immunomodulatory activity of meloxicam was evaluated. For the evaluation of effect of meloxicam on cellular immunity the delayed type hypersensitivity assay (DTH) and cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia assay were performed while for humoral immunity haemagglutination assay and mice lethality test was performed. In each assay 15 mice were used, all mice were divided into 3 groups, each group was consist of 5 mice. Two groups were treated with two different doses of meloxicam (5mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) and the one group (control group) was only being administered with dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally. In DTH assay, 5mg/kg and 10mg/kg meloxicam treated groups of mice showed a significant reduction in skin thickness ( P<0.05) as compared to control group at 24hours, 48 hours and 72 hours after the challenging dose of dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). In cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia assay meloxicam at 10mg/kg showed a significant percentage of reduction in total leukocytes (TLC) and two types of differential leukocytes (DLC i.e lymphocytes, and neutrophils except monocytes). This significant reduction was less in 5mg/kg meloxicam treated group which in turn was less than the control group. In addition, it was observed a dose dependent reduction response in haemagglutination (HA) titre. The order of reduction in HA titre was 10mg/kg meloxicam treated group > 5mg/kg meloxicam treated group > the control group. The mortality ratio of mice in the control group, 5mg/kg meloxicam and 10 mg/kg meloxicam treated groups was 20%, 80% and 100% respectively. All the results of present study suggest that meloxicam has suppressive effect on cellular as well as on humoral component of immune system. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1656,T] (1).

160. To Investigate The Effects Of Heavy Metals Toxicity On Vital Organs Of Rohu (Labeo Rohita)

by Ghina Islam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Mr. Muhammad Hafeez-ur-rehman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: At the time of collection of samples Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Conductivity and pH were determined (YSI Digital meters) of selected sites for any possible relationship between water quality parameters, heavy metal concentrations and their effects on fish body. Fish from the selected water bodies was blotted dry and then weighed individually. After wet digestion of the sampled fish, the volume was prepared for the determination of heavy metals viz. chromium, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and manganese. Samples for histological studies were collected on monthly basis. Slides were prepared. The results of this study provided valuable information on the metal contents in fish from different sampling stations. Fish from Balloki Headworks exhibited the highest tendency of accumulation of cadmium, lead and chromium in liver and intestine while it was the minimum in fish collected from controlled fish ponds from Ravi Campus Pattoki. Accumulation of these metals was, however, the minimum in fish muscle collected both from Fish ponds Pattoki and Balloki Headworks. The present situation can be considerably improved by taking effective measures such as better cleaning of waste water from the industrial enterprises and urban agglomeration as well as by installing new waste water treatment plants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1660,T] (1).

161. Prevalence, Identification And Pathogenesis Of Clostridium Chauvoei In Cattle And Buffaloes In Punjab

by Muhammad Asif Idress | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: In the first phase of the project, the sampling of diseased animals presumably affected by Black quarter was carried out from six districts of Punjab belonging to three different zones. Around two hundred and fifty samples from each zone were collected and were subjected to bacterial culturing and isolation procedures followed by biochemical identification mechanism. The prevalence of Black quarter in Cattle and buffaloes were thus calculated for each district and zone. Highest prevalence of BQ in Zone II was observed (27.2%) for cattle while in case of Buffaloes highest prevalence (3.2%) was noted in Zone I. similarly higher Prevalence of BQ was noted in 1st quarter of year for Zone I followed by zone II and III while 2nd quarter of season was showing higher prevalence of BQ in zone II and III. During 2nd phase of experiment tissue samples were inoculated in RCM and blood agar for the re-isolation of C. chauvoei, identified on the basis of colony characteristics and later on subjected to biochemical tests for the confirmation of the isolated organism. Then it was further confirmed through Polymerase chain Reaction for the identification of the causative agent i.e. C. Chauvoei on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Another set of primers corresponding to alpha toxin gene sequence of C. chauvoeui was also used which strengthened the belief that this strain of C. chauvoei possessed alpha toxin producing ability. During third phase of project blood samples collected were subjected to hematological estimation for buffaloes and cattle having confirmed as BQ This study revealed significant effect on RBC's count and white blood cells count (P<0.05), while Differential leukocyte count were also showing significant different as compared to Non-infected (P< 0.05). Serum samples were tested for the change in levels of different enzymes. It was found that blood-glucose level and ALT levels were not significantly higher (P>0.05) when compared with control values, Values of AST, CPK and LDH were found significantly higher (P< 0.05) in all infected animals. Histopathology of affected muscle tissues of both cattle and buffaloes was done to study microscopic changes in the muscle fibers and surrounding tissues. Lesions were somehow disappointing as compared to the magnitude of gross lesions. There were segmental degeneration, Zenker necrosis, discrete edema, occasional neutrophils and emphysema in affected muscle. Finally, alpha toxin (hemolysin) in culture supernatant of RCM broth was titrated against 2% washed RBC's of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, chicken, rabbit and mice to study the hemolytic activity of the toxin. It was found that highest percentage of hemolysis was observed in mice followed by cattle, sheep, buffalo, chicken and rabbit respectively at 25°C. Higher the dilution of toxin, lower the extent of hemolysis. At 37°C variable results were obtained. It showed the biological activity of alpha toxin is also temperature dependant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1664,T] (1).

162. Evaluation Of Cytotoxicity And Antiviral Activity Of Moxidectin Against Influenza Virus H9

by Rabia Hameed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab anjum | Mr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1665,T] (1).

163. The Immunomodulatory Activity Of Flurbiprofen In Mice.

by Maaz Bin Nasim | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1672,T] (1).

164. Productive And Reproductive Performance Of Four Close-Bred Stocks Of Japanese Quail Reared Under Different Dietary Levels of Lysine

by Abdul Samad Haidary | Mr. Jibran Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1677,T] (1).

165. Prevalence And Molecular Genetic Characterization Of Different Isolates Of Hydatid Cyst In Ruminants In Okara

by Ali Abbas | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Cystic hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution. Echinococcusis cause great economic loses in Pakistan and lead to the loss of worth 276.20$ per 100 sheep and goats, as well as 165.72$ per 100 infected buffaloes, cattle and camels. It has zoonotic importance and also have well-recognized zoonosis in Pakistan and numerous cases have been reported in the medical literature. Cystic hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, (E. granulosus), tapeworms. Adult tapeworms of this specie are small in size. Their measurement revealed that they reach upto 2-11 mm in length and contain protoscolex, the cephalic end for attchment and 2-5 proglottids segments. Two rows of keratinized hooks and four number of suckers are present on scolex. The last gravid proglottids segments bear the large number of fertilized eggs, which are shed after every 7-14 days. Eggs are oval in shape, having clearly distinct oncophore and 30-36 micrometer in diameter. There are several different strains of E. granulosus, which are genetically distinct. These strains vary phenotypically and therefore, this feature can be used for the control of this parasite. 10 genotypes of E. granulosus are identified up till now. Therefore, in this study we used PCR technique for prevalence determination and molecular characterization of specific strain of E. granulosus. The primers specific for E. granulosus were used in this study. The E.g.ss1for (5¡Ç-GTA TTT TGT AAA GTT GTT CTA-3¡Ç) worked as forward primer, while E.g.ss1rev (5¡Ç-CTA AAT CAC ATC ATC TTA CAA T-3¡Ç) worked as reverse primer. For this purpose, total 200 numbers of cyst samples (100 from each district) were collected from liver and lungs of cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep slaughtered at different private and public abattoirs in Okara and Jhang. An antimortem examination was performed on each animal LIV and data regarding each animal entered in data capturing form before slaughter. Whole cyst sample was collected without rupturing and preserved in ice packs. Then these isolates were transferred to laboratory and stored at -20 ¢ªC for further processing. For the genetic analysis of E. granuous (Hydatid cyst) DNA was extracted from germinal layer and cystic fluid by using DNA extraction reagent (TRIREAGENT¢ç, Molecular Research Center, Ohio, USA) according to the manufacturer.s instructions. PCR was carried out by using primers specific for G1 strain of E. granulosus. The whole three steps (Denaturation, Anealing, Amplification) of PCR was carried out in PCR thermo cycler under conditions specific for E. granulosus. The final PCR product was electrophoresed in a 1% agarose gel containing 0.5 ug/ml of ethedium bromide. Electrophoresis was completed by applying 90 volts for 40 min. After required time, gel was placed in UV trans-illuminator to visualize the band shown by specific genotype of E. granulosus. Specific bands at 254 bp confirmed the G1 strain of E. granulosus. Results indicated the prevalence of 37% in Okara and 65% in Jhang district of Punjab. While in cattle (58.00%), buffalo (76.00%), sheep (36.00%) and goats (34.00%) prevalence was observed. As well as, (44.7%) prevalence of E. granulosus was calculated in liver and (54.8%) was observed in lungs in both districts. So, this study predicted the prevalence of hydatid cystic disease in ruminants in Okara and Jhang. PCR technique was used for the diagnosis of hydatid cyst in animals. This molecular characterization technique enables us to know the specific strain of E. granulous existing in these two districts. Finally the data gathered from this study help to understand the disease structure and to develop future plan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1681,T] (1).

166. Genotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Metformin And Aspartame Alone And In Combination

by Amna Nazar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1690,T] (1).

167. Evaluation Of Cytotoxicity And Antiviral Activity Of Ivermectin Against Newcastle Disease Virus

by Sidra Azeem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Mr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1691,T] (1).

168. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Therapeutic Agents Against Pre In Goats

by Zunaira Akhter | Dr.Aneela Zameer Durrani | prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwer Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1703,T] (1).

169. Role Of Cyprinus Carpio In Innutrient Dynamics Of Fish Ponds Under Polyculture System

by Muhammad Ahmad | Dr. Sumaira Abbas | Prof. Dr. muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present project was planned to study gradual replacement of Cirrhinus mrigala with Cyprinus carpio and its impact on pond ecosystem. 900 fish individuals belonging to six species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophythylmichthys molitrix and Cyprinus carpio were stocked in four earthen ponds. The dimensions of each pond were 220 X 198 X 7 feet length, breadth and depth. The stocking density in pond 1 (T1) was C. catla 150, L. rohita 200, C. mrigala 200, C. idella 150, H. molitrix 150 and C. carpio 50. The stocking density of C. mrigala and C. carpio in pond 2 (T2) was 150 and 100, in pond 3 (T3), 100 and 150 and in pond 4 (T4) it was 50 and 200, respectively while the stocking density of all the other four fish species remained constant in all the four ponds. All the fish were fed with a diet of 25.16% crude protein @ 2% body weight. C. idella and C. mrigala showed maximum growth in T1, C. catla and H. molitrix in T2, L. rohita and C. carpio in T3. Maximum growth was observed in T3 followed by T4, T1 and T2. Among fish species C. idella and C. carpio showed higher growth rates than the rest of fish species. Our results reveal that in polyculture system stocking density of C. mrigala and C. carpio in a ratio of 1: 1.5 gives better results. In treatment 1 pond higher SGR 0.552% was observed in H. molitrix and lower 0.238 in C. carpio. Similarly, in T2 pond maximum SGR 0.703% was observed in H. molitrix and minimum 0.260% in C. idella. Maximum SGR 0.409 % was observed in H. molitrix in on T3 pond while it was minimum 0.153 in C. mrigala. In T4 pond maximum SGR 0.322% was observed in L. rohita while it was minimum 0.139 in C. idella. During present study major water quality parameters remained in the favorable range for fish culture, average value of temperature remained in the range 27.08 to 28.66 oC, salinity 0.86 to 0.99 ppt, DO 5.15 to 5.91 mg/L, EC ranges from 2.23 to 2.32 Ms/cm and pH ranges from 8.04 to 8.23 were observed within the optimum range throughout the experiment. Statistically significant variations in nitrate content of water were observed in T1 and T4 ponds while non-significant differences for nitrates were recorded in T2 and T3 ponds. Similarly, phosphates in water showed significant differences in T1 as compared to T3 and T4 ponds while T2, T3 and T4 showed non-significant differences for phosphates. Light penetration varied significantly between T1, T2 and T4 ponds and its values varied from minimum 18.17±0.946 cm in T4 to maximum 25.50±1.057 cm in T1 ponds The phytoplankton density was similar in ponds during the given period except the start month of study the low plankton values in April due to the ponds being filled with fresh water and immediately stocked with fish. The density of zooplankton components was higher under T3 where silver carp gained more weight. A total of 11 species of Bacillariophyceae, 10 species of Cyanophyceae, 30 species of Chlorophyceae, 2 species of Euglenophyceae, 3 species of Cladocera, 4 species of Copepoda, 9 species of Myxophyceae, 9 species of Crustacea, 11 species of Rotatoria and 1 species of Olygochaeta were identified. The number of identified species was relatively small, consisting of eurytopic species only, possibly as a result of the heavy activity these ponds suffered. Microcrustaceans, being valuable food organism for many fish species, were represented by genera Daphnia, Cyclops, Bosmina, Moina and Scapholeberis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1705,T] (1).

170. Characterization Of Linear Type Traits In Nili Rivei Buffaloes Of Pakistan

by Riaz Hussain Mirza | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present study on conformation recording of Nili Ravi buffaloes was planned because there was lack of studies on this aspect of Nili Ravi buffaloes. The main objective of the study was to document and characterize linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes so that the buffaloes with proper body characteristics could be identified for selection and breeding programs. Nili Ravi buffalo herds maintained at Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey, Pattoki, distt. Kasur, Livestock Experiment Station, Chack Katora distt. Bahawalpur, Livestock Experiment Station Haroonabad distt. Bahawalnagar, Livestock Experiment Station Khushab, distt. Khushab, Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman distt. Bhakhar and some private breeders were utilized in this study. The guidelines for conformational recording of dairy cattle provided by the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) were followed in this study. A total of 437 milking buffaloes were scored for linear type traits on a scale of 1-9. First scoring was performed within 15 to 90 days of calving and then each after about 90 days interval. Genetic parameters viz. heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluation techniques. Influencing factors such as age of the buffalo at scoring, stage of lactation, parity, herd and season of scoring were included in the model. Individual Animal Model was fitted under Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Procedure. Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems. Genetic parameters were estimated fitting an Individual Animal Model using the ASREML set of computer programs. A total of 1180 records on different linear type traits and body measurements were generated over a scoring period of 2 years. Most of the average values for linear type traits were seen to fall under the intermediate category of 4-6. The means±SD for different linear type traits were found as 5.07±1.35, 5.23±2.35, 5.41±1.45, 5.76±0.98, 6.73±1.53, 4.91±1.85, 4.99±0.88, 4.99±0.90, 5.39±2.13, 4.78±1.1, 5.36±1.56, 4.91±1.84, 5.76±1.67, 3.58±0.88, 5.66±2.24, 6.42±0.88, 4.88±0.69, 4.92±1.08, 4.87±0.84, 5.34±1.79, 4.76±1.78, 5.97±0.94, 5.04±2.488, 5.15±1.65 and 6.44±1.03 for stature, chest width, body depth, angularity, rump angle, rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle , fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement, locomotion, body condition score, top line, bone structure, rear udder width, udder balance, teat thickness, thurl width, and temperament, respectively. A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits (P< 0.0001). Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits. Parity was observed as a highly significant source of variation for some of the body traits including stature, body depth, body condition score and bone structure. However most of the udder related traits were affected by this factor. A non significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, central ligament, locomotion, top line, udder balance, thurl width and temperament. A highly significant effect of season of scoring was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, locomotion and thurl width among body traits. However, stature, body depth, body condition score, top line, bone structure and temperament were not affected by season of scoring. Udder conformation traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, rear udder width, and udder balance were affected by the season of scoring, however rest of the udder traits including udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement and teat thickness were not significantly different in different seasons. Significant linear effect of age of the buffalo at scoring was seen on most of the linear type traits. including stature, body depth, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length, body condition score, bone structure, rear udder width, teat thickness and thurl width. However, chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, top line, udder balance and temperament were not affected by linear effect of age. Quadratic effect of age was found as significant on most of the linear type traits except chest width, angularity, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, udder balance and temperament. Univariate heritability estimates of linear type traits were observed as for stature, 0.36±0.092; chest width, 0.10±0.081; body depth, 0.32±0.081; angularity, 0.06±0.071; rump angle, 0.15±0.071; rump width, 0.38±0.092; rear legs set, 0.02±0.07; rear legs rear view, 0.08±0.07; foot angle, 0.09±0.07; fore udder attachment, 0.21±0.07; rear udder height, 0.09±0.07; central ligament, 0.09±0.09; udder depth, 0.10±0.091; front teat placement, 0.11±0.091; teat length, 0.08±0.091; rear teat placement, 0.11±0.081; locomotion, 0.06±0.06; body condition score, 0.14±0.091; top line, 0.03±0.05; bone structure, 0.09±0.09; rear udder width, 0.15±0.09; udder balance, 0.16±0.07; teat thickness, 0.22±0.091; thurl width, 0.31±0.09 and temperament, 0.14±0.07, respectively. Some important positive phenotypic correlations of linear type traits with 305 days milk yield were observed as 0.18±0.04 for body depth, 0.15±0.04 for rump angle, 0.13±0.04 for rump width, 0.30±0.04 for rear udder height, 0.43±0.03 for central ligament, 0.16±0.03 for rear teat placement and 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width. Rest of the phenotypic correlations were very low. Considerable negative phenotypic correlations included -0.16±035 for body condition score, -0.15±0.04 for top line, -0.16±0.03 for front teat placement, -0.14±0.04 for udder depth and -0.26±0.04 for fore udder attachment. Most of the linear type traits showed positive but low genetic correlation with 305 days milk yield including 0.140±0.0001 with stature, 0.210±0.0001 with body depth, 0.11±0.0001 with rump angle, 0.19±0.0002 with rump width, 0.14±0.0001 with rear udder height, 0.20±0.000001 with central ligament, 0.14±0.0000001 with rear teat placement, 0.13±0.0001 with rear udder width, 0.14±0.0000001 with udder balance, 0.09±0.0001 with thurl width and 0.12±0.0000001 with temperament. Phenotypic and genetic correlations of most the linear type traits with score day milk yield were generally higher than with 305 days milk yield. Phenotypic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.09±0.03 for stature, -0.21±0.03 for chest width, -0.05±0.04 for body depth, -0.17±0.03 for angularity, -0.12±0.03 for rump angle, -0.16±0.05 for rump width, -0.32±0.03 for rear legs set, -0.16±0.04 for rear legs rear view, -0.22±0.03 for foot angle, -0.34±0.03 for fore udder attachment, -0.16±0.04 for rear udder height, -0.16±0.04 for central ligament, -0.25±0.03 for udder depth, 0.06±0.04 for front teat placement, 0.008±0.03 for teat length, -0.19±0.04 for rear teat placement, -0.15±0.04 for locomotion, -0.22±0.03 for body condition score, -0.35±0.03 for top line, -0.08±0.04 for bone structure, -0.17±0.05 for rear udder width, -0.18±0.04 for udder balance, -0.20±0.03 for teat thickness, -0.11±0.04 for thurl width and -0.11±0.05 for temperament, respectively. Genetic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.57±0.05 for stature, 0.09±0.02 for chest width, 0.31±0.04 for body depth, 0.06±0.02 for angularity, 0.15±0.03 for rump angle, 0.30±0.05 for rump width, 0.04±0.02 for rear legs set, 0.06±0.01 for rear legs rear view, 0.06±0.02 for foot angle, 0.10±0.02 for fore udder attachment, 0.18±0.03 for rear udder height, 0.12±0.02 for central ligament, 0.18±0.02 for udder depth, 0.60±0.06 for front teat placement, 0.23±0.03 for teat length, 0.07±0.01 for rear teat placement, 0.021±0.02 for locomotion, 0.12±0.02 for body condition score, 0.08±0.02 for top line, 0.08±0.03 for bone structure, 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width, 0.19±0.03 for udder balance, 0.095±0.02 for teat thickness, 0.12±0.02 for thurl width and 0.27±0.05 for temperament, respectively. Among body measurements, head related measurements included head length, horn diameter at base, length and width of ear and poll width and their average values were found as 54.13±3.48, 18.65±2.06, 29.5±2.12 and 18.66±1.22, and 30.95±2.35 cm, respectively. Average values for neck length and neck circumference were observed as 53.32±4.56 and 95.77±8.58 cm, respectively. The height and length of body was measured at different body points and average values were found as 139.56±6.29 cm for horizontal body length, 154.01±7.61 cm for diagonal body length, 135.77±4.4 cm for height at sacrum, 132.04±4.57 cm for height at withers, 130.77±4.61 cm for height at 6th rib position, 126.34±4.51 cm for height at last rib position, 128.89±4.83 cm for height at hook bone and 118.81±4.45 cm for height at pin bone. The average values for heart girth, paunch girth, sprung at 6th rib position and sprung at last rib position were resulted as 194.46±10.31, 238.52±13.96, 45.15±4.48 and 68.72±5.2 cm, respectively. Mean estimates for top wedge area, front wedge area and side wedge area were obtained as 3152.79±309.53, 1030.17±136.34 and 3105.07±345.26 cm2, respectively. The length of tail and its diameter at base was measured and its value averaged 103.51±12.55 and 22.41±2.005 cm, respectively. Average values of skin thickness at neck, ribs, belly and tail region were found as 4.16±1.16, 5.85±1.36, 7.34±1.49 and 1.71±0.55 mm, respectively. Mean values for some other traits included 43.52±2.582 cm for rump length, 3.12±0.56 cm for heel depth and 523.13±81.63 kg for body weight. It was observed that herd was a significant source of variation for all body measurement traits. Age of the buffalo at classification was a significant source of variation for all of the body measurements except horn diameter at base, poll width, tail length, skin thickness at tail and height at hook bone. Most of the body measurements have been found to be lowly to moderately heritable in the current study. Heritability estimates for various body measurements were observed as 0.16±0.09 for horn diameter at base, 0.38±0.04 for ear length, 0.06±0.09 for ear width, 0.25±0.091 for head length, 0.14±0.09 for poll width, 0.03±0.06 for neck circumference, 0.05±0.07 for neck length, 0.05±0.09 for body length, 0.05±0.09 for diagonal body length, 0.41±0.09 for tail length, 0.28±0.091 for tail diameter at base, 0.04±0.09 for skin thickness at neck, 0.02±0.09 for skin thickness at ribs, 0.10±0.09 for skin thickness at belly, 0.07±0.08 for skin thickness at tail, 0.11±0.09 for height at sacrum, 0.28±0.09 for height at withers, 0.22±0.092 for height at 6th rib position, 0.25±0.092 for height at last rib position, 0.18±0.091 for height at hook bone, 0.07±0.08 for height at pin bone, 0.04±0.06 for sprung at 6th rib position, 0.07±0.06 for sprung at last rib position, 0.13±0.09 for heart girth, 0.05±0.09 for paunch girth, 0.11±0.09 for top wedge area, 0.05±0.06 for front wedge area, 0.16±0.07 for side wedge area, 0.13±0.08 for rump length, 0.02±0.06 for heel depth and 0.33±0.07 for body weight. Phenotypic correlations of 305 days milk yield with various body measurements were in low range. Positive phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.02±0.04 for sprung at 6th rib position to 0.17±0.05 for ear length. Some of the important body measurements have positive phenotypic correlation with 305 days milk yield as 0.15±0.04 for head length, 0.04±0.04 for diagonal body length, 0.04±0.02 for height at withers, 0.11±0.03 for height at sacrum, 0.11±0.04 for sprung at last rib position, 0.04±0.04 for heart girth, 0.08±0.03 for rump length and 0.07±0.03 for body weight. Negative phenotypic correlations with 305 days milk yield ranged from -0.03±0.03 for side wedge area to -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base. Some important negative phenotypic correlations included -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base, -0.04±0.04 for neck circumference, -0.12±0.03 for skin thickness at neck and -0.08±0.03 for front wedge area. Positive phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included 0.09±0.05 for body weight, 0.07±0.002 for rump length, 0.09±0.003 for sprung at last rib position, 0.09±0.005 for height at hook bone, 0.08±0.02 for height at sacrum. Rest of all the traits were low in correlation with milk yield. Negative phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included horn diameter at base as -0.15±0.02 and heel depth as -0.13±0.04. Rest of all negative phenotypic correlations were very low. Positive genetic correlations of 305 days milk yield varied from 0.02±0.002 for ear width to 0.23±0.02 for side wedge area. Some important body measurements have positive genetic correlation values as 0.121±0.000001 for head length, 0.162±0.000001 for diagonal body length, 0.080±0.000001 for height at withers, 0.15±0.000001 for height at sacrum, 0.15±0.000001 for sprung at last rib position, 0.14±0.0005 for heart girth and 0.16±0.007 for body weight. Negative genetic correlation for this trait was observed only for skin thickness at neck region as -0.16±0001. About 40 traits regarding udder and teat measurements before and after milking were analysed. Average values for udder length, width, height, depth and circumference before milking were found as 52.65±6.87, 53.52±6.19, 54.34±4.99, 18.76±3.87, and 77.05±11.69 cm, respectively while the corresponding values for the same traits after milking were found as 47.08±6.57, 48.15±5.79, 55.39±5.15, 18.11±4.11 and 67.04±8.11 cm, respectively. Teat impression distances between front teats, rear teats, fore and rear teats from right side and fore and rear teats from left side were found as 12.46±3.01, 7.01±1.91, 8.08±1.8 and 7.71±1.75 cm, respectively. Pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics were found as 12.93±3.12 and 11.71±2.83 cm for distance between front teats; 7.48±1.93 and 6.61±1.58 cm for distance between hind teats; 8.34±1.91 and 7.54±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 8.004±1.95 and 7.17±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 10.19±2.17 and 9.057±1.50 for diameter of fore right teat; 10.92±2.45 and 9.611±1.66 cm for diameter of rear right teat; 10.33±2.11 and 9.33±1.45 cm for diameter of fore left teat; 11.25±2.54 and 9.937±1.76 cm for diameter of rear left teat; 10.71±2.63 and 11.2±2.39 cm, for teat length of fore right teat; 13.05±3.27 and 13.13±3.03 for teat length of rear right teat; 11.09±2.71 and 11.88±2.61 cm for teat length fore left teat and 13.75±3.04 and 14.47±2.99 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. All of the udder conformation traits before and after milking were highly significantly different in different herds (P<0.0001). Stage of lactation was found to be highly significant source of variation (P<0.0001) for before milking udder length, before milking udder height, average before milking udder circumference, after milking udder length, after milking average udder circumference, teat impression distance between fore, between rear and between fore and rear teats on both sides. However, before milking average udder width, before milking udder depth, after milking average udder width, after milking udder height and after milking udder depth were not affected by this factor. All of the above mentioned traits were significantly affected by parity except after milking udder depth and teat impression distance between fore teats and between rear teats. Season of scoring significantly affected before milking udder length (P<0.01), before milking average udder width (P<0.05), before milking average udder circumference (P<0.01), after milking average udder width (P<0.01), after milking average udder circumference (P<0.0001), teat impression distance between fore and hind teats of left side (P<0.05). Rest of all the traits were not significantly different in different seasons. Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by linear and quadratic effect of age of the buffalo at classification. Herd was a significant source of variation for all teat related traits recorded at pre stimulation before milking time. Stage of lactation significantly affected pre stimulation distance between front teats, pre stimulation distance between hind teats, pre stimulation distance between fore and hind teats on right and left side, pre stimulation diameter of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of rear right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore left and rear left teat. However, pre stimulation diameter of rear right teat, pre stimulation diameter of fore left teat and pre stimulation diameter of rear left teat were not affected by this factor. All of these parameters were affected by parity except pre stimulation distance between hind teats and pre stimulation teat length of fore left teat. Similarly all of these traits were affected by season of scoring except pre stimulation distance between fore, between hind, between right and between left teats. All of teat characteristics after milking were significantly affected by herd. Stage of lactation significantly affected after milking distance between fore and hind teats of right side (P<0.05), after milking teat length of fore right and rear right teat (P<0.01), after milking teat length of fore left teat (P<0.05) and rear left teat (P<0.0001). Rest of all traits after milking were not affected by stage of lactation. Most of the teat parameters after milking were significantly affected by parity except after milking distance between front and between rear teats, after milking teat length of rear right teat and after milking teat length of fore left teat. Distances among teats after milking and after milking diameter of rear left teat were not significantly affected by season. Rest of all traits were significantly affected by this factor. Heritability estimates for before milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference were found as 0.08±0.07, 0.22±0.08, 0.22±0.09, 0.05±0.06 and 0.21±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values after milking for these traits were observed as 0.14±0.07, 0.20±0.08, 0.09±0.08, 0.02±0.08 and 0.09±0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates for before milking and after milking teat characteristics were found as 0.11±0.09 and 0.15±0.09 for distance between front teats; 0.03±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for distance between hind teats; 0.32±0.09 and 0.06±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.16±0.08 and 00.09±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.21±0.08 and 0.11±0.08 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.05±0.05 and 0.02±0.05 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.19±0.08 and 0.25±0.09 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.07±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.12±0.06 and 0.08±0.06 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.02±0.05 and 0.11±0.07 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.29±0.09 and 0.29±0.092 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.14±0.08 and 0.08±0.07 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.29±0.04 and 0.18±0.04; 0.30±0.04 and 0.33±0.04; -0.26±0.03 and -0.20±0.03; 0.07±0.04 and 0.06±0.05 and 0.18±0.04 and 0.14±0.04, respectively. Corresponding values in the same order for genetic correlations were observed as 0.17±0.0002 and 0.21±0.0003; 0.33±0.0002 and 0.19±0.0003; -0.29±0003 and -0.34±0003; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 and 0.28±0.0004 and 0.23±0.0003, respectively. Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with score day milk yield were found as 0.29±0.03 and -0.18±0.02; -0.32±0.02 and 0.17±0.01, -0.38±0.001 and -0.20±0.002, 0.28±0.01 and -0.04±0.04 and 0.21±0.04 and -0.15±0.04, respectively. Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.19±0.03 and 0.07±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.20±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.21±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.18±0.03 and 0.18±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.07±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.04±0.03 and 0.14±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.03±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.02±0.04 and 0.20±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.24±0.03 and 0.28±0.03, for teat length of fore right teat; -0.13±0.03 and -0.009±0.04 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.01±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and 0.06±0.03 and 0.22±0.03 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Genetic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.22±0.0002 and 0.12±0.0003 for distance between front teats; 0.26±0.0001 and 0.13±0.0001 for distance between hind teats; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.09±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.11±0.0001 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.09±0.0002 and 0.16±0.0001 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.080±0.00001 and 0.11±0.0001 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.07±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0002 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.003±0.000001 and 0.003±0.0003 for teat length fore left teat and 0.003±0.000001 and 0.002±0.0002 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as -0.37±0.02 and -0.48±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.06±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.03±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.03±0.039 and 0.08±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; -0.33±0.03 and -0.16±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.46±0.03 and -0.26±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.41±0.03 and -0.24±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.30±0.03 and -0.28±0.04 for diameter of rear left teat; -0.43±0.03 and -0.49±0.03 for teat length of fore right teat; -0.36±0.02 and -0.47±0.02 for teat length of rear right teat; -0.41±0.034 and -0.43±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and -0.28±0.021 and -0.53±0.02 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Genetic correlations for before and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as 0.13±0.016 and 0.15±0.02 for distance between front teats; 0.30±0.04 and 0.40±0.05 for distance between hind teats; 0.19±0.05 and 0.38±0.05 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.32±0.06 and 0.44±0.06 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.22±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.16±0.02 and 0.23±0.03 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.15±0.02 and 0.22±0.03 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.11±0.02 and 0.24±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.19±0.02 and 0.17±0.02 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.075±0.01 and 0.07±0.01 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.27±0.029 and 0.27±0.03 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.10±0.01 and 0.08±0.01 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Least squares means for various performance traits were found as 7.02±2.46 for score day milk yield, 1801.61±624.59 for lactation milk yield, 2074.1±360.85 for 305 days milk yield, 2149.09±680.59 for best milk yield, 272±69 for lactation length, 408.553±203.63 for preceeding dry period, 1762.05±305.97 for age at first calving, 477.68±64.53 for weight at first calving, 110±33 for age at scoring in months, 523.133±81.63 for weight at scoring in Kg. Most of the phenotypic studies on Nili Ravi breed are limited to recording only few body measurements. In order to explore the physical features of this breed, linear scoring system needs to be adopted which is based on measurement of certain specific parts of body as per international standards according to the ICAR guidelines. However, some of the linear scores developed for dairy cattle breeds do not fit for this breed and harmonization of certain trait definitions is needed even for the linear score system for this breed. The following points are important regarding linear scoring system for Nili Ravi buffaloes: " In case of rump angle, the score ranging as 1-3 which refers to higher pin bone than hook bone is not present in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for central ligament ranging as 1-3 which refers to convex floor of udder has not been observed in this breed. The position of front teat placement as inside of quarter scoring as 7-9 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The position of rear teat placement as outside of quarter scoring as 1-3 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for top line ranging as 8-9 which represents a back bent upwards has not been observed in this breed. The score of 1 and 2 which represents a rear udder deeper than the fore udder has also not been observed in the present study. A higher temperament score indicates that buffaloes tend to be excited especially at the time of milking and handling. This behaviour of buffaloes needs to be improved through selection and breeding. " A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits. Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length and rear udder width. Most of the udder related traits were affected by parity such as fore udder attachment, rear udder height, udder depth, teat length, rear udder width and teat thickness. significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, top line, thurl width, and temperament. " Initiation of conformation recording in public and private sector and use of selective and planned breeding will be helpful for the improvement in milk yield and to bring uniformity in body features of Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Scoring in first parity should be adopted as in later parities adjustment for age and parity will be needed. " Differences among herds for most of the traits suggest that performance can be improved by exploiting genetic potential through selection and breeding. Heritability estimates for most of the linear type traits were found as higher than the reported values available in literature. The reasons might be due to species differences and relatively small data set as well as incomplete pedigree records. Even then the results might be considered for inclusion of some of the linear type traits in selection programs. Keeping in view that this is a preliminary study on genetic aspects of linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes, further studies and research with larger data set is needed to explore linear type traits and to validate the findings of the current study. " A positive genetic correlation of stature with milk yield suggest that taller and heavier buffaloes produced more milk and selection for taller buffaloes may result in improved milk yield but the efficiency of milk yield must be studied before making indirect selection for milk yield through stature. Negative phenotypic correlation of chest width with score day milk yield suggested that buffaloes with wider chest are relatively less efficient in milk production. Further studies are needed with larger data set to verify the results. A considerable positive genetic correlation between body depth and milk yield suggest that body depth may be considered for indirect selection of higher milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Considerable genetic correlation with milk yield suggest that rump width is important in this breed of buffaloes and can be used for indirect selection for improved milk yield. A considerable negative phenotypic correlation of fore udder attachment with milk yield is important however negligible genetic correlation suggest that fore udder attachment is independent of milk producing genes and separate selection for each trait should be considered keeping in view heritability of the trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder height with milk yield suggested that selection for this trait might be helpful for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Genetic correlation of teat length with score day milk yield is considerable in the current study but very low with 305 days milk yield. The findings of current study suggested that rear teat placemen has a considerable genetic correlation with milk yield and can be used for indirect selection for better milk yield. The results of current study are not in agreement with most of the reports in the literature regarding correlation of BCS with milk yield. Further research is needed to verify positive genetic correlation of BCS with milk yield before using BCS as selection criterion for milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Due to negative phenotypic correlation of body condition score with milk yield, an optimal score of below average ranging from 4 to 5 may be recommended. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder width with milk yield suggested that some of the same genes are controlling milk yield and rear udder width and indirect selection for improved milk yield is possible through selection for rear udder width in Nili Ravi buffaloes. This genetic correlation with milk yield is considerable but further studies are needed before the udder balance could be included for selection program in Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Current study indicated that teat thickness is not genetically important with negligible correlation with milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes but negative phenotypic correlation is considerable and buffaloes with thinner teats are suitable for more milk production. A low but positive genetic correlation of thurl width with milk yield provides a scope for further studies to explore this trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Further studies are needed with relatively larger data set to explore temperament and verify its relationship with milk yield in this breed of buffaloes. Generally, the least squares means for most of the body measurements were found in the normal range and were in agreement with most of the reports in literature. " Comparatively higher body weight was observed than the reports available for Nili Ravi buffaloes. One of the reason for this might be relatively better supply of feed and fodder during the course of study and also the records pertaining to 3rd and latter parities were more in number than the records on younger buffaloes. The top and side wedge area are almost similar with less variation showing that Nili Ravi buffaloes are relatively more wedge shaped. " Most of the body measurements were affected by the herd and age factors but the effect of parity, stage of lactation and season of scoring was variable for different traits and showed not very clear trend. Body weight was affected by all the factors studied in the current investigation. Most of the body measurements have been found to be moderately to highly heritable in the current study. Overall range of heritability estimates for body measurements was found as 0.08±0.09 to 0.92±0.00. " Skin thickness has been found under the genetic control and can be improved through selection and breeding keeping in view its importance and demand in the leather industry and also its correlation with milk yield. " Diagonal body length in the current study has shown a low but positive genetic correlation with milk yield and this trait might be considered in the selection program for Nili Ravi buffaloes. The negative genetic correlation of skin thickness in the neck region with 305 days milk yield is important and advocates the thinking of farmers about the negative correlation of skin thickness with milk yield. Genetic correlation of heart girth with milk yield although not very high but seems to be important and can be considered for indirect selection for milk yield through heart girth measurement. A reasonable genetic correlation of body weight with milk yield suggested that this trait should be considered in the selection program for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Udder colour has not been found important. Buffaloes with pendulous udders have produced more milk. The possible reason for this more milk is that such buffaloes were recorded in latter parities and age of those buffaloes was high and the size of their udder was large. The frequency of buffaloes with such type of udder is only 8%. Buffaloes with such type of pendulous udders are more prone to udder and teat injuries and mastitis and their life time production is less. Thick and lengthy teats have been observed in this breed and the reason might be due to hand milking and direct suckling of cows by the calves. " Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by herd, parity, stage of lactation and age of the buffaloes at classification. Most of the udder measurements have been found highly heritable and this provides a good scope for improvement of these traits through selection and breeding. A general decrease in the distance between fore, rear and fore and rear teats on both sides was observed after milking. This indicated that the distance measured after milking was a good indicator of actual distance between teats of this breed irrespective of stage of lactation. Udder length, width, udder circumference and height either recorded before milking or after milking have been found genetically correlated with milk yield and they should be considered for selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A reasonable positive genetic correlation of distance between fore and between rear teats suggested that this distance is important for milk yield and should be considered for selection in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The results of present study suggest that teat diameter is not genetically much important for milk yield and the reason of thick teats is due to hand milking and direct suckling by the calves. " Teat distance between front teat, between rear teat, diameter of fore right and rear right teat and teat length of fore right teat have shown low but not negligible genetic correlations with milk yield and should be given some importance in making selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Brown colour buffaloes have not been observed in this study because such animals at Govt. livestock farms are culled at an early age, however farmers think that such type of buffaloes are better milk yielder and they like and demand such animals, development and conservation of these animals is advocated at experimental level to study their potential. " Further research is needed to evaluate visual image analysis system as a tool for quick and more accurate conformation recording. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1708,T] (1).

171. Evaluation Of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Supplemented Diet On The Growth, Digestibility And

by Sajid Mahmood | Dr. Noor Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aahraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Present experiment was conducted in 8 aquaria of size 1.5ft x 2ft x 3ft (width, height and length, respectively) with 1.5 feet water level in each aquarium on fingerlings of Ctenopharyngodon idella. Sun dried different parts of water hyacinth was used to prepare three isoproteic diets (30%) i.e. whole plant meal diet (WP), leaf meal diet (LM), root meal diet (RM) and a control diet. Overall significant (p. 0.05) difference was observed in weight and length among the treatments. On termination of experimental trial, all the fish were harvested, weighed and measured for assessment of growth performance. Representative samples from each treatment were randomly picked up for determination of body composition and histological studies. Former were dried for proximate analysis while latter were dissected, liver and kidney were excised out for further tissue processing. Statistically non-significant variations in increase in weight and length were recorded among Control, WP and LM diets while RM depressed fish growth. Mean weight 4.636}0.605g and length 78.757}3.995mm were relatively higher when grass carp juveniles were fed with LM and the same were the lowest 2.465}0.178g and 65.405}1.877mm, respectively, for RM diets. Higher weight gain was observed in LM (7.14 g) and lower on RM (2.10 g). Maximum length increase was observed on WP (50 mm) and minimum on RM (20 mm). Better FCR was observed on LM (2.113}0.102) and poor on RM (5.142}0.212). SGR % was observed maximum on LM (0.787}0.051) and minimum on RM (0.415}0.041). Histological study showed that there was no variation in liver and kidney in the Control diet whereas variations in cell patterns have been observed due to incorporation of water hyacinth which may be due to inherent toxic materials present in water hyacinth or due to some 61 heavy metals it absorbed from the surroundings. This research exposes that Eichhornia crassipes meal has an optimistic nutrient utilization effect on fish growth. Farmers can use water hyacinth to formulate cost-effective fish feeds. Water hyacinth leaf meal is more appropriate for fish production than the whole plant meal. But farmer has to be very careful and make sure that water hyacinth to be used in feed should come from clean water, because water hyacinth can absorb heavy metals and poisons from polluted water. Such plants if used in fish feed will affect the fish health and farmer profit. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1716,T] (1).

172. Evaluation Of Cellular And Humoral Responses Of Piroxicam In Mice

by Bushra Zahoor | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1721,T] (1).

173. Evaluation And Comparison Of Anti-Viral Activity Of Ethanolic And Chloroformic Extract Of Juniperus Excelsa Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus

by Amber Sharif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Mr. Allah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1723,T] (1).

174. Improving Nutritional Value And Acceptability Of Dairy Products With Lower Contents Of Saturated Fatty

by Muhammad Nadeem | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Imran Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1742,T] (1).

175. Cytotoxic, Mutagenic And Genotoxic Evaluation Of Different Aesthetic Colorants

by Wardah Naeem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Imran Altaf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Resheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1743,T] (1).

176. Effect Of Dietary Supplementation Of Different Lutein Sources On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Its Bio-Availability in Eggs of Commercial Layers Categorized in THree Body Weights

by Ahmad Ali Sajjad | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The term Designer egg has gained popularity all over the world. Egg which gives some health benefits with the provision of basic nutrients is called designer egg. Lutein a xanthophyll pigment is good for the prevention of age related macular degeneration (AMD).Egg is considered good vehicle for lutein transport as bio-availability of lutein is high through egg. The present study was aimed to produce lutein enriched eggs (designer eggs). Different sources of lutein were used and their effect on production performance and egg quality characteristics was measured. A total number of 432 Hy-line layers categorized into 3 body sizes (Heavy, Medium, Light) were offered 4 different supplementations of lutein (0, free, esterified, free + esterified) replicated 6 times having 6 layers each. Parameters regarding production performance, egg geometry and egg quality were observed.Data were analyzed according to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique through Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using factorial arrangement. Means were compared through Duncan Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1955) with the help of SAS 9.3. Results of the present study showed significantly higher Haugh unit score (87.17±0.39) in light birds during 3rd week whereas, within lutein sources significantly higher Haugh unit score was observed in layers fed with control diets (85.52±0.48). Significantly (p<0.05) higher yolk pH was observed in layers fed with esterified source of lutein whereas significantly higher (8.26±0.06) albumen pH was observed in birds fed with free source of lutein however, different body sizes could not show their effect on yolk and albumen pH. Significantly higher (62.97±0.22) albumen % was observed during 1st week of study in birds fed with esterified source of lutein whereas body weight categories did not affect the albumen% whereas, yolk % was affected by different body sizes and lutein sources during 1st week of study. Significantly higher mean value (27.48±0.27) of yolk % was recorded in birds fed with combination of free and esters of lutein whereas higher value of yolk % (27.20±0.23) was observed in medium birds. Shell percentage significantly (p<0.05) affected by different body sizes (10.96±0.13) and lutein sources (11.14±0.18) during 1st week of study whereas shell thickness was significantly (p<0.05) affected by lutein sources (0.35±0.004) during 1st week of study. Means of different sources of lutein had significant (p<0.05) effect on yolk color and the highest mean value (11.63±0.15) was observed in birds fed with free source of lutein. Yolk index was significantly (0.36±0.005) affected by different lutein sources however, body sizes did not affect yolk index. As far as egg geometry was concerned egg surface area and egg volume were found to be significantly highest for heavy birds whereas non-significant differences for egg volume and shape index were observed. However, different lutein sources had no effect on egg geometry parameters. Significantly highest egg weight (62.74±0.23) was observed in heavy layers followed by medium (61.56±0.17) and light (60.63±0.17). However, different body weights (narrow ranges) and lutein sources had non-significant effect on production (%), FCR per dozen, egg mass and FCR per kg egg mass. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1747,T] (1).

177. Comparative Efficacy Of Limited Contactdynamic Compression Plate (Lc-Dc) And Dynamic Compression Plate

by Farah Ijaz | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1753,T] (1).

178. Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Camels Of District Muzaffargarh, Punjab

by Sami Ullah | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1760,T] (1).

179. Effect Of Different Levels Of Defatted Algae Supplement Of The Growth Performance, Blood And Tissue

by Ahsan Mustafa | Dr. Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In Pakistan poultry sector is playing a vital role in bridging the gap between supply and requirement of animal protein food for its ever increasing human population. The contribution of poultry sector in agriculture and livestock is about 6.4 and 11.5 percent, respectively (Anonymous, 2012). Poultry meat contributes about 25.8 percent of the total meat produced in the country. This sector has been growing at an annual rate of 8 to 10 percent, producing 131.4 million eggs and 0.834 million metric tons of poultry meat (Anonymous, 2012). However, despite this tremendous growth rate, this sector is facing many challenges which may badly influence its future pace of development. The most important of these is escalating cost of poultry feed which is considered to be the major cost item involving more than 60 to 70 percent share of production cost (Khan et al., 2010). Many of the traditional protein sources used in poultry diet formulations such as soybean, fish, sunflower meal and groundnut meal are becoming extremely expensive. Rapid growth of human, livestock and poultry population has increased the demand for food and feed which has necessitated that alternative feed resource should be identified and evaluated. Therefore, the search for alternative protein sources has become urgent, and in this context, algae are worthy of consideration. The possibility of using fat-extracted algae (a by-product from bio-fuels production) as a source of protein and other nutrients in poultry feeds appears to be of great significance. The use of algae as a source of nutrients can benefit poultry and bio-fuel industry. Diatoms are a major group of unicellular algae, and are one of the most common types of phytoplankton. They differ from other algae in the presence of substantial amounts of silicon in their cell membranes. The diatom, Nanofrustulum is currently under investigation as a potential source of oil for bio-fuel production. However, effect of dietary inclusion of defatted algae supplements by replacing soybean meal and corn on the performance of broilers has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study was therefore under taken at Poultry Research Farm, Department of Animal Science, University of Cornell, USA, to investigate effect of defatted algae Nanofrustulum meal on the growth performance, blood biochemical composition and gross pathology of tissues in broilers. For this purpose, two levels of defatted algae Nanofrustulume 7.5 and 10 percent were used. Four different, iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental rations were prepared. The diet A was prepared without inclusion of algae (control), whereas in diets B and C the same algae at the rate of 7.5 percent were incorporated to replace soybean meal and soybean meal + corn, respectively. In diet D, algae at the rate of 10 percent replaced soybean meal and corn. Eighty, commercial (Ross), day-old, broiler chicks, 40 each of both sexes, were randomly divided into to 4 treatment groups (A, B, C and D) with two replicates each of 5 male and female birds per treatment. They were initially weighed and wing banded individually for identification and then maintained in thermostatically controlled battery cages. The birds were provided 22 hours light: 2 hours darkness schedule. All the experimental birds were fed a balanced broiler starter ration and water ad libitum until 21 days of age. All the experimental rations were supplemented with additional quantity of potentially limiting amino acids, lysine and methionine. The amount of corn oil in all the rations was adjusted to maintain metabolizable energy contents at 3000 and 3200 Kcal/Kg for the chick starter and grower rations, respectively. The amino acid contents of starter and grower diets were kept higher than NRC (1994) standards. On day 22nd, the birds were transferred to growing cages maintained at room temperature and similarly fed grower diets ad libitum until 42 days of age. The data on feed intake, body weight gain were collected. Feed conversion efficiency were calculated. On day 42nd of the experiment, the experimental birds were fasted for 3 hours and blood samples were collected from the wing vein from randomly selected, 2 birds each of both the sexes per replicate for determination of blood biochemical composition following standard laboratory procedures. Gross pathology of tissues obtained from slaughtered birds was also performed. The study was conducted according to Randomized Complete Block. Design (RCBD). The data thus recorded was subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance Technique (Steel et al., 1997). The means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) Test (Duncan, 1955). The results of this study showed significant (p?0.01) difference in average feed intake among treatments and between sexes of broilers. In male broilers, the significantly highest feed intake was observed in birds fed diet C followed by those fed diets D, A and B, whereas in female broilers the highest feed intake was recorded by the birds fed diet A and then followed by those fed diets B, C and D. The results further showed non-significant differences in feed intake of male broilers between treatment groups C & A and C & D, whereas significant difference was recorded between group B and C. Significantly lowest feed intake was recorded in female broilers fed diet D which was also significantly different from treatment groups A and B. The results also showed that with increase in inclusion levels of algae in female broilers depression in feed intake increased. The results in respect of average weight gain showed that male and female broilers fed the control diet attained the highest weight gain, followed by those fed diets C, D and B, respectively in male broilers and fed diets C, B and D in female broilers, respectively. The male broilers attained significantly (p<0.01) better weight gain than female broilers. The weight gain in broilers fed the control diet was not significantly (p?0.05) different from those fed diet C. The overall results of the study showed depression in weight gain of birds fed diets containing different levels of algae in comparison to those fed control diet. In the present study, the feed conversion ratio was significantly (p< 0.05) influenced by the diets, however it was not significantly different between sexes. In male broilers the poorest FCR was observed in group D followed by in groups B, C and A. The best FCR in male broilers was recorded in group A which was significantly better than that of treatment groups A and D, however non- significant difference between FCR of groups A and C was recorded. In female broilers, the best FCR was observed in birds fed diet C followed by those fed diets A, D and B, however, non- significant difference in FCR among diets was recorded. Non- significant (P > 0.05) differences in plasma alkaline phosphatase (AKP), alanine transferase (ALT), serum cholesterol, tri glycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels among diets and between sexes were detected. Significant (P > 0.05) differences in serum uric acid among diets and between sexes were detected. Female broilers had significantly higher uric acid levels than male broilers. In male broilers fed diet A, plasma uric acid value was observed to be significantly higher than those fed diet D but it was not significantly (P>0.05) different from those fed diets B and C. In female broilers fed diet A, plasma uric acid concentration was significantly higher than those fed diets C and D, however the differences were observed to be non-significant. Significant (P?0.05) difference was observed between uric acid values both in male and female broilers fed diets B and D, however, female broilers fed diet C differed non- significantly (P?0.05) from those fed diet D. On overall basis, there was significant (P?0.05) reduction in uric acid concentration by addition of 7.5 percent algae in the diets. No gross pathological lesions were seen on internal and outer surfaces of gizzard and proventriculus and these were normal in size, however, the internal membrane of gizzard was darker yellow color in birds fed diets containing algae. No lesions were noticed on liver, spleen and intestines and liver and spleen were normal in size. Liver was also of normal color. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1761,T] (1).

180. Effect Of Mannan Oligosaccharides (Mos) From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Alone And In Combination With Antibiotic

by Musawir Rehman | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khaliqe | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Poultry feed industry worldwide has been using antibiotics for more than 50 years. But the use of antibiotics as growth promoters was completely banned in 1999 by the European Union (EU) (European Commission, 2001). This was due to increases in microbial resistance to antibiotics and residues in chicken meat products which might be harmful to consumers. In Pakistan poultry feed industry is using antibiotics. But internationally their alternatives mannan oligosaccharides (MOSs) are being used. MOSs, which are derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have shown promising effects, such as decreasing pathogenic microflora of the gut, stimulating a strong immune response, and elevating the strength of the intestinal mucosa in poultry. Exact mechanisms by which MOSs show positive effects are not known but some suggestions are they provide nutrients, they aid in digestion of foods and inhibit harmful bacteria in the gut (Owings et al.1990). Gastrointestinal normal flora plays an important role in the health and performance of poultry (Thong song et al.2008). It is therefore of vital importance, both from an animal and human health perspective, to obtain natural alternatives like mannan oligosaccharide (MOSs). MOSs have been shown to increase growth in broilers (Yusrizalet al. 2003), turkeys (Kannanet al.2005), and results of many trials indicated that MOSs can be one of the best alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (Hoogeet al.2003), and even trace amounts of MOSs added to a ration were quite effective in increasing the health status and production of poultry (Savage et al. 1997). Stanczuk et al., reported that supplementation of rations with MOSs and inulin (0.1% and 0.4% MOS in diet) did not significantly affect live body weight (BW), feed intake (FI), or feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in turkeys in an 8-week trial (Stanczuket al., 2005). Actigen a product by Alltech, Inc., is having advanced form of mannan oligosaccharide, which was offered in feed to broiler birds in this trial. It acted as alternative to antibiotics without affecting the performance of birds, It protected the birds from pathogens. Keeping in view the situations the present project was planned. In this studymannan oligosaccharide (MOS) was evaluated on broiler (5*6*15=450) as antibacterial and growth promoter alone or in combination with antibiotic (neomycin) in environmentally control shed of Poultry Research and Training Centre, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS-Ravi Campus, Pattoki. Duration of this trial was 35days.The parameters of this experiment were feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, mortality, carcass characteristics, and slaughter parameters, estimation of ALT, AST and cholesterol from blood. Statistically data was analyzed by using ANOVA in completely randomized design (CRD) with help of a special computer based statistical package (SAS9.1, 2002-03).The results showed that there was significant difference in feed intake when birds were fed with 0.1% MOS with antibiotic from other dietary treatments. MOSs and antibiotics alone or in combination depicted significant results upon weight gain. They were significantly different from control. There was significant decrease in FCE in groups where MOSs was used in combination with antibiotic and more in 'A' 'B' and 'D' respectively. There was significant decrease numerically regarding mortality but statistically there difference was non-significant. Effect of dietary treatments on relative organs weight was non-significant. There was also a non-significant effect on dressing %age. Regarding sera ALT level there was significant decrease in treatment groups than control group. Value of AST level was also significantly less in treatment groups than control group. There was not a significant difference in serum values of triglyceride. Cholesterol level decreased in treatment groups 'B' and 'C' significantly than control but increased significantly in groups 'D' and 'E' than control group. The outcome of this study is that MOS have definite effect on bird's performance and could be used in combination or as an alternative to antibiotics. It is cost effective and beneficial for human health and poultry industry of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1765,T] (1).

181. Immuno Pathological Effects Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) In Commercial Broiler Chickens

by Zahid Jawad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: These experiments were conducted to study the effects of Azadirachta indica admixed in poultry feed on weight gain performance, haemtological values,immune modulations, and toxic effects in broiler chickens. A total number of 144 commercial broiler 1-day old chicks were reared in the experimental sheds of the Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore, The birds were fed with balanced commercial feed and water ad libitum. The birds were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C having fourty eight chicks each. Birds of all groups were sub divided into four groups of each i.e. A1, A2, A3 and A4; B1, B2, B3 & B4 and C1, C2, C3 and C4, respectively. Each of the sub groups containd 12 birds. Sub groups A4, B4 and C4 were control group with no medication. The birds of groups A, B and C were fed with poultry feed containing dry powder of neem leaves @ 2 gm, 4 gm and 6gm per kg of feed respectively. The birds of groups A1, B1 and C1 were treated with the herb from day 0 to 42 of their life. The birds of groups A2, B2 and C2 were given the neem from day 14 to 42 of their life, whereas the birds of groups A3, B3 and C3 were treated with the herb from day 28 to 42 of their life. Difference between weekly weight gain in the birds of groups A1, B1 and C1 was non significant (P>0.05) however the difference between weight gain in the treated and control groups was significant (P<0.05). The birds treated with the herb from day 0 of their life showed more weight gain. There was no difference in the haematological indices between all of the treated groups and the control groups. The neem treated birds showed increased antibody titers against ND and IBD viruses as compared to control groups. The values of ALP and ASTshowed decreasing trend when the level of neem leaf meal was increased in the ration. Serum creatinine and serum uric acid values posed a slight declining trend in the neem fed birds. There was a decrease in serum cholesterol level in the neem treated bird groups, the higher the concentreation of the herb, the lower the cholesterol value. The organ body weight indices showed that there was no significant difference in liver, spleen and thymus weights among treated groups as well between treated and control groups. There was absence of prominent gross pathological lesions in liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus, however some treated groups showed mild hypertrophied liver and kidneys as did the organs of the birds in control groups. No histopathological changes except a few mild changes were observed in liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus in the birds of experimental groups. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1774,T] (1).

182. Possible Causes Of Selective Lernaea Attack On Different Fish Species

by Farzana Abbas | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Arshad | Dr. Sumaira Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present study was managed to investigate the possible causes of selective Lernaea attack in different fish species. Planned studies were conducted in five trials. During the first trial lernaea susceptibility and infestation were observed in indigenous major and exotic Chinese carps. Studies were conducted in 4 earthen ponds with two ponds per experimental group. Fishes in the both groups were fed isonitrogenous diet containing 40% crude protein formulated with different feed ingredients. Fishes were identified and examined for the presence of Lernaea species. The parasites were removed and preserved in vials containing 5% formalin. Other growth parameters i.e. average weight gain, average increase in length while physico-chemical analysis including dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, salinity and total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Phosphates ions (PO4-2), nitrates (NO3) and secchi disk visibility were recorded. The fishes were treated with Tender, an organophasphate (DDVP (Dichlorvos) or 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) for the control of lernaea. The results showed that C. catla is the most susceptible fish to L. cyprinacea infestation and its appropriate control for conservation of this precious and declining fish is of extreme importance. Thunder is biologically safe as it is biodegradable and degenerated after 36 h without causing any negative effect on the water quality parameters and other water flora and fauna. Treatment of L. cyprinace with 'Thunder' (0.10-0.25ppm) gives promising results without adverse effect on fish life. Though DDVP worked well in its control but its heavy infestation really weaken fish incapacitating its feeding and competing abilities with its counterparts. In the 2nd trial, comparison of bio-chemical profile was observed on healthy and infected Indian and Chinese major carps. The experiment was managed in four earthen rearing ponds (59m x 30.5m x 1.8m). There were two-groups, one group without any treatment served as control and the second as treatment. At the outset of trial all the fish species were weighed, measured and comprehensively examined for presence of L. cyprinacea and general health condition. Fishes from both groups were dealt uniformly except administration of regular applications of DDVP (0.25ppm in treatment group while no any medication in control group. Water quality parameters DO, pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, salinity and total dissolved solids, chloride ion (Cl-1), phosphate ions (PO4-2) nitrates (NO-3) and light penetration were recorded. Samples of healthy and infected fishes of each species were collected for proximate composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat) and minerals (Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Copper and Magnesium) and phosphorous analysis. The results showed that dry matter, fat and crude protein percentages were significantly decreased in lernaeid fishes. Moisture and ash contents of fishes increased in infected fishes as compared to healthy and treated fish. A slightly lower level of protein (12.65±0.49) and fat (7.30±0.28) in C. catla was observed than rest of the species. The protein was the highest (26.00±4.24) in L. rohita while the fats were the highest (10.55±0.92) in C. mrigala and C. carpio the second highest. Similarly looking at mineral profile there is not much difference, so it is hard to say that level and type of nutrients are solely responsible for L. cyprinacea attack. Mineral composition of infected fish indicated that minerals balance upsets during disease condition. Pathogenicity is a complex of so many factors, which encompass environmental, biological, and physiological so still lot remains to be explored before issuance of any concrete conclusion and recommendation that which factor is more active and critical in inviting and attracting this parasite. In the third experiment, various blood indices were compared among Chinese and Indian major carps from the perspectives of their resistance against lernaeaosis that included probable role of blood and its components in reception of L. cyprinacea in some commercially important locally culturable herbivorous fish varieties while repulsion in others living under similar environment. Healthy samples of each fish species were selected and blood was immediately drawn by puncturing gill lamellae, caudal vein and heart of both male and female of each representative experimental species. Blood parameters including Red Blood Cells (RBC, 10 -6/µL), White Blood Cells (WBC, 10-3/µL) and Platelets (10-3/µL) in blood from experimental fish species were counted by placing sample on haemocytometer grids. Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC), red blood indices, blood chemistry and ESR were determined for males and females of experimental fishes. The results revealed that females of each species have relatively higher values for blood indices as compared to males. C. carpio has maximum number of granulocytes that may support the fish against the parasitic attack. C. catla has the lowest values for the immunoglobulin Ig M as compared to the species which showed less susceptibility. In the 4th trial, healthy fishes of major and Chinese carps were collected from commercial rearing and grow out ponds. Each fish weighed 830 ± 316 g on the average. For mucus collection, fishes were bathed in Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution (8.0 ppm) to remove microbial or fungal infection/infestation. Samples were centrifuged at 12000×g at 4 ?C for 10 minutes and stored at -40?C in biomedical freezer. Bradford Micro Assay technique was applied to determine protein contents. Bradford protein solution (50 ?L) was added to each well and absorbance was recorded at 595nm. Standard curve was drawn from various but consecutive dilutions of BSA solution and protein concentrations in different samples were calculated. Electrophoresis was carried out with slight modifications. 15% separating and 4% staking buffer were used to run the SDS- PAGE under constant voltage of 120. Fermentas PageRuler™ protein ladder was used as the standard marker for non reducing protein. The gel was stained with PageBlue™ (Fermentas) stain for identification of protein bands for molecular weight determination. Lectin activity and Alkaline Phosphatase test were determined. Mucus was incubated with 4 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate in ammonium bicarbonate buffer (100 mM) with 1 mM MgC12 (pH 7.8) at 30°C. The increase in optical density (OD) was measured continuously for 2 to 3 hours at 405 nm using a micro plate reader. The results showed that lectin activity was the highest in C. idellus (109) indicative of low resistance while it was the lowest (21) in H.molitrix which was completely parasite free. Alkaline phosphatase level was the highest in C. catla, C.idella was the second highest and was the lowest in C. carpio. Protein concentrations were the highest in C. idella (3.29 ± 0.13 mg/ml) and C. catla (3.02 ± 0.57 mg/ml) while it was the lowest in C. carpio (1.80 ± 0.09). C. catla contained the highest molecular weight proteins (100 kDa) while C. carpio has one unique protein band of 14.13 kDa not present in any other species in current setup. In the 5th experiment, the lernaea were observed in the month of June to August. Lernaeied infestation was observed in all experimental fishes except in C. carpio. After appearance of infestation fishes were treated with Thunder (DDVP- an organophasphate) to eliminate the parasite. Parasite free C. idellus, H. molitrix, L. rohita, C. mrigala, C. catla and C. carpio were collected with an average weight of 830 ± 316 g each were used for studies on whole-body amino acid composition. Triplicate samples of each species were over dried after evacuating their gut contents. Dried samples were then finely powdered, sieved and vacuum hydrolyzed in 2 ml of 6 N HCl at 1lO°C for 24 hours. Total amino acid composition was determined by o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) method using an Agilent chromatograph, revers-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the essential amino acids (arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine and leucine) play a major role in the immune system. It is revealed that amino acids will widely become cost-effective neutraceuticals for improving health and preventing infectious disease in animals. C. carpio have no infestation due to increased numbers and concentrations of essential amino acids when compared to other species of Indian and Chinese major carps. C. catla, C. idella and H. molitrix have the lowest number and concentration of essential amino acids and hence appeared more susceptible to lernaea attack. Finally it was concluded from the entire study that C. carpio may have high resistance for the L. cyprinaceaea as compared to the other experimental fishes. It possesses higher values for Ig M-immunoglobulin as compared to C. catla that indicated its high immunity against the parasite. Similarly C. carpio has maximum number of granulocytes (WBCs, esinophils, basophils and lymphocytes) that may support the fish against the parasitic attack. SDS-PAGE analysis of mucus revealed that C. carpio has one unique protein band of 14.13 kDa not present in any other species in current setup. This protein band may indicate the presence of lysozyme enzyme that actively participates against the invading pathogen. Essential and non-essential amino acids concentrations were also higher in the C. carpio that play a vital role in immunity especially arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine, leucine, glutamic acid and aspartic acids. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1787,T] (1).

183. Pharmacokinetic Study Of Different Dosage Forms Of Potassium Iodide (Renessans) In Healthy Human Volunteers

by Muhammad Zeeshan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aualeha Riffat | Dr. Mateen.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: This project was designed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of different dosage forms of potassium iodide in healthy human volunteers and also to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of potassium iodide in healthy male and female volunteers. For this study 36 healthy volunteers were selected (Divided into three groups, 6 male and 6 female in each group). Only those volunteers who were between ages 20-35 were selected, not suffering from any disease. Volunteers were clearly informed about the objectives of study and written consent was taken. Healthy volunteers were divided in to three equal groups and were given capsule, solution, powder dosage form of potassium iodide respectively through oral route. 5ml blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10, 12, and 24 hours from vein of either arm with I/v branula. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 3000 RPM for 10 minutes and was stored at -80 0C till analysis. Method for the determination of potassium iodide was validated appropriately and analysis of samples was performed on HPLC. All pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by entering plasma concentration-time data in excel based software PK solutions version 2.0. Pharmacokinetic parameters of potassium iodide in healthy individuals were studied by using statistical tests mean ± SD (standard deviation) and One Way ANOVA. Pharmacokinetic comparison of different dosage forms of potassium iodide in healthy male and female volunteers was studied by unpaired t-test. Results were summarized in tables. Between the dosage forms there is significant difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters of healthy human volunteers but there was no significant difference found in pharmacokinetic parameters between healthy male and female volunteers in each dosage form. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1788,T] (1).

184. Efficacy Of Anti-Microbial Agents Withascorbic Aci In Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection

by Sana Afzal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Malik Allah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are most common type of nosocomial infection. This study was designed to recognize and identify the bacterial pathogen of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in patients, the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens to commonly used antibiotics and the synergistic effect of antibiotics with ascorbic acid to improve the efficacy of antibiotics. The prospective, observational study was conducted in Sir Ganga Raam hospital Lahore. The urine samples from 100 catheterized patients were collected and were analyzed for its causative /pathogenic organism. Out of 100 patients, 58 patients carried E.coli (27%), Citrobacter (22%), Enterobacter (5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (4%) and these patients were included in study. Sensitivity patterns of Ampicillin, Co-amoxiclav, Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin were checked by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Uropathogens appeared to be highly resistant against Ceftriaxone (84%), followed by Co-amoxiclave (83%) and Ampicillin (76%).Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin are effective drugs against uropathogens and their sensitivities to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin were 74% and 71% respectively. Susceptibility testing of bacteria against antibiotics and ascorbic acid alone and in combination was checked and it was observed that bacterial resistance to Ceftriaxone was reversed with ascorbic acid and the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin was improved with ascorbic acid. In Citrobacter, ascorbic acid antagonized the effects of Amikacin. Empirical therapy of patients included in study was evaluated by clinical response and their definitive therapy was assessed by observing the adverse effects associated with that drug. Co-amoxiclav produced 100% side effects. Tinnitus (63%) was observed in patients treated with Amikacin while Ciprofloxacin adverse effects were headache and dizziness. It was concluded in the study that there was high incidence of infection in catheterized patients with resistant bacteria and inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Ascorbic acid may be prescribed prophylactically to catheterized patients and to those who take Ceftriaxone to minimize its resistance in patients. To improve the effectiveness of drugs in CAUTI patients, ascorbic acid may be used with antibiotics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1794,T] (1).

185. Chemical Characterizaton And Toxicological Screening Of Auto-Rickshaw Emissions Particulate

by Khaleeq Anwar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Vehicular air pollution is a mounting health issue of the modern age, particularly in urban populations of the developing nations. Auto rickshaws are not considered eco-friendly as to their inefficient engines producing large amount of particulate matter (PM), which poses a significant environmental threat. Major transformations in the environmental composition are principally attributable to the combustion of fuels by automobiles. Motorized gasoline powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and CNG powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA)are major sources of air pollution in south Asia and produce toxic amount of PM to the environment. In this study, during the first phase, the PM of TSA and FSA was characterized by using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The observations of the existing investigation recognized significant increase in Al (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.01), and Zn (P < 0.01) from the PM samples of FSA. In addition, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, Na, S and Si were also observed exceeding the recommended NIES limits. On the contrary, increased concentration of Sr and V were observed in the PM samples from TSA. It is generally believed that FSA generates smaller amount of PM but the data obtained from this study clearly shows that emissions from FSA are comprised of potentially more toxic substances than TSA. The current research is specific to the metropolitan population and has evidently revealed an inconsistent burden of exposure to air pollutants engendered by FSA in urban communities, which could lead to disruption of several biological activities and may cause severe damage to entire ecological system. The second phase of this study was conducted to ascertain toxic effects on angiogenesis, embryo development, embryonic movement and phytotoxicity of the PM from TSA and CNG powered FSA. Based on high amounts of aluminum quantified during PIXE analysis of PM from TSA and FSA, different concentrations of aluminum sulfate were also tested to determine its eco-toxicological potential. The PM solution from FSA, TSA and Aluminum sulfate exhibited anti-angiogenic potential with reduction in total area of CAM. Morphological evaluation of embryos exhibited varying degrees of hemorrhages in different groups. In case of phytotoxicity screening using Zea mays, the results demonstrated that all three tested materials were equally phytotoxic at higher concentrations in seed germination(p<0.001). Aluminum sulfate proved to be a highly phytotoxic agent even at the lowest concentration examined. During the last phase, of the study, the MTT assay demonstrated a significant (p<0.001) dose dependent cytotoxic effect for TSA, FSA and aluminum sulfate on the BHK-21 cell line, establishing that the PM from FSA is a highly cytotoxic material. Mutagenicity was assessed by fluctuation Salmonella reverse mutation assay adopting TA100 and TA98 mutant strains with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Despite the fact that different concentrations of PM from both sources i.e. TSA and FSA were highly mutagenic (p<0.001) even at lower concentrations, the mutagenic index was higher in TSA. The chronic toxicity study revealed that chronic exposure to PM emitted from FSA and TSA resulted in peribrochiolitis, emphesema and infilteration of leukocytes in lung tissues. On the other hand liver, cardiac and kidney tissues exhibited degeneration and necrosis. The data shows that all tested materials are equally ecotoxicand if the existing trend of atmospheric pollution by auto-rickshaws is continued, air-borne metals/heavy metals will seriously affect the normal growth of local inhabitants and increased contamination of agricultural products, which will amplify the dietary intake of toxic element and could result in genetic mutation or long-term health implications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1795,T] (1).

186. Genotoxic and Mutagenic Potential of Anti-Diabetic Drugs (Sitagliptin and Metformin) Alone And In Combination With Artificial Sweeteners.

by Komal Najam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Imran Altaf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Metformin most commonly prescribed oral anti hyperglycemic drug for type 2 diabetes whereas Sitagliptin recently approved oral antidabetic drug for type 2 diabetes were evaluated for their mutagenic and genotoxic potential alone and in combination with three artificial sweeteners (Saccharin, Aspartame and Acesulfame-K) normally consumed by diabetic individuals. In this research project Ames Salmonella/microsome assay was performed to check the mutagenicity of Metformin and Sitagliptin alone and in combination with artificial sweeteners using mutant Salmonella tester strains TA100 and TA98 with and without the S9 whereas Genotoxicity was evaluated by Single Cell Gel Alkaline Electrophoresis/Comet. The results indicated that Metformin alone showed mutagenic effect at 120µg/plate against TA100 with S9mix. However Metformin when tested in combination with artificial sweeteners, significant enhance in mutagenicity occurred only against TA100 with and without S9. Sitagliptin displayed mutagenic potential only to TA98 with S9mix at the concentration of 3040µg/plate. In addition significant enhance in mutagenicity occurred when tested in combination with artificial sweeteners against both strains with and without S9. In case of genotoxicity both Metformin and Sitagliptin results indicated significant increase in DNA damage in dose dependant manner as compared to negative control. Though Metformin and Sitagliptin in combination with artificial sweetener did not reveal any significant boost in the genotoxicity relative to when they were tested alone. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1799,T] (1).

187. Effect Of Aqueous Extract Of Leaves Of Acacia Nilotica On Angiogenesis.

by Muhammad Yasin | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1803,T] (1).

188. Comparative Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Calotropis Procera Leaves And Moxidectin With Particular Reference To Biochemical Changes in Sheep

by Qamar Niaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aneela | Mr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Background: This project was designed to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Chloroformic extract of Calotropis procera leaves against sheep nematodes. For this purpose hundred sheep positive for nematodal infection in BLPRI Kherimurat were selected after fecal examination. Methodology: The hundred animals were divided into 5 groups (Group A, Group B, Group C, Group D and Group E) having 20 animals in each group. Fecal eggs counts (EPG) and biochemical tests like the Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspapartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Albumin, Bilirubin, Creatinine and Urea were done on the day zero of the treatment. For further study, Group A served as an un-treated control. Group B, Group C and Group D were given the Chloroformic extract of Calotropis procera leaves at the dose rate of 3, 6 and 12mg/kg body weight by oral route respectively. Group E was given the Moxidectin at the dose rate of 0.2mg/kg body weight by subcut route. The biochemical tests on the day 3 showed no change in the normal level of the ALT, AST, ALP, Albumin, Bilirubin, Creatinine and Urea. The fecal EPG of all the groups were done on the day 7th and day 14th post treatment. The efficacy of the Group A and Group B was 0% both on day 7th and day 14th post treatment. The efficacy for the Group C was 19.40% and 42.53 % on the day 7th and day 14th post treatment respectively. The Group D showed the efficacy of 80.215% on day 7th and 91.36% on the day 14th of the treatment. The efficacy for the Group E was 85.97% and 93.29% on the day 7th and 14th respectively. Statistics: The data from the fecal eggs count and biochemical tests were analyzed by using the ANOVA and LSD. Conclusion: The Chloroformic extract of the Calotropis procera leaves have maximum anthelmintic effect at the dose rate of 12mg/kg body weight having no biochemical changes in the blood. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1804,T] (1).

189. Comparative Productive And Reproductive Performance Of Beetal Goats In Accelerated And Annual Kidding Systems

by Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Three kiddings in two years or five kiddings in three years refers as accelerated kidding which is helpful to have more kids, helps to fetch higher market prices during off-season. This can also increase life time production in the form of meat, milk and fiber. High reproduction rate is the basiccondition to increase efficiency of production. Most of the goats do not follow seasonal breeding pattern and breed round the year resulting in management problems and high mortality during severe weather conditions. Accelerated kidding strategy is a viable option that affects the health and fertility of the flock. In the present investigation, three experiments were conducted at Small Ruminant Training and Research Centre (SRT&RC) Ravi Campus Pattoki, UVAS, Lahore. The experiment-I was about the initiation of estrus activity in anestrus Beetal goats during low breeding season. Twenty Beetal goats were selected from the existing flock, maintained at SRT&RC. These goats were divided randomly into 4 groups i.e. A, B, C and D having 5 animals in each group. Group A was treated as negative control by offering only green fodder, group B was provided flushing ration along with green fodder (control), group C was kept on green fodder along with hormone therapy of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and prostagladin (PGF2?) while group D was provided with green fodder, flushing ration (600 gms/animal) and hormone therapy by providing GnRH and PGF2?. Hundred percent estrus induction was achieved in group B, C and D as compared to group A. The results revealed that fertility rate and kidding rate was high i.e. 80 and 60 percent among animals of B group while animals of control group had less fertility, kidding and gestation rate. The shortest gestation length was found in group B and C while triplet births were observed in goats of group D. The experiment-II was regarding the initiation of estrus through buck effect in Beetal goats. This experiment was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 comprised two groups A and B for which estrus induction was done during pre-breeding (August) and normal breeding (September/October) season. Similarly, Phase 2 comprised two groups C and D in which estrus induction was done during post-breeding (December) and normal breeding (September/October) season. Different reproductive parameters like estrus, fertility percentage, were noted. The data regarding average birth weight (kg) and gestation length (days) were recorded. Estrus signs were maximum in group B while low in group C. However fertility rate was high in group A, instead of group B. Overall kidding percentage was higher in A group but the lowest in group D. The highest gestation length was observed in group D whereas the lowest value was found in group B. Average litter size was higher in group D as compared to A and B group, respectively. The experiment-III was conducted to compare productive and reproductive performance of Beetal goats in accelerated and annual kidding systems. Total of 50 adult Beetal goats were divided into two groups viz. accelerated kidding and annual kidding having 25 animals each. The does were selected on the basis of their age, body size, weight and parity. Different breeding bucks were used for each group having similar size, weight and age. All the animals included in this study were fed according to national research council (NRC) nutrient requirements for goats (NRC, 1981). Flushing rations and estrus inducing hormones both were provided to the does of respective groups for preparation of breeding activity during out of season breeding. The annual kidding group was considered as the control group, while the does were bred every eight months for accelerated kidding. The offsprings produced by the pregnant does of 1st batch of both the groups were reared under similar managemental conditions up to maturity. Three crops were produced in accelerated kidding system as compared to two crops in annual kidding system. It was observed that more number of animals i.e. 17 out of 25 showed estrus signs as compared to annual kidding system where 15 animals showed estrus signs. There were non significant differences for number of services per conceptionin two crops under annual kidding groups. Higher percentage of estrus was observed in accelerated to annual kidding. Total number of kids produced in accelerated kidding system was 42 with an average 14 kids in three crops while 23 kids were produced in annual kidding system in two years. Average cost of concentrate was observed high in accelerated kidding system as compared to annual kidding system. Birth weight of kids produced in 3 different seasons i.e. March-April, October- November and June-July were found as 2.84, 2.91 and 2.98 kg. The overall results in term of reproductive efficiency, oestrus behavior and kidding percentage were better in accelerated group than annual kidding. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1812,T] (1).

190. Effect Of Dietary Supplementation Of Different Lutein Sources On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Its Bio-Availability in Eggs of Commercial Layers Categorized in Three Body Weighta

by Ahmad Ali Sajjad | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1813,T] (1).

191. Effect Of Different Feed Ingredients On Growth, Hematology And Vital Organs In Juvenile Labeo Rohita

by Khalid Javed Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Arshad | Dr. Aumaira Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: This 9-month study extending from March 1, to November, 30, 2012 was conducted to find out the effect of different feed ingredients on growth, haematology and vital organs in juvenile Labeo rohita. The experiment was performed to find out the cost-effective substitutes of fishmeal and their effect on growth, digestive enzymes activity, blood profile, histology of intestine and flesh quality was monitored. To obtain the said objectives the experimental fish, Labeo rohita was subjected through three different research trials. i. A 3-month research trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant/animal origin feed ingredients on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival of fingerling Labeo rohita. Fish was fed on fish meal, guar meal, corn gluten meal (30%), soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice polish, cotton seed meal, canola meal and rape seed meal individually. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P?0.05) in growth, average weight gain, average length increase and specific growth rate among various ingredients. The highest average weight gain 27.162±6.950g and average length increase 6.153±0.833cm was observed in fish fed on guar meal while same was lowest 5.327±1.067g and 1.858±0.137cm, respectively in fish fed on corn gluten. However, fish showed better FCR values (2.01±0.08) when fed on guar meal while the FCR was very poor (9.57±48) for corn gluten (30%) fed group. The survival rate was highest (100%) for soybean meal fed group and lowest (70%) in canola and rapeseed meal fed group. ii. During second 3-month feeding trial, the effectiveness of individual feed ingredient from either plant or animal origin on growth, body composition, enzymes activity, haematology, histology and flesh quality of Labeo rohita was observed. The experiment was conducted in ten fiber glass tanks having size 12 ft x 4ft x 3 ft (length x width x depth). Single ingredient was considered as an independent treatment, hence guar meal, soybean meal, cotton seed meal and canola meal were considered as an independent treatment and fishmeal which was considered as a superior ingredient due to its ideal nutrient balance served as control. Ten juvenile Labeo rohita having an average weight of 200±2.33 g were harvested indiscriminately from the bulk and stocked in each fiberglass tank. Two tanks were randomly allotted to each treatment and control. Each group received uniform ration @ 4% of total fish biomass twice a day. Results revealed significant differences (P?0.05) in growth, FCR and specific growth rates among treatments. Weight gain was the highest in guar meal fed fish while the lowest on fish meal. Body composition of fish showed slight variations in fat contents with no differences in other nutrients though chemical composition of individual ingredient varies a lot. Minerals specifically Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu significantly differed (P?0.05) among treatments which might be linked with their variable release in digestive system of fish in the presence of various anti-nutritional factors. For different feed ingredients protease activity varied significantly (P<0.05) between anterior and posterior part of the intestine and also that of whole intestine when compared among various treatment groups. While amylase activity differed significantly when enzyme activity compared from the homogenate of whole intestine but not when compared partly. WBC, RBC, Hct, HB, PROT, ALB and GLOB showed significant (P<0.05) differences for blood samples of the fish fed with different feed ingredients while values of MCV, MCH, MCHC and ESR remained uniform. The feed ingredients differently affected the liver and intestinal cells. No difference was observed when fried fish fed on different ingredients were compared among each other indicating that ingredients with nominal variations in chemical composition do not leave much after effects on fish flesh. iii. Third 3-month trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant-animal feed and/or plant by-product based feed on growth, body composition, enzymes activity, haematology, histology and flesh quality of Labeo rohita. Fish fed on rice polish alone served as control (T0). Previously selected potential fish feed ingredients were grouped together with two ingredients in each isocaloric test diet which served as an independent trial during these studies. Group 1(T1) contained guar meal and canola meal, group 2(T2) soybean meal and cotton seed meal, group 3(T3) guar meal and cotton seed meal, group 4(T4) soybean meal and canola meal and group 5(T5) fishmeal and canola meal. Each group including control had two replicates. 12 earthen ponds with uniform area of 0.03 ha each, were randomly stocked with 100 fish (average weight 200±4.43g) in each following standard stocking protocols. All the 12 ponds were then randomly allotted to individual treatment including control group. Experimental fish were fed @ 4% of their wet biomass twice a day except Sundays which was kept open providing fish an opportunity to clean left over feed from the previous day. Better growth rate, food conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) in T3 than rest of the treatments including control suggest that guar meal and cotton seed meal is much better option to include in future feed formulations for maximum performance and minimum feed wastage. This preposition will minimize feed providing cleaner and healthy environment to fish ultimately enhancing stocking rate and fish production. Proximate analysis of dried and ground fish samples showed higher protein values in T4, fat in T2, moisture contents in control, dry matter in T1 and ash in T5. Mineral composition of Labeo rohita showed statistically significant (P ? 0.05) differences in Na, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content. Amylase concentration showed non-significant differences in anterior, posterior parts and the whole intestine in all the treatment and control ponds except T5 while protease concentrations were statistically significant (?0.05) in anterior and posterior part within the same group as well as among various groups. Enzymatic activity in whole intestine also varied significantly when compared among groups. Haematological parameters viz. WBC, RBC, ALB, GLOB and PROT differed significantly (?0.05) among all the treatments. Disrupted hepatic cords and hepatocytes showing pyknotic nucleus were observed in T1, moderate infiltration of fat vacuoles in T2 and, T4 caused vacuolar and hepatic cord degeneration while fish from T0 were subjected to severe vacuolation in hepatocytes. Non-significant differences in flavor, juiciness, and oiliness of fried fish from all the treatments and control ponds indicated that the sensory attributes of fish flesh were not affected by feeding fish with blend of various ingredients. It is concluded that the response of body organs varies with varying feed stuffs and the feed items have pronounced effect on enzymatic activities, hematological and histological parameters in juvenile Labeo rohita. During present study fish showed comparatively better growth when fed with guar meal as a single feed ingredient or combined with cotton seed meal than the rest of feed ingredients either offered individually or in combinations. The study provides base line information and will help aquaculture nutritionists to formulate cost-effective feeds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1819,T] (1).

192. Reversal Of Antibiotics Resistance In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus By Non-Antimicrobial Agents

by Sohaib Danyaal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Antibiotic resistance is increasing along with the increasing use of antibiotic for the treatment of infectious diseases. The in-vitro study was designed to observe the reversal of antibiotics resistance in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by non-antimicrobial agents. One hundred pus samples were processed for isolation and identification of MRSA. Out of 100, 37 (37%) islotes were Gram +ve cocci, from these 37 isolates 34 (92%) turn red colour of mannitol salt media to yellow and 23 (62%) gave +ve catalase and coagulase. In this study Antibiotic Sensitivity Test was performed on pure culture of MRSA strain by applying disc diffusion method. Out of 23 pure MRSA isolate, 100% isolates were methacillin resistant, 79% isolates were co-amoxiclav resistant, 30% isolates were meropenum resistant, 8% isolates were vancomycin resistant, 26% isoltes were moxifloxacin resistant and 39% isolates were linezolid resistant. Reversal of antibiotics resistance was observed by MIC or serial dilution method, using non antibiotic agents like Amiloride, Lansoprazole and Promethazine, Concentrations of non-antibiotic agents 1024ìg, 512ìg, 256ìg, 128ug, 64ìg and 32ìg were used in combination of antibiotics to reverse the antibiotics resistance in MRSA. These non antibiotic agents may cause the alteration in mechanisms by which microorganism develop resistance. The collected data analyzed by applying analysis of variance (ANOVA) through SPSS 16.0 computer software. Now we would be able to treat some lethal infection caused by MRSA, and help to increase patient compliance and decrease the cost of therapy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1828,T] (1).

193. Effect Of Eugenia Jambolana (Jamun) Seeds And Leaves Etract On Angiogenesis

by Muhammad Javed Iqbal | Dr. Aqeel Javedd | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present study was designed to explore the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves and seeds of Eugenia jambolana on angiogenesis by means of the chicken chorioallentoic membrane assay. The Eugenia jambolana was collected from the locality of Lahore. Sequential dilutions were made with distilled water. Eggs were taken from local hatchery and divided into 4 groups. Each group was comprised of five eggs. The eggs were incubated at 37 C0. At day 4, 3-4 ml albumin was removed with the help of syringe. At day 5, sample solutions of various concentrations were applied to chorioallentoic membrane (CAM). After 24 hours, the change in CAM was observed by taking the images. SPIP was utilized for computerized measurements of the diameter of blood vessels and CAM. Overall area of the CAM was also drastically minimized among all groups treated with sample solutions. The data was analyzed for statistical analysis by using SPSS software (version 13 for windows). ANOVA was performed to determine significance among different groups. The value of P<0.05 was considered as significant. Different extracts of Eugenia Jambolana exhibited anti-angiogenic potential in the following order. WS > WL = ES > EL. In case of WS 4% solution area of CAM is 285.66 mm2, WL 4% 586.77 mm2, ES 4% 567.47 mm2 and EL 4% 634.23 mm2 while in case of negative control area of CAM 2473 mm2 . The extracts exhibited anti-angiogenic potential in variable magnitude. Dilutions of water extract of seeds exhibited most anti-angiogenic potential (p<0.01) in comparison to other treated groups. Collectively, these observations show that extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds and leaves contains polar compounds that ceased growth, primary vessel formation and cell propagation in CAMs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1830,T] (1).

194. Studies On The Reproductive Biology And Induced Spawning Of Murrel, Channa Marulius

by Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Sumaira Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1832,T] (1).

195. Evaluation Of Antiviral Activity Of Allium Sativum, Allium Cepa, Zingiber Officinale Against Avian Influenza H9

by Sadia Nazir | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Plant products play an important role because of their medicinal activity. A wide variety of active phytochemicals peptides have been found to possess therapeutic applications against various functionally and genetically diverse viruses. Influenza A viruses (IAV) causes acute respiratory diseases in humans, birds, and other mammals, representing one of the major threats to public health. In this study, the antiviral activity of Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe against Avian Influenza H9 virus was evaluated in ovo. The aqeous extracts of Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe were prepared by using macerate technique. From the macerate, nine different dilutions i.e. 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml, 2000 ƒÊg/ml, 1000 ƒÊg/ml, 500 ƒÊg/ml, 250 ƒÊg/ml, 125 ƒÊg/ml, 62.5 ƒÊg/ml and 31.25 ƒÊg/ml of the extracts were prepared in normal saline. For each plant extract; Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe 100 embryonated chicken eggs were assigned to 20 groups, each group containing 5 embryonated chicken eggs (nine for antiviral activity, nine for cytotoxic activity, and two groups were kept positive and negative control respectively) and marked them with lead pencil. The different concentrations of the plant extracts were mixed with virus and 0.2 ml inoculum was inoculated to 9th to 10th day embryonated chicken eggs along with positive and negative controls containing only virus and normal saline respectively. The embryonated chicken eggs were incubated at 37oC and were checked after 12-72 hrs. After 72 hr post inoculation, all the eggs were chilled in refrigerator at 4oC for 12 hrs and the allantoic fluid was harvested. The antiviral activity was calculated as embryo survival percentage, positive or negative spot Hemagglutination activity and determination of virus titre by Hemagglutination Test. The cytotoxicity of Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracts was evaluated by only inoculating the extracts of respective concentrations as used for antiviral activity in embryonated chicken eggs and incubating for 72 hrs. The results were analyzed by ANOVA by means of SPSS. All the concentrations of Allium sativum L. were non toxic while three concentrations showing antiviral activity were 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml and 2000 ƒÊg/ml. While in case of Allium cepa L. all the concentration i.e. 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml, 2000 ƒÊg/ml, 1000 ƒÊg/ml, 500 ƒÊg/ml, 250 ƒÊg/ml, 125 ƒÊg/ml, 62.5 ƒÊg/ml and 31.25 ƒÊg/ml were non cytotoxic and five concentrations i.e. 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml, 2000 ƒÊg/ml, 1000 ƒÊg/ml and 500 ƒÊg/ml show potent antiviral activity. In case of Zingiber officinale Roscoe two concentrations 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml were virucidal and all concentration 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml, 2000 ƒÊg/ml, 1000 ƒÊg/ml, 500 ƒÊg/ml, 250 ƒÊg/ml, 125 ƒÊg/ml, 62.5 ƒÊg/ml and 31.25 ƒÊg/ml were non cytotoxic. So the present study suggested the presence of antiviral activity of plant extracts of Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, so they can be used for prevention and treatment of various viral diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1836,T] (1).

196. Role Of Non-Antimicrobial Agents In Reversal Of Antibiotic Resistance In Escherichia Coli

by Kalim Ullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Prof. Dr. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1839,T] (1).

197. Evaluation Of Ynergistic Efficacy Of Quinolones, Amino Glycosides, Cephalosporin And Co-Trimoxazole

by Tyyaiba Azam | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Background Opportunistic pathogens represent the type of pathogens which infects only those individuals with impaired immune system and lead to diseases that can be severe, debilitating and difficult to treat in immunocompromized host. These opportunistic pathogens include different bacteria, viruses and fungi. This study was designed to identify the opportunistic bacterial pathogens pseudomonas and Citrobecter in immunocompromized chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. This study was performed to analyze sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens to commonly used antibiotics quinolones, aminoglycosides, cephalosporin and co-trimoxazole and to evaluate the synergistic efficacy of different combination s of antibiotics. The study was conducted on different CLD patients admitted in different medical wards of Sir .ganga Ram Hospital Lahore. Aim By using blood and urine culturing technique and different biochemical tests opportunistic pathogens Pseudomonas and Citrobecter in CLD immunocompromized patients belonging to different age group were determined. Combination therapy of quinolones, aminoglycosides, cephalosporin and sulpha drugs were effective against the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas and Citrobecter. Material and Methods Clinical sign and symptoms of all the CLD patients who were admitted in the hospital were noted at the time of admission The patients who start showing sign and symptoms (Fever, burning micturation, pain) of suspected infection on 2nd and 3rd day of their admission were included in this study. Blood and urine samples were collected from infected CLD patients with CHAPTER – 6 SUMMARY suspected sign and symptoms by using all necessary aseptic precautions with the assistance of trained professionals. The pathogens were isolated, identified and purified by selective culturing methods, which were subjected to active growth, during which sensitivity to different antibiotics was checked. Antibiotic sensitivity test was conducted on pure culture isolates employing the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method for the commonly used antibiotics. The diameters of growth inhibition around the discs was measured and interpreted by using Clinical Laboratory Standards Interpretations (CLSI). Statistical Analysis The collected data was analyzed by ANOVA and Chi-square test on SPSS software (16) . Results Pseudomonas and Citrobecter pathogens are now proved to be a multi resistant pathogens and use of combinations of antibiotics against these pathogens found to be more effective. This study was performed to evaluate the synergistic effect of different antibiotics combinations against Pseudomonas and Citrobecter pathogens, so that the chances of recurrent infections among the immunocompromized hospitalized patients were minimized. It will help to improve the quality of life of immunocompromized patients through providing information about effective antibiotic treatment. The effects of different combinations of antibiotics were also analyzed in CLD patients through evaluating the improvement in infectious disease. It was found during study that combination of ceftriaxone and amikacin prove to be more effective in clinical settings but in vitro studies shows the combination of cephradine with gentamycin was 97% susceptible. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1841,T] (1).

198. Evaluation Of Antimicrobial Therapy In Neonatal Sepsis

by Shazia Khanum | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Mr. Allah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Background: Sepsis is the presence of bacteria in blood. Neonatal sepsis indicates bacterial blood stream infection (BSI), such as gastroenteritis meningitis, pyelonephritis, pneumonia which results in fever in neonates (Weber et al. 2003). This study was designed to check the bacteriology and sensitivity pattern of microbes causing sepsis in neonates. In this study microbial susceptibility testing against antibiotics and pattern of resistance of microbes in septic patients was determined. It was conducted on neonates suspected from sepsis in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Hypothesis: By using blood cultures and different biochemical tests bacterial etiological agents of neonatal sepsis were determined and their sensitivity pattern and empirical therapies were evaluated. Material & Methods: Blood samples were collected from septic neonates admitted in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital keeping all necessary aseptic precautions with the assistance of trained professionals. The pathogens were isolated, identified and purified by selective culturing methods, which were subjected to active growth, during which sensitivity to different antibiotics were checked. The sensitivity was measured by area marked by the zone of inhibition, and National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Standard limit was a key indicator towards resistant bacteria. Statistical Analysis: The collected data was analyzed by appropriate statistical procedure. Outcome: It was designed to isolate and identify the pathogens responsible for neonatal sepsis and to see the effects of different antibiotics regimens for treatment of neonatal sepsis by evaluating the improvement in clinical condition, rate of complications of disease and incidence of death due to this fatal disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1843,T] (1).

199. Epidemiological Intelligence On Distribution & Dynamics Of Main Transboundary Diseases Of Ruminants In The Central Districts Of Punjab

by Muhammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1844,T] (1).

200. Isolation And Molecular Characteracterization Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Raw Milk

by Ibrar hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad ayaz | Dr. Imran javed | Prof. Dr. Aftab ahmad anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1853,T] (1).



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