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201. Comparative Mutagenic And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Tamsulosin And Ciprofloxacin

by Faiza qamar | Dr. Muhammad Adil rasheed | Prof. Dr, Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1875,T] (1).

202. Infection Rate And Chemotherapy Of Coccidiosis In Equines

by Munifa Zehra | Prof Dr Muhammad Sawar Khan | Dr Muhammad Ijaz | Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1876,T] (1).

203. Toxicological Evaluation Of Cetrimimide Chlorhexidin And Thiomersal Alone And In Combination

by Toseef Fatima Noshahi | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Imran Altaf | Dr.Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1880,T] (1).

204. Evaluation Of Cellular And Humoral Immune Responses Of Betamethasone In Mice

by Saima Batool | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Prof. Dr Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1881,T] (1).

205. Effect Of Different Rearing Systems And Mannan Oligosaccharide (Mos) Supplemented-Diet On Carcass Cut-Up

by Faisal hussnain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Dr. Imran zahoor | Dr. Muhammad hayat.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1883,T] (1).

206. Comparative Efficacy Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Levamisole And Combination Of Levamisole Oxyclozanide

by Muhammad Ali Raza | Dr.Syed saleem ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad sarwar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1889,T] (1).

207. Comparative Efficacy Of Staples Tissue Adhesive (Glue) And Conventional Suture For The Apposition Of Linear Skin Incision

by Faramarz roshani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif khan | Dr | Dr. Ayesha safdar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1894,T] (1).

208. Clinico-Biochemical Study On Xylazine Ketamine And Isoflurane Anesthesia In Rabbits Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

by Muhammad Kashif maan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla gul bokhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1902,T] (1).

209. Effect Of Selection For Higher Four Week Body Weight In Four Closebred Stocks And Three Age Groups Of Japanese Quail

by Sohail ahmad | Mr. Jibran hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1908,T] (1).

210. Effect Of Cage-Exchange-Floor On Growth Performance And Blood Biochemical Profile In Sexed Broilers Supplemented Different Levels of Mannan Oligosaccharide (MOS)

by Muhammad Talha Altaf | Dr.Shahid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1909,T] (1).

211. Haemato-Biochemical Profile And Immune Response In 3 Batches Of 4 Closebred Quail Parent Flocks Selected for Higher 4-Week Body Weight in 4th Generation

by Abd ur rehman | Prof. Dr. Athar mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1913,T] (1).

212. Therapeutic Trials Against Salmonella Enterica Prevailing In Diarrheic Lambs And Kids

by Muhammad Kashif iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1918,T] (1).

213. Documenting Goat Production System In Two Agro-Ecological Regions Of Punjab

by Maqsood shah muhammad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Khalid javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1920,T] (1).

214. Comparative Studies On Growth Survival Organoleptic Qualities Of Meat And Selective Disease Resistance Capaabilities

by Sahar Suleman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sharif mughal | DR.Arshad Javid | Prof,Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1928,T] (1).

215. Hatching Performance Of Different Broiler Breeder Strains At Four Production Phases With Three Different Egg Weights

by Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Dr.Abdul waheed sahota | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1940,T] (1).

216. Comparative Mutagenic And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Ibuprofen And Chloroquine

by Hunainah Khaliq | Dr. Adil rasheed | Prof Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1944,T] (1).

217. Evaluation Of Immunomodulatory Activity Of Lornoxicam In Mice

by Zubaria malik | Dr.Aqeel javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1945,T] (1).

218. Comparison Of Medetomidine And Xylazine As Preanesthetic With Ketamine And Propofol For Performing Neuering In Male Dogs

by Muhammad Bilal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad arif khan | Dr.Sadaf aslam | Prof . Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1951,T] (1).

219. Identification Of Snp Markers For Egg Productionand Egg Quality Traits In Aseel And Naked Neck Chickens

by Muhammad usman | Dr..Atia Basheer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1962,T] (1).

220. Comparative Impact Of Dairy Farming On Health Status Of Farm Workers And Non Farmers Of Lahore

by Farwa Amjad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar khan | Dr. Saima | Ms. Shakera Sadiq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1971,T] (1).

221. Response To Selection For Three Week Body Weight In Japanese Quail For Three Generations

by Jibran hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Dr. Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr. Khalid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1980,T] (1).

222. Evaluation Of Analgesic Anti-Inflammatory And Anti-Pyretic Activity Of Aqueous Methanolic Extract Of Jatropha Gossypifolia in Rats

by Mohsin Ahmad Ghauri | DR. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1988,T] (1).

223. Genotoxic Mutagenic And Cytotoxic Potential Of Metformin And Celecoxib Alone And In Combination

by Asad ullah | Prof/ Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Prof. Dr. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1989,T] (1).

224. Studies On The Effect Of Aflatoxin B1 On Growth And Histology Of Various Development Stages Of Catla Catla

by Syedah Andleeb | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Sumaira abbas | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1990,T] (1).

225. Seroprevalence Of Brucella Canis In Dogs In Disteict Lahore0

by Muhammad Adnan aslam | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1994,T] (1).

226. Protective Effect Of Vitamin A And E On The Toxicity Induced By The Hydroquinone

by Saima | Dr. MUhammad Adil rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1995,T] (1).

227. Evaluation Of Immunomodulatory Activity Of Tenoxicam In Mice

by Fatima nasim | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Dr. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2025,T] (1).

228. Evaluation Of Antibacterial Activity Of Macrolides In Combination With Levamisole Hc1 Against Different Pathogenic Bacteria

by Sheeza javaid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil rasheed | Proff. Dr. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2026,T] (1).

229. Evaluation And Monitoring Of Therapeutic Outcomes In Chronic Hepatitis C Patients With Interferon And Ribavirin

by Ghazala rafique | Malik allah bukhsh | Dr. Sonia khilji | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2043,T] (1).

230. Bioequivalence Study Of Simvastatin In Healthy Human Volunteers

by Rana muhammad wasim shahzad | Dr. Muhammad adil rasheed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2044,T] (1).

231. Evaluation Of Antiviral And Cytotoxic Activity Of Parthenium Hysterophorusagainst Peste Des Petits

by Aina asghar | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2051,T] (1).

232. Effect Of Calcium Hypochlorite And Chloramine On Blood Biochemistry And Sodium Pentobarbital Induced Sleeping

by Sidra ishaq | Dr. Muhammad Adil rasheed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2062,T] (1).

233. Effect Of Gemifloxacin On Cellular And Humoral Immune Response In Mice

by Muhammad Umair | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2088,T] (1).

234. Toxicity And Immunomodulatory Activity Of Ketoprofen In Vitro And In Vivo

by Dawood Ahmad Hamdani | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2090,T] (1).

235. Evaluation Of Antihistaminic And Anticholinergic Activity Of Aqueous And Alcoholic Extracts Of Equisetum Debile

by Shahrukh Ali | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2097,T] (1).

236. Evaluation Of Antihistaminic And Anticholinergic Activity Of Aqueous And Alcoholic Extracts Of Piper Betel And Murraya Koenigii Plants

by Hassan Mahmood Qureshi | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2098,T] (1).

237. Cytotoxicity & Antiviral Profile Of Equisetum Debile (Bansi Booti) Against Food And Mouth Disease Virus In -Vitro Cell Culture

by Naeem Rasool | Dr. Muhammad Ovais omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2105,T] (1).

238. Antibacterial And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Aqueous Ethanolic And Chlorooform Extracts Of Parthenium Hysterophorus

by Sidrah Shoaib | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2109,T] (1).

239. Effects Of Chemoimmunotherapy On Recovery Of Brucellosis In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Hasisem -ur- Rehman | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2115,T] (1).

240. Synergistic Effect Of Antimicrobial Agents In Combination With Colistin Against Bacterial Isolates From Patients

by Sahar Safdar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Prof. Dr. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2123,T] (1).

241. Evaluation Of Immunomodulatory Activity Of Aceclofenac In Mice

by Hammad Asif | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2125,T] (1).

242. A New Inclination Of Derived Tetrahydro-Carbazole Towards Anti-Inflammatory Analgesic And Antipyretic Activity

by Kinza Kanwal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Mr. Malik Allah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2136,T] (1).

243. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Fusobactemium Necrophorum In Dairy Cattle

by Haq Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2146,T] (1).

244. Effect Of B- Mannanase On Broilers Performance At Different Dietary Energy Levels

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Talat Nasir Pasha | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2147,T] (1).

245. Evaluation Of Mutagenicity And Genotoxicity Of Furosemide And Propranolol Alone And In Combination Using Ames Test And Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) Assay

by Sadaf Naz | Dr. Muhammad Adil rasheed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2158,T] (1).

246. Effect Of Feeding Milk Replacer And Diet With Varying Levels Of Concention On Growth Puberty And First Lactation

by Zeeshan Iqbal | Prof Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2160,T] (1).

247. Efficacy Of Cephalosporins Alone And In Combination With Zinc Sulphate In Tients With Post Surgical Infection

by Maria Naeem | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2166,T] (1).

248. Evaluation Of Genetic Diversity Within And Between Quail Breeds In Pakistan

by Armughan Ahmad | Dr. Imran Zahoor | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2173,T] (1).

249. A Clinico - Hematological Study On Hepatic Regeneration After Variable Degrees Of Resections In Rabbits

by Muhammad Babar Saleem (2005-VA-72) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Ms. Ayesha Safdar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Liver is the largest visceral organ in the body and has a paramount importance. Its multi-functional abilities make it absolutely necessary for survival. It performs numerous functions in a living organism and plays its role in various physiological and biochemical regulatory processes in the body. It is also the only organ that has the capability to undergo the phenomenon of regeneration in case of cellular injury induced by chemicals or surgery. According to Craige (1948) Liver is the largest gland of the body. It is an extension of the gastro-intestinal track and connects with GIT to the common bile duct.It has two surfaces. The anterior or dorsal surface is convex while the posterior surface is concave and lies over the stomach. Liver is thickened in its dorsal portion and tappers to a thin ventral margin. The liver is incompletely divided into a right and a left liver lobe, each of which have anterior and posterior lobules. The right posterior lobule lies closely to the dorsal body wall and it accommodates right kidney in a depression called renal fossa. The gall bladder is a thin walled pouch located in a deep depression on the ventral surface of right anterior lobule. The quadrate lobe extends from the right lobe and is usually notched on its medial margin. The caudate lobe is small and well separated. The portal fissure is a large depression filled by the portal vein and it also contains some branches of hepatic artery. The liver is held in place by four ligaments namely falciform ligament, round ligament, coronary ligament and left triangular ligament. According to Borley & Achan (2005) Liver plays a key role in several regulatory processes in an organism. It is involved in various metabolic pathways comprising variable interactions with proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Liver is the main site for gluconeogenesis, converts galactose and fructose into simple sugars (glucose) and stores complex carbohydrates (glycogen).It aids in the production of different types of proteins and has a role in the formation of urea. Numerous types of fats like phospholipids, cholesterol and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver. Liver also uses different carbohydrates and proteins to form certain fats. Liver serves as a vault for the storage of several vitamins (A, B2 and D) and iron. It helps in the complex process of coagulation by aiding in the synthesis of several important coagulation factors including prothrombin, protein C, and factors VII, IX and X.Several hormones including oestrogen, aldosterone and cortisol are metabolized in the liver. It is involved in the metabolism of a number of drugs and also has a key role in the production and excretion of bile. In fetal life, haematopoiesis is one of the key functions which is performed by liver. Liver resectioning is a technique employed for correction of numerous ailments or for the purpose of experimental study. Diseases such as tumorous growths on the liver, hepatic necrosis, cyst formation, hepatic abscess, hepatic lobe torsion and numerous others require the removal of the affected part of the liver(Martin et al. 2003; Pignon et al. 2013). The remaining liver usually recovers by regeneration through hyperplasia and hypertrophy of healthy cells of the un-affected part of the liver (Palmes and Spiegel, 2004). For experimental reasons, where different aspects of liver regeneration process are to be studied, liver resectioning technique is employed (Mao et al. 2014; Fausto et al. 2012). Numerous studies have been done to see the regeneration rate of liver in different species. In rats it has been noticed that liver can regenerate to its original size after two-third hepatectomy in only five to seven days (Mao et al. 2014).Another author states the recovery to occur in less than two weeks in rodents (Gilgenkrantz and Hortet, 2011). In humans it has been shown that resectioning up to 50 percent has resulted in complete regeneration of liver mass in only a period of two weeks (Häussinger, 2011). Rabbits being small laboratory animals with comparative ease of handling have been used extensively for research purposes. Regeneration has been studied in rabbits post chemical insult on liver or through portal branch ligations (Palmes and Spiegel, 2004). As opposed to general perception, Carpenter (2003) states that the rabbits fall under the category of rodents, they in actuality are lagomorphs. Two families composed of twelve genera and eighty-one species fall under the umbrella of order lagomorpha. They are cosmopolitan in their distribution. The main difference between rodents and lagomorphs is the presence of two pairs of upper incisors in the former group, whereas the later have only one pair of upper incisors. Despite having a great degree of similarity which these two groups share together, they are not thought to be closely associated. The animals of both the categories evolved into nine creatures separately and their similar dental patterns resulted from parallel evolution. All legomorphs consume foliage and practice caprophagy. All lagomorphs are blessed with acute tactile and olfactory senses with a considerable long-haired fluffy body coat. Lagomorphs have big side-to-side set eyes giving them a broader circular vision. Testes are in the scrotum in front of the penis. Baculum is absent in males. Females bear two to five pairs of mammary glands. Deficiency has been observed in terms of study of liver regeneration when liver resectioning is performed. The present study aims to focus on this aspect of research on soft tissue, which would enhance our understanding of liver regeneration and its rate in this specie. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2182,T] (1).

250. The Effects Of Xylazin-Butorphenol And Detomidine-Butorphenol On Clinico-Biochemical Parameters During Castration in Dog

by Nadir Hussain (2006-VA-07) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Anesthesia is a reversible process and derived from Greek word “anaisthaesia” meaning “insensibility” and used to desensitize the whole or any part of the body. Anesthesia is classified by method of administration i.e. intramuscular, inhalational and intravenous. Injectable anesthesia includes Propofol, Diazepam, Acepromazine, Medetomidine, Xylazine and Ketamine. Anesthetic agent can be used alone or in combinations (Gonzalez et al. 2003). The purpose of Anesthesia is to produce a convenient, safe, effective, and economical means of facilitating surgical procedures while minimizing stress, pain and discomfort and adverse side effects. There are many routes of administration of anesthesia; in intravenous route, the onset of action is immediate. Peak effect is rapidly obtained, duration of action is short, and effects are more intense/ profound than other routes.Many combinations of anesthesia are in use in dogs for different surgery xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with butorpjanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with oxymorphone (0.05mg/kg IV) , xylazine (0.4 mg/kb IV) combine with morphine (0.25mg/kg) , Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg combine with butophanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg IV) combine with oxymorphone (o.05 mg/kg) Xylazine (0.4mg/kg) combine with Ketamine (5 to 10 mg/kg IV) acepromazine (0.05 to 0.2mg/kg IV or SQ) in combination with morphine (0.4 to 0.8mg/kg IV) and diazepam or midazolam(0.2 mg/kg IV) with hydromorphone or oxymorphone( 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg IV) use in dog and cat (Greene 1999). Detomidine is a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with useful sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxation properties and is widely used as a tranquilizing or pre-anaesthetic medication in veterinary medicine But it induces cardiovascular side-effects such as hypertension, hypotension, bradycardia and dysrhythmia.detomidine. It produces prolonged and intense analgesia. Nature of the analgesic effect appears to be wide, producing a reduced response to be a secondary result of the central nervous system experimental stimulation and exhibiting a clinical effect in the horse with colic. Detomidine can be used as a safe and effective pre anaesthetic resulting in smooth induction and recovery (EL-Kammar et al. 2014). Xylazine Hcl has been widely used as a preanesthetic drug and for immobilizing dogs for diagnostic procedures (Short 1987).Xylazine is the shortest acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist..A problem with alpha2-adrenergic agonists is that they may respond suddenly to stimulation, especially to touch. The combination of opioid drugs with the alpha2-adrenergic agonists appears to reduce such sudden reactions and a synergistic effect regarding sedation and antinociception has been suggested. Additionally, all alpha2-adrenergic agonists have a dose-dependent effect on cardiovascular function. By adding an opioid drug, dose requirements of alpha2-adrenergic agonists may be reduced and cardiopulmonary function improved. The addition of opioids does not further impair cardiovascular function.The combination of xylazine and butorphanol at the doses generally used in clinical practice produces minimal and transient haemodynamic effects and no significant respiratory depression. There is no ‘blinded’ randomized crossover study regarding the xylazine sparing effects of butorphanol on sedation of horses. There are limited reports on the respiratory effects of butorphanol alone or in combination with the α2-agonist xylazine in horses, but the effects of the combination on pulmonary gas exchange have not been clarified (Ringer et al. 2012). Butorphanol is an opioid agonist-antagonist with good analgesic effects. Butorphanol is used in veterinary medicine as pain reliever and cough suppressant. It induces only mild sedation and has minimum adverse effects to the cardiovascular system. It may cause mild lowering of the heart rate and arterial pressure or slight respiratory depression. It exerts a depressive action on the respiratory system. It should not use in patient with liver disease because it cannot be eliminated and may accumulated to toxic level (Raušer and Lexmaulova, 2002).It is believed to be more effective against visceral rather than somatic pain. The antagonist property towards μ-receptors results in a ceiling analgesic effect with increasing doses. However in dogs doses between 0•2 and 0•8 mg/kg have been reported to provide visceral analgesia in vivo .Butorphanol is a dose-related respiratory depressant and causes small decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (Vettorato and Bacco 2011). Castration is indicated for reproductive neutering, modification of behavior patterns, testicular neoplasia, severe testicular or scrotal trauma or injury, refractory orchitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, perianal gland adenoma, perineal hernia, and scrotal urethrostomy in dogs. There is no specific anesthetic method for castration. Routinely castration surgery can be performed under general anesthesia or local anesthesia (Kim et al. 2004). Unlike other laboratory animals that are commonly used forresearch purpose, non-human primates and dogs are also used for research work. Their use in the biological researchrequires special considerations, regarding their care and housing, and more specifically their handling and restraining. Since non-human primates and dogs present special hazards to handlers, particularlybecause of the danger of bites and zoonotic infections (Fortman et al. 2001). Deaths due to anesthesia are lesser in dogs (1 in 601) than rabbits (1 in 72) that are the third most commonly anaesthetized pet animal in the United Kingdom (Brodbelt et al. 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2185,T] (1).



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