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251. Epidemiology Zoonotic Potential Haematology Amd Chemotherapy Of Sarcoptic Mange In Camel In Punjab

by Muhammad Irfan Zahid (2011-VA-800 | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr.Shazia Anjum | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: A camel is a very hardy ruminant animal, which can survive under harsh climatic conditions very effectively by utilizing the marginal areas with excellent capabilities and produce under such conditions (Hjort and Hussein, 1986; Abbas and Tilley, 1990). Camel is an important animal as it is well adopted in unique manners in the hot, arid and semi-arid environments (Schwartz, 1992). It can survive without water and food for many days and this unique ability of camel makes it an ideal for such harsh conditions for which it is also commonly known as “The Desert Ship”. In spite of the fact that camel is an important member of a group of animals which produces food for human consumption in the shape of milk and meat, yet it is the most neglected one in the field of scientific research. It may be due to the fact that camel belongs to such areas of the world which are arid, semi-arid or rain fed in nature, having harsh climatic conditions, where poor nutrition and poor management are the major issues (Sohail, 1983). It is an established fact that diseases originating from parasites lead to the main health hazard issues in animals. These parasites survive at the expense of the host animals causing lot of health problems, like skin irritation, anemia leading to weakness and debility. Some of the parasites have zoonotic importance and may become a source for the transfer of many contagious diseases like scabies to the human beings (Dominguez et al. 1978). McClain et al. 2009, observed the scabies as a major health problem globally both for humans and animal population. Sarcoptes scabiei is an ectoparasite which is a cause of scabies, a skin problem in the human beings worldwide and the similar species of mites do also produce a similar type of disease in a large variety of wild and domesticated mammals (Pence and Ueckermann, 2002; Fitzgerald et al. 2004). Fain, 1978, reported that more than fifteen (15) different species of Sarcoptes scabiei morphologically and genetically distinct from each other have been identified in different hosts. Introduction 2 Sarcoptic mange is the second important problematic disease of camel after Trypanosomiasis (Nayel and Abu-Samra, 1986). Scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is a serious & highly contagious skin problem and also economically important disease of the camels (Pegram and Higgins, 1992). Camels, which are reared with deficient nutrition, poor management and under unhygienic conditions are mostly affected by this disease (Kumar et al. 1992). A large group of people and communities living in arid diverse ecozones in the entire world, particularly in harsh climates earns their livelihoods by depending on camels. This dependence may spread to the utilization of camel milk, meat, wool and leather besides its use in transportation, riding and sports (Wilson, 1984; Snow et al. 1992). In Pakistan camels are also raised by the people for meat, milk, riding, transportation and sports purposes in the deserts, semi desert & rain-fed / warm areas of the entire country being a hardy animal as it can tolerate easily the rugged climate as well as extremes of temperatures of such areas. The natural harsh and adverse climatic conditions, particularly during long dry seasons lead to a paucity of feeding regimes resultantly the camels raised in such areas are subjected to stress conditions which lower their resistance and make them easily vulnerable to diseases (Abbas et al. 1993; Agab, 1993). Abbas & Tilley, 1990; Saint-Martin et al. 1992; Abbas and Agab, 2002; Pathak and Chhabra, 2010; while reviewing the parasites & parasitic diseases of camel population in India were of the opinion that Sarcoptic mange is a serious, debilitating, dreaded and widely prevalent disease of camels in India. Besides other infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin, camels are exposed to a wide range of internal & external parasitic infestations. Amongst other so many external parasites to which camels are exposed, the Sarcoptic mange is recognized to be one of the most Introduction 3 serious and damaging disease. This disease is caused by a mite known as Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli which belongs to genus Camelus of SARCOPTIDAE family in Veterinary Entomology. It is an extremely pruritic, contagious and debilitating skin disease which is very frequently and sudden in onset. It is also ranked as one of the most serious and important disease of the camels. Sarcoptic mange infestation is very common in the areas of thin skin, the head, neck, flanks, medial aspect of thighs or inguinal region, mammary glands and prepuce. The head is usually affected very rapidly as the animal uses its teeth for scratching the affected areas. Besides linking the occurrence of the disease with poor camel management, malnutrition and contact with infected objects, the stray & infected camels also often become a focus of infecting the healthy animals when mingling with them particularly at watering places for drinking purpose (Richard, 1987; Abdel-Rehman et al. 2001). Sarcoptes is a burrowing mite as it penetrates deeply through the skin surface of the infected camel. This burrowing of mites in the skin helps these parasites lead to intense pruritus and exudative dermatitis. In pruritus, mites penetrate deep into muscular areas, damaging the flesh and lowering the quality of meat. The early inflammatory reaction of the host body towards the mites becomes evident in the shape of small popular elevations, invasion and injuries leading to formation of hairless areas, scaly crust formation or scabs on the affected parts and the skin become dark and thickened. Skin of mangy camel show hemorrhages, and subcutaneous odema after the development of fissures in the underlying epidermis (Kumar et al. 1992; Amer et al. 2006). The fertilized female mites create winding burrows or tunnels in the upper layers of the epidermis of the skin of the host animal and feeding on the serous exudate, a liquid oozing from the damaged tissues. The female mites lay about 40-50 fertilized eggs in these tunnels which Introduction 4 hatch in 3-5 days into a six legged larvae. These larvae immediately crawl to the surface and burrow themselves in the superficial layers of the skin and create small molting pockets. In these molting pockets, the larvae molt to next stages of nymph and adult. The adult male then emerges and seeks a female either in the molting pocket or on the surface of skin. After fertilization the female produces new tunnels, either de novo or, by extension, of the molting pockets, lays eggs in these tunnels and a new life cycle starts. The entire life cycle of Sarcoptic mange is completed in 17-21 days. New hosts can be infected through direct transmission by contact between the animals, presumably from larvae, nymph or adult mites, which are commonly present on the skin surface of the infected animal. Indirect transmission of infestation can also take place through the objects or fomites having mange infection, which come into contact with the affected camel, such as harnesses, blankets, baggage tack, tents and tree trunks (Richards, 1987). The pruritus increases as the mites penetrate deeper in the skin (Al-Rawashdeh et al. 2000, Driot et al. 2011, Bekele et al. 2012). Based on the rate of infection camels can be seriously disturbed by the Sarcoptic infestation as they may stop grazing which can lead to a rapid fall in milk production, and deterioration of health condition. With the increase in the irritation due to scabies, the camel rubs, bites and scratches the affected areas in an attempt to reduce the itchiness. Due to rubbing, biting or scratching, the mites move to the periphery affecting the healthy tissues and resultantly affected area spreads. As the disease prolongs, the skin becomes excoriated, leading to hair loss and the development of scabs. These scabs in turn may be rubbed away and a red surface developed. The animal becomes restless due to severe Sarcoptic mange infestation and involvement of most of the body surface. If the diseased animal is not treated in time, the animal loses its health condition, become emaciated and within two, three weeks the acute stage of Introduction 5 disease may give way to more chronic state (Gorakh et al. 2000, Abubakar et al. 2002, Driot et al. 2011). Sarcoptic mites rarely survive long off the host under natural conditions. A continuous direct contact of animal keepers with their camels can also lead to transmission of diseased condition in human beings which is termed as pseudo scabies. Transmission of infection from camel to man usually takes place during milking, handling or riding. The main symptoms of pseudo scabies can therefore be seen in the inter digital spaces of the hands, on the wrists, forearms, the elbows, the axillary folds and inner side of the thighs. Once a herd is infected with Sarcoptic mange, continuous reinfection of the disease occurs (Schillinger 1987, Singh & Veer 2005, Premalatha et al. 2010). Sarcoptic mange is usually considered to be a seasonal disease and is often reported severe during the winter months as in cold weather the disease had an acute course. However, there is some evidence that in some countries hot weather predisposes to acute outbreaks of camel mange and in the cooler, winter season the rate of mange infestations are at the lowest. In the summer the activity of the mite seems to decline or disease becomes chronic. Dietary intake is an important factor in mange infestation. Nomadic camels on a low nutrition plan, probably carrying heavy worm burdens in hot desert conditions are likely, therefore, to be highly prone to Sarcoptes at this time (Dinka et al, 2010). During such periods of great activity, the mites are readily transmissible from one animal to other animals (Richards, 1987, Banaja & Ghandour, 1994, Tefera & Gebreah, 2001). Mange can easily be diagnosed clinically from the occurrence of pruritus, depilation, alopecia, thickened skin, folds around the joints and encrusted plaques being the main characteristics of this parasitosis. In order to control this zoonotic disease, it is essential to treat Introduction 6 both camel and man along with effective checks over other predisposing factors of the disease such as hygiene and nutritional requirements of the animals. The skin diseases like the scabies both in human beings and animals are being treated with a variety of allopathic drugs now a day, but the role of herbal plants in use since centuries in different shapes cannot be ignored at all, especially in the rural lifestyle. Further with the continuous use of different acaricidal drugs, the issue of resistance development has come across as a challenge for the researchers to find some alternatives for the purpose. Accordingly the research work on the use of traditional herbal medicines is gaining attention day by day. Although there are many reports and studies regarding the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange in camel from different parts of the world, only few preliminary reports are available for Pakistan and none of them provide detailed epidemiology of Sarcoptic mange and its effect on host health. Therefore, keeping in view the importance of the mange problem in camel population of the country, the present project was designed to determine the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange infestation, factors in its occurrence its zoonotic importance, effect on blood physiology and different treatment options in the camel population of Punjab, province in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2190,T] (1).

252. Effect Of Feeding Frequency On The Growth Performance Of Lohi Lambs During Post Weaning Period

by Muhammad Zahid Farooq (2010-VA-271) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Nisar Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Thesis Submitted with Blank CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2192,T] (1).

253. Fractions Of Milk Fat On Lipolysis In Cheddar Cheese

by Shakeel Ahmad (2008-VA-426) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Muhammad Nadeem | Dr. Muhammad Hayat Jaspal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Lipids are heterogeneous group of biological compounds, soluble in fat and insoluble in water. Oils and fats mainly comprise of triglycerides and has great importance in Food systems. Fats and oils are completed through ester of three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule (Stolyhmo, 2007; McClement and Decker, 2010; Nichols et al. 2011). Fats have a primary importance for the texture of Foods (Rao, 2003). Fat has more energy values as compared to other Foods nutrients (Wu et al. 2013), presently, one of the major developments is declining the cholesterol contents and fat in the Foodstuffs (Ma and Boye, 2013). Sensory attributes like appearance, flavor, texture and physicochemical properties of the Foods depend upon the fat because it is very important for the Foodstuffs improvement. For these properties, there should be practical strategies which can reduce fat contents only in the Foodstuff (Wu et al. 2013) and should not effect on nutritious and sensory properties (Boff et al. 2013). Milk fat can be transformed into various fractions such as very high melting fraction (>50°C), high melting fraction (35-50°C), middle melting fraction (25-35°C), low melting fraction (10-25°C) and very low melting fraction (<10°C). Low melting fraction (<15°C) has strong butter flavor and can be incorporated into milk powder to improve functionality. It can be used in confectionery products and can increase spread ability of butter at low melting temperature (Gunstone, 2001). It has been investigated that melting point of butter oil decreased with C18:2 and increased with C16:0 and C14:0 fatty acids. It has also been investigated that melting point is negatively correlated to C40, C38, C30 and C28 tri-acylglyceride while positively correlated with C48, C46 and C44 tri-acylglycerides (Ortiz-Gonzalez et al. 2007). The anhydrous milk fat has a higher fraction of low melting tri-acylglycerids due to more unsaturated fatty acids (Smet et al. 2010). Fatty acids are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms having one carboxyl (COOH) group at one side of the chain (Ghatak and Bandyopadhyay, 2007). Fatty acids are divided into short, middle, long chain fatty acids and also in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids are further categorized as monounsaturated, poly unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids. Almost 65-68% saturated fatty acids of milk fat possess many health concerns (Richmond, 2007). More than 4 hundred types of fatty acids are present in milk fat of different bovine breeds. Plasma cholesterol and incidence of coronary heart disease is increased by medium chain saturated fatty acids of milk fat lauric acid (C12:0), myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitic acid (C16:0) (Jensen, 2002). Fatty acid composition of diet has a great impact on health. Considerable attention has been given on the saturated fatty acids present in diet (Astrup et al. 2011). Nutritionists recommend that saturated fatty acids should be replaced by unsaturated fatty acids to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease (Erkkila et al. 2008). Medium chain fatty acids C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0 are atherogenic (Parodi, 2004; Kris-Etherton and Innis, 2007). The coronary heart diseases and atherogenic fatty acids are highly correlated (Moss and Reed, 2003; MacRae et al. 2005; Mensink, 2006). As compared to other lipids sources dairy products are well known to increase the cardiovascular diseases in human beings, because dairy products contain lower proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and higher proportion of saturated fatty acids especially palmitic and myristic fatty acids (Sacks and Katan, 2002). Dairy Foodstuffs are the sources of dietary cholesterol which increases the serum cholesterol (Collins et al. 2003). Modification in milk fat can be carried out by chemical and enzymatic interesterification (Pal et al. 2000). Physical modification (fractionating of bovine milk fat into different fractions) of milk fat can be carried out by fractionation (Ali and Dimick, 1994). Commercial dairy industries commonly use dry fractionations to improve the texture and flavour properties of dairy products (Grall and Hartel, 1992). Nadeem et al. (2013) found in a study that long chain and short-chain fatty acids can be increased by fractionation of milk fat. Fractionation improves the functional properties of milk fat. Low melting fractions of milk fat can be used in a wide range of functional dairy products. Cheese is worldwide extensively used dairy product. Researchers have tried to improve the unsaturated fatty acid composition of milk fat by blending with vegetable oil but the use of vegetable oils in cheese has a negative impact on texture, functional properties, excessive lipolysis and flavor characteristics of cheese (Wijesundera and Watkins, 2000;Yli-Jokipii et al. 2001; Dinkci et al. 2011). There are many factors which affect the texture and rheological properties of the cheese. These factors also effect the appearance, functional properties of the cheese and also effect the flavor of the cheese which are very important for consumer. On the base of texture varieties of cheeses are differentiated. Important property for the determination of differences in the cheeses is texture as compared to other flavor and taste property (Wendin et al. 2000) Free fatty acids of cheddar cheese produced in the result of lipolysis are the precursors of flavor compounds (Smit et al. 2002; McSweeny, 2004). The suitability of low melting fractions of milk fat as a substrate in the manufacturing of cheddar cheese has not been previously investigated. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2205,T] (1).

254. Hand Book of Entomological Terms

by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashfaq | Waseem Akram Qazi.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book Publisher: Lahore: Pak Book Empire; 1998Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 595.7 Mushtaq 14440 1st 1998 Parasitology] (1).

255. Retrospective Study Of Fatal Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever In Lahore City

by Shumaila Abdusattar (2012-VA-523) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Dengue fever is one of the most common mosquito-borne viral diseases of human beings. It has become a major reason for public health concern internationally over the recent years because of disease morbidity and mortality. Globally around 2.5 billion people are living in areas where dengue viruses can be transmitted. Spread of mosquito vectors & viruses in geographical distribution are two main reasons of rise in incidence and prevalence of dengue fever & appearance of dengue hemorrhagic cases. Urban areas of the tropics have been identified to be highly endemic. According to estimates made by WHO around 50–100 million infections of dengue are prevalent every year globally. (Deen et al. 2006) In Pakistan first dengue outbreak was reported in Karachi in 1994 as environmental conditions are conducive to Aedes mosquito breeding. Economic and security related migration introduced virus to Lahore as well. According to Punjab Health Department 590339 suspected cases were reported in Lahore & 21685 confirmed by serology. It has been observed that 5-10% of these cases develop DHF.(Mahmood et al. 2013) Dengue is mainly transmitted by mosquito vector i.e. Aedesaegypti and can also be transmitted by A.albopictus to a lesser extent. Virus that causes dengue has four different types that are closely related to each other.Infected female mosquitoes transmit this virus to human beings through bite.An infected mosquito can transmit this virus to humans for the rest of its life. Symptoms of dengue range from very mild fever to very high fever including intense headache, retro-orbital pain, muscular and joint pain, and rashes. There is no vaccine or any specific medicine to treat dengue. Patients having dengue fever are advised to take rest and drink ample fluids. They are advised to use paracetamol in order to reduce high grade fever or visit the physician if fever persists. Recovery from infection by one provides lifelong immunity against that serotype but confers only partial and transient protection against subsequent infection by the other three. There have been enough proofs showing that subsequent infection increases the risk of severity of disease which can result in DHF (WHO). Leaking of plasma, fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, and intense bleeding and organ impairment makes severe dengue a fatal complication. Warning signs includes decrease in temperature (below 38°C/ 100°F), severe abdominal pain, rapid breathing, bleeding gums, malaise, and restlessness,continuous vomiting and hematemesis. These can occur three to seven days after first symptom recognition. In order to prevent complications and minimize the risk of death adequate and timely health care is required in next 1-2 critical days.(Halstead 1980) In 1950s when dengue epidemics occurred in the Philippines and Thailand then Dengue hemorrhagic fever was first identified. Till 1970 nine countries had encountered epidemic DHF and this number has increased more than four times and keeps on rising. Today rising number of DHF cases are causing increased dengue outbreaks in the Americas, and in Asia, where all four dengue viruses are endemic. DHF has turn out to be a prominent reason of hospitalization and demise among kids in several states.In Asia, widespread DHF has enhanced geologically from Southeast Asian regions to west China. Various regional states of the South and Central Pacific have encountered significant or slight DHF outbreaks.In previous twenty years deterrence and management has come to be more immediate with the escalating geographical spreadof dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever and higher ailment occurrence (Gubler 2002). In the absence of bleeding or organ manifestation, DHF is medically challenging to diagnose, and the numerous etiologic agents can barely be distinguished by clinical tests. The specified diagnosis of DHF depends mainly on laboratory testing.(Drosten et al., 2002) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2211,T] (1).

256. The Diversity, Distribution And Phenetic Relationships Of Herpetiles Of District Kasur

by Waqas Ali (2008-VA-609) | Dr. Arshad Javid | Ms. Sana Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Amphibians and reptiles (herpetiles) are cold-blooded animals. Mostly lay eggs, fertilization is external in amphibians and internal in reptiles. Amphibians undergo metamorphosis to reduce competition between larval (usually aquatic) and adult (terrestrial) stage. The reptiles are found in a variety of habitats throughout the world except some isolated islands. Diversity and abundance of herpetiles is dependent on climate and geographic position of any region and is also directly linked with some avian and mammalian species. Amphibians and reptiles are important bio-indicators of climate change and the survival of both taxa is under continuous threat due to deforestation, habitat loss, fragmentation, urbanization and pollution. Data on local distribution patterns is helpful in regional conservation planning (Petrov 2004). Herpetiles are the important members of environment and have important position in pyramids. They control the population of many insects and pests, and themselves are source of food for many predators. Amphibians and many reptiles transfer nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems and if they are removed from any ecosystem, the algae communities, invertebrate populations, predator dynamics, leaf litter decompositions and nutrient cycling can be affected (Baig 2006 ). Pakistan has the world’s rarest animals and plants but these are now in danger due to habitat loss, overuse and anthropogenic activities. The herpetofauna of Pakistan is represented by 219 species; 24 species of amphibians and 195 species of reptiles out of these 9 species of amphibians and 13 species of reptiles are endemic to Pakistan (Khan 2004). The herpetiles received less attention of scientific community hence these taxa remained unexplored in Pakistan. There is extreme scarcity of data on the distribution of various amphibian and reptilian species in the country (Khan 2006). The only authentic source of information till so far on herptiles in this region is the data collected and compiled by Daniel and Khan (2002, 2006). In Pakistan arid to semi-arid climatic conditions prevail that make it, an amphibian poor country however, humid riparian conditions in the Indus Valley, streams in the northern Himalayan sub-mountainous region and water channels in the western Baluchistan highland are home to some 24 amphibians, that belong to four families viz. Bufonidae, Megophryidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae (Khan 2011). The reptilian fauna of Pakistan is represented by 195 species belonging to 23 families viz. Cheloniidae, Dermochelyidae, Emydidae, Testudinidae, Trionychidae, Crocodylidae, Gavialidae, Agamidae, Chameleonidae, Eublepharidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae, Uromastycidae, Varanidae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Hydrophiidae, Viperidae and Crotalidae (Khan 2004). In Pakistan, due to over hunting the marsh crocodile is in danger and nearly extinct. Now this species only occur in small numbers in Sindh and a few areas in Balochistan. The gharial is now few in numbers and found only between the Sukkur and Guddu barrages. In addition monitor species are heavily hunted for their skins. 72 snake species found in Pakistan and out of these, 14 marine and 12 terrestrial snake species are poisonous; most well-known are the Indian cobra, common krait, saw-scaled viper and Russel's viper. The snake venom is a complex mixture of enzymes including the pro-coagulant, non-enzyme proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, amines, lipids and metal ions. The venom exertsneuro-toxic, cytotoxic and hemotoxic effects. Genus monospecific Teratolepsis and Eristicophis is endemicto Pakistan. The Chagai Desert is of particular interest for reptiles, with six species of reptiles including five lizards and one snake are endemic to Pakistan and a further six species found only here and along the border of Iran. Important populations of marine turtles nest on Pakistan's southern beaches. The internationally threatened species of reptiles in Pakistan are Green and olive turtle, mugger, gharial, central Asian monitor, Indian python, central Asian cobra (Groombridge 1988). District Kasur is located between two rivers of the Punjab province, namely river Ravi and Sutlej. This district is bounded by India from east, Okara from south, Sheikhupura from north-west and Lahore covers its north side. District Kasur is administratively divided in to four Tehsils i.e. Kasur, Chunian, Pattoki and KotRadhaKishan. The district lies 150 to 200 m above sea level and experiences extreme hot weather during summer (April -September) to severe cold in winter (November to February). The difference between day and night temperatures is considerable. Average annual rainfall is 500 mm. Water logging and salinity has affected large area of the district making underground water brackish (Anwar 2012). Reptiles and amphibians have historically taken less concern as components of many ecosystems. Many ecosystems support high densities of herpetofaunaas compared to endothermic vertebrates because they make efficient use of energy (Pough 1980).Moreover, high densities of reptiles and amphibians presentin many ecosystems provide major role for the trophic transfer of energy and matter except one study that shows high amphibian densities affect ecosystem processes (Wyman 1998). Moreover, the high rate of herpetofauna decline increase the interest in scientific communities for documenting the abundance and status of amphibians on a global scale (Collins and Storfer 2003). Despite the high densities of herpetiles present in many ecosystems, it is difficult to sample them quantitatively because many snakes and several species of amphibians and lizards live in burrows making their capture difficult (Conant and Collins 1998). Furthermore, the cryptic nature of herpetiles, hibernation in winter, climatic factors affects the activity and the presence or abundance of amphibians and reptiles species (Zug et al 2001).As a result, many methods have been developed to sample herpetofauna such as drift fences with pitfall and funnel traps are a good way to maximize the number of individuals and number of herpetofauna species captured (Gibbons and Semlitsch, 1982; Enge 2001). On the other hand, drift fence surveys can be time-intensive and inappropriate applications can result in low capture rates of some species or high mortality of captured animals. Moreover, documenting the presence of all species occurring in a given area is difficult, if not impossible, and can be particularly time-intensive in systems with many rare species (Dodd 1991). Herpetological studies carried out in Pakistan are outdated and are mainly limited to Sind and Baluchistan provinces (Minton 1966; Mertens 1969). There is paucity of data on herpetiles of Punjab, densely populated province of the country. There is dire need to explore herpetofauna of the province in general and the district kasur is specific due to geographic location and climatic condition. Present study was therefore planned to explore herpetofauna diversity and distribution patterns of various amphibians and reptiles inhabiting district Kasur. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2215,T] (1).

257. Toxicopathological Alterations And Tissue Residue Of Colistinsulphate (Polymixin E) In Broilers

by Muhammad Aslam (2012-VA-809) | Dr. Muhammad Raza Hameed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Syed Ehtisham ul Haque.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the 2nd largest industry in Pakistan playing important role to meet daily protein requirement with an investment of more than 200 billion rupees. It is contributing 6.1% and 10.8% share in total contribution of agriculture and livestock the national GDP, respectively. Total poultry meat production in the last year was 987 thousand tones (Economic survey of Pakistan 2013-2014). Because of high density and lack of biosecurity measures, outbreaks of infectious disease are more common and often occurs. Different antibiotics are used rational and irrational to treat and control these outbreaks. Colistin is among the most widely used antibiotic in intensive poultry farming, it is used to combat gram negative bacterial infections particularly for collibacillosis and gastrointestinal tract infections (Hussain and Khalil 2013). Colistin belongs to the polymixins group of antibiotics. It is also known as Polymixin E. Polymixins are structurally related substances consisting of a cyclic peptide with a hydrophobic tail, mainly produced from gram positive nitrogen fixing bacteria Bacillus polymyxa. Polymixins are classified into six subtypes namely polymixin A to F and among these polymixin B and E are commonly used for the treatment of gram negative infections in animal and human beings. Colistin is mixture of two subtype’s colistin A (polymixin E1) and colistin B (polymixin E2). Commercially, it is available in two forms colistin sulfate and colistimethate sodium but colistin sulfate is more stable cationic water soluble salt (Landman et al. 2000) and is easily available in markets. colistin sulphate has lipophilic and lipophobic(hydrophilic) properties, that makes it easier to interact on bacterial cell membrane by displacing counter ions in lipopolysaccharides, influencing Mg efflux that’s why it is effective against gram negative bacteria (Poole and Sheffield 2013). Polymixins also presents antipyretic activity by binding endotoxins, especially lipid A, (the active compound of lipopolysaccharide). Owing to this property it is extensively used to treat gram negative infections in livestock and poultry industries (Hanasawa et al. 1990). The use of colistin was restricted in the past due to its toxic properties mainly in nephrotoxicity. There are reports available in the literature indicating that the parental use of colistin leads to the alterations of biochemical parameters in chicken i.e. increase in glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, catalase activity, creatinine while, adversely affect total plasma proteins (Ibrahin et al. 2011). In ostriches it leads to the development of neurotoxic signs along with histologically odema formation in pericardium, intestinal serosa and heart was observed (Landman et al. 2000). Toxic effects of colistin were also reported in humans including nephrotoxicity, increased serum creatinine during the treatment (Falagas et al. 2005). As bioavailability for oral route is minimal and it is used parentally to treat systemic infections. Parenteral route may cause toxopathological effects in birds. Other effects includes change in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase which indicate liver damage. Red blood cells, white blood cells, packed cell volume and hemoglobin estimation were also decreased (Saleemi et al. 2013). The incidence of nephrotoxicity is severe but less common in oral administration as polymixins absorption through gastrointestinal tract is very slow and limited, and cannot be detected in plasma concentrations at ordinary doses (Falagas and Kasiakou 2006). Instead of all these toxic effects, now a days it is frequently used for the treatment against gram negative bacterial infections (Vaara 2010). The emergence of bacterial resistance has become an important public health hazard throughout the world). Due to irrational use of antimicrobial drugs against different diseases (Naqvi et al.2013. Colistin is one of the most widely used antibiotic in poultry industry against diseases like collibacillosis, salmonellosis and clostridial infections through drinking water, feed additives and parenteral route in developing countries like Pakistan (Tanweer et al.2013). Parenteral use of colistin sulphate may leads to the deposition of residues in different tissues. The presence of its residues in edible parts may lead to the toxicity as well as development of antibacterial resistance in human. Keeping in view the potential toxic effects and other hazards relating to the extensive use of colistin in poultry birds, present study has been designed to investigate dose dependent patho-morphological alterations and tissue residue in broiler chickens. Objective 1. To study the toxicopathological effects of parenteral administration of colistin in broilers. 2.Investigation of the tissue deposition of colistin as residues and its withdrawal period. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2221-T] (1).

258. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Nsaids Against Bovine Ephemeral Fever

by Ghazanfar Ali Chishti (2007-VA-51) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Dairy sector has significant role in Pakistan economy with a share of 46.8% in agriculture and 10.8% to Pakistan GDP. Pakistan ranks 4th among largest milk producing countries in the world (Anonymous 2012-13).In last decade, dairy sector in Pakistan has seen tremendous growth and corporate investment. More than 40000 exotic cross bred high producing cattles have been imported. Earlier this sector used to rely primarily on local low producing cattles and small scale subsistence farming, now different commercial dairy farms having high producers exotic cattles are also becoming major contributor in this sector. Trend is changing, different issues concerned with sector are rising. Sensitivity level of commercial dairy farmer is far high as compared to small scale traditional farmers, they can not accept or tolerate any factor affecting economy of their dairy business due to heavy investment. One such issue rose to headlines in July-August 2014, Pakistan dairy industry was struck badly with an outbreak of viral disease called Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF). It caused colossal damages to dairy industry in terms of decreased milk production, mortalities and treatment costs. This was not an out rightly a new disease in Pakistan its episodes have been seen in past in local cattles and buffalo (Asi et al. 1999) and locally it was termed as “will” (Prof Khushe personal communication). But it never got such a hype and attention in past as local animals were already low producers and their production was never affected at substantial level. Local animals were generally weak having low Body Condition Score, a character which does not support the intensity of this disease, Ectoparasite resistance is another factor considered to be a source of protection for local animals. Introduction 2 During initial phase of outbreak, it was considered as a common local epidemic Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and few signs also confused it with Milk Fever. But once outbreak progressed, it became clearer that it in neither HS and nor FMD it is something different. After going through literature it was clinically suspected as BEF and later was confirmed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by University Diagnostic Laboratory (UDL), UVAS, Lahore. BEF is a viral disease caused by genus Ephemerovirus and family Rhabdoviridae. (Uren et al. 1992).It is a noncontagious, vector borne disease of water buffaloes and cattles proposed to be communicated by midges (Culicoides biting) and mosquitoes.(Walker et al. 2012). Ephemeral fever, stiff sickness, three-day-sickness, bovine influenza and bovine epizootic fever have been used to name this viral disease in the different nations at different eras (Chiu 1986; Chiu and Lu 1986; Lin and Inoue 1969; St.George1981). BEF happens seasonally in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Middle-East and Australia and this is a disabling disease with significant economic effect due to reduction of milk production, loss of health status in beef herds, abortion and infertility. Characteristic clinical signs comprise of a sudden onset of fever as high as 41 °C, an abrupt and austere drop in milk production, lethargy, inappetence, salivation, depression, nasal discharge, stiffness, dyspnea and ruminal stasis (Walker et al. 2012). Primarily, pathogenesis of BEF is based on vascular inflammation (Young and Spradbrow, 1980) so this provides the rationale for its treatment through anti-inflammatory drugs. Different NSAIDs have been used in previous studies phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen (Uren and Murphy, 1985; St George et al. 1984) but no study has been found using most common field NSAID of Pakistan, meloxicam. So, here a comparative study was carried out between three NSAIDs meloxicam, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone on naturally infected BEF animal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2243-T] (1).

259. Productive And Reproductive Performance Of The Parents And The Growth Performance Of Subsequent Progeny As Influenced By Molting In Japanese Quails

by Muhammad Imtiaz Azam (2013-VA-566) | Dr. Jibran Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Japanese quail is a member of order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie Japonica. Scientific name of Japanese quail is Coturnix coturnix japonica (Mizutani, 2003). Japanese quail attained significance as agriculture specie due to its unique flavor of eggs and meat hence got importance as a food animal (Kayang et al. 2004). Egg production is important in south East Asia whereas meat is an important product in Europe (Baumgartner, 1994: Minvielle, 1998). Female quail starts laying at the age of 6 weeks and constantly produces eggs for at least one year. Quail is efficient converter of feed, with each egg a female deposits an edible package of 8 percent of her own body weight as compared to 3 percent in case of chicken (Martin et al. 1998). Molting in avian species is the periodic shedding and replacement of feathers as well as rejuvenation of the reproductive system (Berry, 2003). Molting has been conducted through different techniques including photoperiod reduction, feed restriction, hormone administration, feeding dietary salt of zinc, aluminium and/or iodine (Khan et al. 2011). Molting has been associated with sudden change in physiological biochemistry which requires restoration before coming into production (Khan et al. 2011). The most important advantage of molting is the rejuvenation of reproductive system which increases tissue efficiency, development of reproductive system, loss of fat on female reproductive system, hence better post-molt performance (Park et al. 2004). Attia et al. (1994) explored that bird’s egg shell quality, albumen quality, and hatchability are influenced by molting method. Molting is followed by ovary and oviduct histophysiological changes (De-cuypere and Verheyen 1986); affecting egg characteristics, hatchability and chick quality. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 2 Induced molting is an effective management tool, enabling to meet egg production with demand and even providing greater economic benefit as it reduces bird cost per dozen of eggs because it lengthens the productive life of the hen (Carey and Brake 1987).Induced molting is used in the poultry industry to increase the reproductive lifespan of birds leading to new productive cycles (Laurentiz et al. 2005). In the induced molting methods, 25-30% of body mass reduction from initial weight is ideally required to achieve a maximum post-molt performance (Brake, 1993). Induced molting has been reported to improve egg production and other performance parameters (Akram, 1998; Usman et al. 2013). As to body weight loss (BWL), research studies point out that BWL levels between 25 and 30% promotes better post-molting production in a second laying cycle (Hussein, 1996). Reduction in ovary weight depends upon the duration of fasting or body weight loss levels (Berry, 2003); 15% body weight loss results in heavier eggs as compared to 20-25% (Buhr and Cunningham 1994). Post-molt reproductive improvement is related to the regression and to the regeneration of the cells of reproductive system (Brake and Thaxton 1979). Egg quality and hatchability decrease with the age of the breeder and are reported to be improved in terms of Haugh Units and overall hatchability after molting (Lapaˆo et al. 1999). Induced molting not only helps in improving production performance and egg shell quality but also increases profit by optimizing the use of replacement pullets on commercial layer farms (Bell, 2003). The combination of feed withdrawal and light reduction was most widely used to induce molting in the US egg industry in the past. Most producers used some form of feed withdrawal for periods of 5 to 14 days in breeder birds (Bell and Kuney 2004). It is further reported that induced molting improves the post-molt performance of the laying hens compared to the pre-molt performance, this improvement includes egg size, shell quality, internal INTRODUCTION 3 egg quality, and the rate of egg production. Egg size increases significantly after a molt with a higher percentage of higher grade eggs (Zeelen, 1975). Hatchability is influenced by molting method (Attia et al. 1994). Several researchers studied a relationship among hen age and hatchability (King’ori, 2011). Induced molting through feed withdrawal and photoperiod reduction is an effective method to improve egg production, egg quality, fertility and hatchability of broiler breeders (Moustafa et al. 2010). The effect of molting in chicken and turkey is very well studied and some basic facts have been well established but its significance in quail production is still having a question mark. Reason being the availability of little information on this aspect of quail production. It is also being felt that in Pakistan, especially at Avian Research and Training Center selection for higher body weight is being practiced since last 5-6 years and with the passage of time final body weight (4 week) of quail is almost doubled. These genetically improved quails need to be subjected to maximum experimentation in order to study their potential and standardize their management requirements. Present study is also an effort in the same direction with the main objective to explore the effect of molting on productive and reproductive performance as well as subsequent progeny growth performance in Japanese quails. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2249-T] (1).

260. Growth Performance, Body Measurements And Slaughter Characteristics As Affected By Different Patio Strategies And Growth Promoters In Japanese Quail

by Imran Ullah (2013-VA-598) | Dr. Jibran Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Dr. Atia Basheer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Coturnix japonica is the zoological name of Japanese quail, which belongs to order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie japonica (Beletsky, 2006). It is highly disease resistant with a very short maturity age as well as market life (4-5weeks). Female quail starts laying almost at 7-8 weeks of age, hence getting popular (Ashok and Prabakaran 2012). Generally the chicks are removed from hatcher only when most of chicks have hatched within the period of hatch window which is almost 36 to 48 hours (Careghi et al. 2005). Many factors affect delay in hatching, the most important being the parent flock age, handling of eggs, time of egg preservation and internal incubation conditions (Decuypere et al. 2001). Little space in the hatcher for hatched chicks, opening of hatcher over many time and late collection of chick can lead to dehydrated and low quality chicks (Bamelis et al. 2005). To reduce above stated risks a concept named “Patio system” was introduced in Netherland, proposed by Kuijpers brothers to improve hatchability and growth performance of chicks. In this system pre incubated eggs (hatching phase) and after hatching chicks (brooding phase) are placed combined in hatchery (http://www.vencomatic.com). Patio system improves body weight, quality of chicks and reduces chick mortality in broilers (Van de Ven et al. 2009). A synergistic effect on growth performance and various economic traits can be attained by using patio system and various feed additives such as probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics etc. The term probiotic is derived from two Latin words “pro” and “bios”. Probiotics are prepared from different species of microorganisms (Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces) considered as intestinal beneficial microflora (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Probiotics are used to make the products through the use of which, many species of animals improve their intestinal miro-flora (Leeson and Summers 1997). Improved beneficial bacteria CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 2 of intestine suppress harmful bacteria like E. coli and produce beneficial enzymes and substances that have antibiotic like effects (Montes and Pugh 1993). Probiotics work by two ways. 1. Competitive exclusion 2. Enhancing immune system. In competitive exclusion, bacterias in gastrointestinal tract produce such type of substances that stunt the growth of harmful bacterias and compete for their predilection site (intestinal epithelium) while second mode of action is, to stimulate their immune system as the young one born is sterile, hence, their gastro intestinal tract (GIT) and beneficial bacterias in GIT are not able to produce antibodies against harmful bacterias that aggregate in chick GIT. By using probiotics that attach intestinal mucosa and create barriers for harmful bacteria and enhance immune system (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Different probiotics (Bacillus subtili) have different modes of action (competitive inhibition) that utilize oxygen in GIT of birds and convert them in different useful enzymes (subtilin and catalase) by which friendly bacterias (Lactobacilli) colonize in birds GIT and block predilection site of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Lactobacilli bacteria produce lactic acid that kill many harmful bacteria like, Salmonella and E.coli (Hosoi et al. 2000). Probiotics are also found to enhance activity of immunoglobulins, macrophages, lymphocytes and interferon (Yang et al. 2009). Birds fed on probiotic mixed diet showed higher body weight and increased carcass percentage (Kabir et al. 2004a) but feed intake, proventiculus, gizzard and liver weight were found to be non-significant among different treatments (Dizaji et al. 2012). Similarly in another study, higher body weight and weight gain were observed in ostrich birds fed on probiotic enriched diet (Karimi-Kivi et al. 2015). Using antibiotics as feed additives can also improve health status of birds. The first antibiotic “chlortetracycline” when used in animal feed during early 1940s increased body weight was observed (Dibner and Richards 2005). For more than 50 years, antibiotics have been used in INTRODUCTION 3 poultry feed as a supplement to improve bird’s growth performance, feed conversion ratio and carcass meat yield (Denli et al. 2003). Antibiotics being used in poultry industry are also used therapeutically in human medicines (Edens, 2003). However, recent progress in poultry industry and consumer concerns have risen the questions on use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to their side effects (Wray and Davies 2000). The European Union (EU) banned some antibiotics as growth promoters because of many bacterial strains showing resistant against them (Edens, 2003) In Pakistan high production cost and market price of quail meat discourage both the producer and consumer. The use of patio system may help reduction in production cost, hence, help in gaining the trust and preference of both quail farmers and consumers. Present study was conducted with the main objectives to study the advantages of patio system in Japanese quail and also provide basic information regarding future use of this technique in quails. It was further tried to understand the utility of different growth promoters in quail production with special emphasis on antibiotics and probiotics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2251-T] (1).

261. Antimicrobial Potential Of Bovine Lactoferrin Against Foodborne Pathogens

by Ammarah Khatoon (2012-VA-631) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Mr. Ishtiaque Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Health is recourse of everyday life, but not the object to live. It is positive to give special importance to personal and social resources. However, in Pakistan and other developing countries conditions are different, most people have low income and they live in un-sanitized environment. They eat un-hygienic food and also lack safe drinking water. People do not adopt any preventive measure to minimize the risk of contamination. Food storage is also un-hygienic. These conditions lead towards contamination and result in foodborne infections and gastro-enteritis. Foodborne illnesses are always a serious health issue in the Pakistan and throughout the world. Individual’s record for foodborne illnesses is impossible but it is reported that 7 out of 10 people suffer from foodborne illness caused by different microbes each year worldwide (WHO survey 2012). Foodborne illness is caused by eating contaminated food with pathogenic bacteria. Some common pathogens are Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonellaspecies. Incubation period for onset of symptoms of food poisoning ranges from hours to days. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever and diarrhea are symptoms which appear commonly in most of food poisoning. However, foodborne illnesses if left untreated can lead severe dehydration, imbalance of intestinal micro flora, digestive disorders and even death in some cases. It was recorded that 2.2 million people killed from foodborne illness globally every year and the burden arising from foodborne diseases is larger (Kuchenmuller et al. 2009). Antibioticsare massively used to overcome food poisoning; however, from health point of view they badly affect thenormal micro flora of gut but also microbes become antibiotic resistance. The problem needs to be dealt with some other way like adding bio preservatives or antimicrobial agents in food. To control microbes in foods, numerous methods have been adopted including the use of synthetic and natural antimicrobial agents. Scope of natural antimicrobial agents are increasing day by day and different natural sources are being utilized to get these agents. Among these natural sources milk is best and widely utilized source from long times. Milk contains many biologically active compounds among which lactoferrin is one of them. Lactoferrin is a multifunctional globular glycoprotein from transferrin family, an iron-binding protein. It is part of innate immune system and has antibacterial activity known as far back as 1930. It was first isolated in 1939 from cow milk (Charrondiere et al. 2011). Lactoferrin belongs to the transferrin family having ability to bind iron two times higher than other transferrin proteins. Its molecular weight is 80 kDa and has about 700 amino acids depending upon species e.g. cow, buffalo, goat and sheep (Adlerova et al. 2008). Lactoferrin molecule consists of simple polypeptide chain folded into two symmetrical and highly homologous lobes (N and C) connected by a hinge region. Both lobes bind two metal ions in synergy with carbonate (CO32-). Not only Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions but Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ ions can also bind. Lactoferrin can bind Fe3+ reversibly so it can exist as free of Fe3+ (Apo-Lf) or in association with Fe3+ (Holo-Lf) and exhibits different three dimensional structure depending upon binding to Fe3+. Apo-Lf has an open structure and holo-Lf has closed which provide resistance to proteolysis. At iron-binding site Aspirin, two Tyrosine, and Histidine amino acids are directly involved in each lobe and Arginine is bound to CO32- ions. Number and position of Cystine-residues allows intermolecular disulfide bridges and Asparagine-residues in both lobes provide several sites for N-glycosylation (Farnaud and Evans 2003). Lactoferrin is produced by mucosal epithelial mammary cells of human, cows, buffaloes, goat, horses, many other mammals and fish. It is widely distributed in body tissues and present in mucosal surfaces, specific granules of leukocytes and in biological fluids like tears, saliva, digestive fluids, seminal fluids and most abundant in milk comprising the second highest protein in human milk after casein. Concentration of lactoferrin in different species is for cow milk (80-500 mg/L), buffalo milk (50-320 mg/L), camel milk (200-728 mg/L), goat milk (98-150 mg/L) and sheep milk (20-140 mg/L) (Krol et al. 2011). Many physiological functions of lactoferrin have been attributed. It plays an important role in iron regulation, non-specific immune response, regulation of cells growth and differentiation, protection from cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, yeast, viruses and parasites (Conneely et al. 2005). Another dominant role of lactoferrin is during involution of mammary gland. Concentration of lactoferrin increased dramatically from 0.1-0.3mg/ml in normal milk to 20-30mg/ml by 30 days in dry period. It is particularly important for bacteriostatic properties and non-specific defense against invading bacteria. Lactoferrin also affects phagocyte function and limit oxidative degeneration of cell components during inflammation and involution (Welty et al. 1976). Lactoferrin exhibits strong antimicrobial activity against different bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungi and yeast (Hancock and Janssen 2009). The antibacterial activity of lactoferrin is due to two mechanisms; by binding the iron at infection sites, making it unavailable to bacteria and direct interaction of N-terminal of lactoferrin with micro-organism (Cruz et al. 2009, Orsi 2004). Lactoferrin acts differently with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Sharma et al. 2013). It damages Gram-positive cell wall through interaction with negatively charged lipoteichoic acid causing reduction in negative charge on cell wall and favor contact between lysozyme and inner peptidoglycan (Fayad 2012). Gram-negative bacteria are destroyed by interaction of lactoferrin with external lipopolysaccharides by preventing contact with Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions which cause release of lipopolysaccharides, increase permeability and ensures damage (Ochoa and Cleary 2009, Ekins et al. 2004). Milk and milk products are one of main diet in Pakistan and all over the world. During manufacturing different milk products, a number of by-products are obtained. Among them, cheese whey is produced in high volumes. It is commonly dumped off into sewerage which cause serious environmental problem as it contain high organic matter as well as loss of valuable nutrients it contain. Whey has Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) ranges from 40,000 to 60,000 ppm (Sayadi et al. 2006) while permitted limit for BOD of domestic sewerage is 200 to 300 ppm. In order to overcome this problem there is need of effective and permanent way for treatment of whey. However, conversion of whey into non-food items like biogas is unreasonable as it is rich in unique nutrients. Now-a-days there is an interest growing on to find new ways of whey utilization throughout the world. One option is to use the whey in processes in which saleable food or pharmaceutical products can be obtained. Whey could be subjected to different techniques to isolate different components like lactose, lysozyme and immunoglobulin. Likewise, lactoferrin can be isolated from cheese whey by cation exchange chromatography without loss of its biological properties in single step method and about 90% purity (Wu et al. 2011, Moradian et al. 2014). In this study, we anticipated to use lactoferrin from bovine milk as natural antimicrobial agent. It has been shown that lactoferrin hasstrong antimicrobial activity against different bacteria, fungi, yeast, viruses and parasites (Conneely et al. 2005). In our country, very little work has been carried out onlactoferrin as natural anti-microbial agent. In fact, all over the world, the research scenario is now changing and concentrating toward the extraction of natural agents for product safety and health improvement. The lactoferrin has a potent anti-microbial activity against common foodborne pathogens. Due to the negative health effects of synthetic anti-microbial agents, the uses of natural sources are being encouraged all over the world. Our main focus of this study is to check the anti-microbial activity of lactoferrin against three pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis isolatedduring our previous study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2265-T] (1).

262. Effect Of Alpha Lipoic Acid On Post Thaw Quality And In Vitro Incubation Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Bull Semen

by Muhammad Hammad Fayyaz (2008-VA-171) | Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Younas | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Cryopreservation is the freezing of cells or tissues to subzero temperatures, typically -196 º C. Many benefits have resulted from the process of cryopreservation. Damage induced by cryopreservation has been results cold shock, oxidative stress, osmotic changes, and formation of ice crystal and lipid–protein reorganizations within the cell membrane. Oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to impaired cell functions. Free radicals, includes ROS and RNS, are normal pro - oxidant molecules in aerobic metabolism. Alpha lipoic acid is a non-vitamin coenzyme that helps in significant metabolic and antioxidant functions in the body. Alpha lipoic acid has been reported to have extra functions by which they are able to synthesize vitamin C from its reduced form in the presence of glutathione. It is matchless among biological antioxidants, because it is equally lipid and water soluble. This allows it to nullify free radicals almost everywhere in the body, inside as well as outside the cells. Therefore, the objective of present study is to determine the effect alpha lipoic acid on post thaw quality and in vitro incubation of buffalo bull semen. Alpha lipoic acid scavenge on reactive oxygen species formed in semen during the process of cryopreservation, so it maintained good semen quality during post thaw and in vitro incubation. Three mature Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalis bubalis) bulls (4-8 year age) kept at SPU, Qadirabad Sahiwal Pakistan were used in the study. These bulls are being used as regular donors at SPU. There semen was collected with artificial vagina of temperature 42c; three ejaculates (one from each) was pooled and diluted (30 million sperms/ml) with extender of different inclusion levels (0.0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 mmol/ml) of alpha lipoic acid. Straws were filled and extended then semen was cooled for 2 hours and equilibrated for two hours. Semen was placed in Liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 minutes. Finally semen straws was put in liquid nitrogen, Total five replicates were performed. Now post thaw quality was checked in Summary 39 which various tests were performed, like %age motility, Acridine orange assay for DNA integrity, HOST for plasma membrane integrity, Fitc-PNA/PI for viability and acrosomal integrity. Longevity test was performed by in vitro incubation of frozen thawed semen sample in SOF and evaluating it at 1.5, 3 and 4.5 hour interval in Carbon dioxide incubator. It was expected that Alpha lipoic acid shown positive effect on post thaw quality and in vitro incubation of buffalo bull semen, in the meaning of increased percentage motility, Less DNA damage during cryopreservation and incubation, Increased acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity. So alpha lipoic acid shown positive effect by counter acting on ROS during cryopreservation and in vitro incubation. Results acquired from this study shown that an increase in sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, DNA integrity, Acrosomal integrity, viability and survival was caused by ALA competences in energy production and anti-oxidant properties, when used at the concentration of 0.5mM and 1mM. In summary, based on the results of our study, it can be concluded that an optimal concentration (0.5mM and 1mM) of ALA improved PMI, sperm motility and viability, minimize DNA damage and improved sperm survival. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2268-T] (1).

263. Development Of Cheddar Cheese By Using Crude Flowers Extract Of Citrus Aurantium (Sour Orange) As A Milk Coagulant

by Usman Mir Khan (2009-VA-510) | Mr. Ishtiaque Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Mr. Hifz-ul-Rahman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Presently in Pakistan a few dairy companies are producing Cheddar cheese. Several alternative proteases obtained from different vegetable and fruit sources such as fruits, roots, latex and flowers have been recommended as rennet coagulant replacer in cheeses processing. As there is now decrease in slaughtering of young calves, natural rennet shortage occurs, so to fill it, sometimes alternates of rennet used in cheese production technology. This research project was designed to implement and introduce the use of Citrus aurantium crude flower extracts (CFE) as an economical, easily available and rennet substitute in Cheddar cheese production. CFE was evaluated for its first time usage as coagulant in Cheddar cheese production and compared with rennet for its physicochemical characteristics and sensory evaluation. Cheddar cheese was made from buffalo milk. Standardized buffalo milk was pasteurized and then cooled to inoculation temperature. It was inoculated with addition of 2% of starter culture and given stay of 20-50 minutes. Then control sample was coagulated with 0.002% rennet and other samples were coagulated by Citrus aurantium crude flower extracts (CFE) at different levels of 1%, 2 %, 3% and 4% at coagulation time. After curdling, curd was cut, stirred and whey was drained. Then milling and cheddaring of cheese blocks was done. Salting was done at the rate of 2.5%. After pressing, cheese was stored in hygienic packaging and left for ripening at 10°C for 2 to 3 months. Acceptability of newly developed Cheddar cheese using crude flower extracts (CFE) as a coagulant was evaluated by sensory evaluation using criteria of color, Cheddar cheese Summary 49 samples were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation at 63 days of storage. The statistical analysis was carried out by using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques under (CRD) Completely Randomized Design (Steel et al. 1987). Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) Test was used for significant difference comparisons (SAS 9.1 Statistical Software). The cheese prepared from using 1% and 4% CFE cheese showed higher fat contents from 0 to 63 days while CFE cheese prepared with 1% and 3% have significant fat contents and less than control sample prepared with rennet. Cheddar cheese with %, 2% and 3% showed similar 25% protein content respectively but less than 4% and rennet coagulated standard Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese made from 2% and 1% CFE showed slightly higher moisture content while 3% and 4% showed moisture content of 33% almost similar to the rennet coagulated Cheddar cheese which showed 32% of moisture content. The cheese prepared from using 4% CFE cheese showed highest pH of 5.57 at 0 days while after storage at 63 days pH decreased to 5.52. CFE Cheddar cheese prepared with 1%, 2% and 3% showed pH of 5.55 at 0 days and decreased to 5.52 which is standard pH of the Cheddar cheese. Salting of all cheese samples was done at the rate of 2.5%. The cheese prepared from using 2% and 3% CFE showed decrease in salt but it was higher than 1% and controlled Cheddar cheese. While 4% showed lower salt contents than all cheeses. Results showed that cheeses were made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a longer and slightly softer texture. While cheeses contained 3% and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese which is similar to the standard Cheddar cheese made with rennet. Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% for their better taste, texture/appearance and overall Summary 50 acceptability but it was less preferred over standard Cheddar cheese (controlled) due to the presence of bitter and intense aroma compounds of Citrus aurantium flowers. It will give a benefit to the cheese industry by introducing a new economical, nutritional and easily available rennet substitute source of milk coagulation. Pakistan is producing largest amount of Citrus aurantium, so it will improve its export in other countries for usage as an alternate of rennet and to provide economic benefits to our country. Furthermore, it will open new ways for researchers to find out the characterization of extract and enzyme of CFE. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2302-T] (1).

264. Chemical Characteristics Of Trans Free Margarine Enriched With Omega Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia Hispanica L.) Oil

by Muhammad Ajmal (2009-VA-495) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Muhammad Nadeem | Dr. Muhammad Hayat Jaspal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Omega fatty acids has been related with low cholesterol level in blood, reduce the blood pressure, decreases the risk of heart attacks. Omega-3 PUFA is anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-lipogenic, prevent the hypertension. Margarine was prepared by blending milk fat 70%, palm oil different concentration 30%, 27.5%, 25%, 22.5% and 20% T0 to T4 respectively .Chia seed oil in various proportions 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% T0 to T4 respectively. Milk fat, Palm oil and chia Seed oil was characterized for free fatty acids, moisture content, saponification value, iodine value, refractive index. Solid fat index was determined at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40˚C by the dilatometric method, melting point was determined by open capillary tube technique.Color, peroxide value, anisidine value, conjugated dienes and trienes was determined. Fatty acids composition of margarines were determined by the transformation into fatty acid methyl esters. Margarine was stored at -6±1oC, for 60-days, iodine value, peroxide anisidine values, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes was determined. Induction period of margarine was determined by oxidizing the samples under a steady stream of oxygen (20L/hour) at 120oC, on a Rancimat. Sensory evaluation was performed by a panel of ten trained panel of judges, samples was evaluated for color, smell, taste and overall acceptability on a 9-point Hedonic scale.All treatments were replicated three times, every sample was analyzed three times and data were expressed as Mean ± SD. The data was analyze by one way and two way analysis of variance technique, the difference among the treatments was made by Duncan Multiple Range Test Free fatty acids increased in all the treatments during the entire storage period from 0 day to 60 days, the content of fatty acid during storage period depend upon the degree of unsaturation. . Peroxide value increased in trans free margarine enriched with omega fatty acids through chia oil the during the storage of margarine. The rise in peroxide value at all the determination frequencies was in the order of T4> T3> T2> T1> control. Iodine value increases in trans free margarine enriched with omega fatty acids through chia oil during the storage time. The decline in iodine value of all the treatments and control was in the order of T4> T3 > T2 > T1 > control. The treatment having more unsaturated fatty acids, underwent more oxidation and yielded the higher extents of oxidation products. Anisidine value of all the treatments and control increased throughout the storage period, all the determination frequencies revealed an increasing trend, however, the rise in magnitude of oxidation products was different in all the treatments and control.Values of conjugated dienes and trienes numerically increased during the storage period, all the measurement intervals revealed an increasing trend, however, the rise in extent of oxidation products was mainly dependent upon the fatty acid composition and treatments having higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids suffered more oxidation.Addition of chia oil in margarine did not have any impact on moisture content of margarine, moisture content of all the treatments and control was not different from each other (P>0.05). Non-significant changes melting point during storage time in margarine. Color of all the experimental margarines and control were not different from each other (P>0.05). Saponification value non-significant in treatments during storage time from 0 day to 60 days. Analysis of variance indicated that treatments had significant effect on SFI, whereas, the effect of storage and the interaction between treatments and storage was non-significant. The content of C18:3 (omega fatty acid) in margarine is significantly increased from T1 to T4 due to chia oil because it contain 68 % alpha linolenic acid. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2301-T] (1).

265. Prevalence Of Tick Borne Hemoparasites And Identification Of Ticks With Their Treatment In Dogs

by Muhammad Shehriyar Khan (2013-VA-438) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Dogs are one of the most commonly owned companion pets worldwide. They are kept for various factors such as hunting, guarding, and amusement or for animal assisted therapy. Tick infestation is a common problem in dogs and its transmitted infections usually tick borne hemoparasitic diseases are emerging as a worldwide problem not just for animals but also for humans. Due to this phenomenon, ticks are now recognized as a major cause of various diseases in of urban environments. The current research has been conducted to study the prevalence of tick infestation, associated risk factors and chemotherapeutic trials of topical acaricides were used in order to study comparative efficacy, were conducted in dogs. Furthermore, prevalence of tick borne hemoparasitic diseases was also observed by performing microscopic blood smear examination in dogs of Lahore district. A total of 300 dogs (n= 200 positive for tick infestation; n= 100 negative for tick infestation) having tick infestation were included in the present study. Dogs of different sex, age and breed were selected for tick collection. The ticks were collected with the help of forceps from the target sites of each dog, while adopting all necessary measures to avoid damage to the mouth parts of the ticks and skin of the host. The collected ticks were preserved in plastic containers containing 70% ethanol, which was separate for each specimen. Ticks were identified under stereoscope by observing morphological characteristics of each tick, according to the key. Blood sample for tick borne hemoparasitic diseases was drawn from cephalic vein of each dog using disposable syringe and was poured into EDTA vacutainer. Thin blood smear slide was then prepared from the blood of the animal, dried in air and was stained using Geimsa’s staining method. The hemoparasites observed in the blood of the dogs were then characterized and Summary 51 identified by their morphological characteristics. For chemotherapy, a total of 30 tick infested dogs of different breeds viz. Rottweiler, German shepherd and Labrador was used in therapeutic trials. Each breed of dog was divided into 2 subgroups which were then treated with topical ivermectin and fipronil 1500μg/kg b.w and 15mg/kg b.w respectively. Efficacy of the drugs was then measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and reversal of tick infestation at day 2, 4 and 6 of post-medication. Data regarding the prevalence of tick borne hemoparasitic diseases and tick infestation was analyzed by using Non-parametric, Chi-square test whereas data on therapeutic trials was analyzed by Z-test, using statistical package for social science (SPSS). P < 0.05 was considered significant. The results obtained showed us that the study area is at a risk of tick infestation and tick borne hemoparasitic diseases. In dogs, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick) species was observed and identified as a major tick infesting dogs of the study area during the course of study. Various determinants including tick density and its genus, host age, sex, predilection site host breed and season significantly affected the tick infestation in the study area. The prevalence for tick infestation was found highest in Pastoral dogs as compared to other breed types found in dogs. Among breeds German shepherd showed highest prevalence for tick infestation. Adolescence age group among dogs was more prone to tick infestation. The number of males affected by ticks was highest as compared to females in dog population. Among the dog population, majority of the animals infested by ticks were categorized under mild infestation. The most favorable predilection site for tick infestation in dogs was ear pinnae, followed by head and then neck. Monsoon was the most favorable season for tick infestation in dogs. September was found to be highest favorable month for tick infestation in dogs. Summary 52 In tick borne hemoparasitic diseases, babesiosis was the highest prevalent disease in dogs (63.33%), followed by trypanosomiasis (0.66%) and mixed infection (0.33%). Age group among dogs showed non-significant factor affecting prevalence for TBHD’s. The number of affected dogs for babesiosis was greater in adolescence age group as compared to other age groups. On the other hand, trypanosomiasis and mixed infection adult age group was found highly susceptible. Males of canine group were slightly more susceptible than females in case of babesiosis. Similarly for trypanosoniasis and mixed infection males were more prone than females. For babesiosis, monsoon was the most favorable season in dogs. Whereas for trypanosomiasis and mixed infection, post monsoon was found to be favorable season in dogs. In breed type of dogs, prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in Pastoral dogs. In dogs the prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in German shepherd breed, whereas for trypanosomiasis and mixed infection Cross breed was the most susceptible breed. For trypanosomiasis and mixed infection Cross breed was the most susceptible breed type. The prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in the month of September. For trypanosomiasis and mixed infection, the month of October was found to be highest susceptible month for dogs. Chemotherapeutic trial of topical acaricides against tick infestation in dogs revealed that Fipronil was more efficacious drug as compared to Ivermectin. Such type of epidemiological data of tick infestation, TBHDs and its chemotherapeutic trial will help to control tick infestation and tick borne hemoparasitic diseases to save the life of companion animal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2303-T] (1).

266. Studies On Growth Performance, Morphology, Reproductive Traits And Behavioral Aspects Of Ring Necked Pheasants In Captivity

by Sana Ashraf | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. Khalid Mehmood Anjum | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Besides ecological importance, pheasants also have aesthetic values which mainly contribute to their decline in population due to poaching in their native habitat. Among 49 species of pheasants in the world, 5 are endemic to Pakistan with distribution in the Himalaya and remote northern parts of the country. Due to increase in human population, intrusion, poaching, and habitat disturbance pheasants are threatened. However, much of the work on captivity is based on production rather morphological, ornamentation or reproductive traits which could have important implications for the management of wild and captive populations as a whole. Some studies still remain to be explored. Present study was conducted to find out the relationship of egg weight with egg quality parameters and growth traits of ring-necked pheasant Phasianuscolchicus. Total of 450 eggs were collected and were divided into three egg weight categories viz. light (20.0-26.0g), medium (27.0-32.0g) and heavy (33.0-40.0g) egg weight eggs. Fifty eggs for each of the egg category were reserved for the evaluation of internal egg quality parameters. External egg quality parameters i.e. egg length, breadth, egg volume and surface area varied significantly (P<0.05) between all the three egg weight categories. Similarly, significantly higher albumen and yolk weight were recorded in heavy weight egg category while non-significant relationship of egg weight was observed for shell and membrane thickness, yolk percentage, yolk index, yolk pH and albumen pH of the egg. The hatching percentage for the remaining 300 egg kept in incubator was 47.33%. Forty chicks from each of the egg weight category were selected and chick weight, wing length and wingspan were taken at the time of hatching and thereafter increase in these parameters were noted on weekly basis. The effect of egg weight on chick weight, live weight gain, wing length and wingspan was significant (P<0.05) from 1st to 12th month of age. Our studies revealed that egg weight has strong influence on external and internal characteristics of the eggs and the growth parameters in P. colchicus chicks. The present study was planned to evaluate the time budgets of ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicus in captivity. The birds were kept in cages of 5 ft × 5 ft × 3 ft (length × width × height) and were housed in a 20 ft × 20 ft (length × width) well ventilated room at Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Captive birds were divided into three categories viz. adult male, adult female and chicks and were placed into separate cages. Behavioral parameters viz. jumping, aggression, preening, feather pecking, walking, standing, sitting, litter pecking, drinking, feeding, body shaking, voice call and feather flapping were assessed for 30 birds from each of the three categories through scan sampling. Statistically significant variations were recorded in behavioral aspects among all the three categories. Male birds spent significantly higher times in aggression (155.26±3.10 sec), preening (74.04±3.05 sec), walking (1370.93±54.45 sec), drinking (74.00±3.18 sec), body shaking (24.92 ±3.11 sec), voice call (20.08±3.17 sec) and feather flapping (15.42±2.73 sec) while female P. colchicus spent significantly higher times in sitting (364.57±3.74 sec). Similarly, the chicks spent significantly higher times in jumping (36.17±2.75 sec), feather pecking (265.19±3.17 sec), standing (1230.13±23.86 sec), litter pecking (234.89±2.97 sec) and feeding (115.44±3.11 sec) as compared to the adult female and male birds. Fecal and blood samples of ring necked pheasants, Phasianuscolchicus were analyzed to record the parasitic prevalence in these pheasants. A total of 1000 samples, 500 blood and 500 fecal samples were collected from Captive Breeding Facilities for Birds, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Parasitic genera identified from blood samples of P. colchicus include Leukocytozoon, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Prevalence of Leukocytozoon was 16 % while the prevalence of Haemoproteus was 14.3%. Parasitic genera identified from fecal samples of P. colchicus include Eimeria, Isospora, Trichomonas and Giardia. Eggs of five species of nematodes viz. Capillaria, Syngamus trachea andAscaridia,Heterakisisoloncheand Heterakisgallinarum were also identified from the fecal samples. The ectoparasites include one species of burrowing mite Knemidocoptesmutansand two species of chewing lice i.e. Amyrsideaperdicis and Lipeurusmaculosus. Variations in hematological parameters during different life history stages were recorded in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) for a period of 1 year. Thirty birds were selected for analysis of selected hematological parameters viz. red blood cells count, white blood cells count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, total serum protein and leucocyte count. These birds were kept in cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein and variations in blood parameters were recorded on monthly basis. Significantly, lower RBC’s count was observed during 2nd month of age while during same month significantly higher WBC count was noticed. Significantly lower values of hemoglobin were observed during 1st and 2nd month of age. Significantly higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration percentage (MCHC%) was recorded during 6th and 7th month of age. Lower packed cell volume (PCV) values were observed during 2nd and 6th month of age while the total serum protein concentrations were recorded maximum during 10th month of age. Significantly, higher heterophils count was recorded during 2nd and 10th month of age while maximum lymphocyte count was observed during 2nd and 7th months of age. Significantly, higher concentrations of monocytes were recorded during 11th, 12thand 10th month of age. The eiosinophils count varied from minimum (110 ± 13.50) during 3rd month to maximum (902 ± 93.22) during 11th month of age. Similarly, significantly higher values of basophils were recorded during 1st month of age. It can be concluded from the present study that the blood profile of the pheasants changes with age. Variations in hematological parameters for adult male and female ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) were recorded. Forty adult ring-necked pheasants (20 ♂, 20 ♀) were kept in separate cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein. Different blood and serum chemistry parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb ) concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, ALP, uric acid, cholesterol, total serum protein, albumin and creatinine were determined among adult male and female pheasants. Non-significant differences in RBCs, WBCs, heterophils, eosinophils, MCHC and Hb values were observed among male and female pheasants. Significantly, higher values of lymphocytes, monocytes and PCV were observed in males while higher basophil count was observed in female as compared to male birds. Significantly higher values for ALP, cholesterol, total serum protein and creatinine were observed in males while higher uric acid values were observed in females as compared to male P. colchicus. However, non-significant differences in albumin were recorded among male and female birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2350-T] (1).

267. Effect Of Different Dietary Lysine Levels And Feed Restriction Regimes On Growth Performance And Slaughtering Characteristics In Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Maintained During Hot Season

by Yassar Abbas (2008-VA-753) | Dr. Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arkam | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: High prices, global shortage of feed ingredients and less supply of animal protein against great demand as consequence of ever increasing human population needs to enhance protein supply. One way of enhancing protein supply is to expand poultry production along with increasing production of other micro livestock such as Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) having low maintenance cost, short generation intervals, early sexual maturity and better resistance to diseases and its meat being rich in high quality protein having high biological value with low caloric content. Profit can be optimized by minimizing feed cost that accounts for 60-70 % of the total production cost and any improvements in the performance of birds by manipulation of feeding strategies inevitably have a profound effect on profitability. Any effort to improve commercial poultry production and enhance its efficiency needs to emphasize on better utilization of existing resources. Among different feeding management schemes and strategies phase feeding may be employed with the logic seems to feed birds for shorter periods of time to exactly meet but not exceed the amino acids requirements hence improvement in carcass characteristics and reduction of dietary cost. Commercial availability of very vital limiting amino acids (lysine) has set a new tendency of formulation of poultry feeds having low protein level with addition of amino acids. Lysine, being utmost essential amino acid is used as a reference for other essential amino acids. Feed restriction program may be another managemental tool that may elicit compensatory growth, improved feed efficiency, carcass quality and birds are not exposed to sub optimal level of nutrients but the efficiency of utilization of these nutrients may be improved. On the other hand breed, strain, management and sex differences for carcass traits have also been reported. Very little research focus on the subject has necessitated conducting the ABSTRACT vii present study undertaken in Japanese quails on the similar pattern as adopted in broiler industry to make quail production more cost-effective and commercially viable at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. A series of experiments at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan was run to assess the effect of different management interventions on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood biochemical profile in Japanese quail. The first experiment was aimed to examine the growth performance and economic efficiency involving 1440 day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicks. Three dietary lysine levels (1.3, 1.4-1.2 & 1.5-1.3-1.1 %) in 3 different phases were allocated to four different close-bred stocks (Imported, Local-1, Local-2 and Local-3) of Japanese quails to assess their comparative growth performance by replicating each treatment for three times. The experimental day-old quail chicks were randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 40 chicks each. Quails under 1st treatment were fed a diet with 1.3 percent lysine throughout the grow-out period of 28 days, while, those under 2nd treatment were allotted diet with 1.4 percent lysine up to14 days of age and then subsequently reduced to 1.2 percent lysine up to 28 days. The 3rd treatment was split into 03 different phases. The first phase was up to 9th, 2nd up to 19th and 3rd up to 28th day by allotting diet containing 1.5, 1.3 and 1.1 % lysine, respectively. Weekly data on growth performance were recorded and analyzed through ANOVA technique in CRD under factorial arrangement and the comparison of means was worked out using DMR test by the help of SAS 9.1. Maximum (P≤0.05) feed intake; body weight gain and improved FCR were observed in three phase dietary lysine regimen leading to maximum profit margins. viii In the 2nd experiment same experimental design and phase feeding was practiced to observe organ development. Sexing with in treatment was done at the age of three weeks and quails were maintained separately for one week. At 4 week of age, 3 birds/ replicate from either sex were slaughtered through Halal Muslim method for studying carcass characteristics. Two birds per replicate from either sex were used for serum analysis of glucose, cholesterol, urea, albumen and total protein using standard procedures. The analysis showed three phase dietary lysine regimen than other dietary lysine regimens improved (P≤0.05) slaughter characteristics i.e. post slaughter weight (g), dressing percentage with and without giblets, breast yield (g), thigh yield (g), giblet weight (g), liver weight (g), keel length (cm), shank length (cm), weight of visceral organs including intestinal weight (g) and intestinal length (cm). However, heart weight (g), gizzard (empty) weight (g), serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, albumin and total protein were not significantly affected by dietary lysine regimen. While, different close bred stocks did not show any significant differences. Third experiment was executed to examine the growth performance and economic efficiency of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) subjected to different feed restriction regimes at ART Centre, UVAS, Lahore. For this purpose a total of 3200 quail chicks from four different close-bred stocks were allocated to four different feed restriction regimes comprising four close-bred stocks (Imported, Local-1, Local -2 and Local-3) at the age of 10 days. The experimental quails in group 1 were fed ad-libitum (20.30% CP, 1.3% Lysine, as recommended by NRC) throughout the experimental period to serve as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were provided with 1 hour feed- 3-hour off, 2-hour feed- 2hour off and 3-hour feed-1hour off feeding regimes, respectively. The analysis of data showed that the maximum feed intake was observed in ad-libitum fed group whereas the highest body weight gain was observed in ad-libitum and 3 hour ix fed quails. The best FCR leading to maximum profit margin was observed in 3 hour-fed group. Different close-bred stocks could not express any significant difference in growth parameters. In the 4th experiment same dietary plan of time restriction as in 3rd experiment was adopted to observe organ development. At the termination of the experiment (at the age of 38 days), 6 birds (3 male and 3 female) from each replicate were randomly picked up and slaughtered (by Halal method) to study different slaughter parameters. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) carcass weight, mean dressing % with and without giblet, mean thigh weight was observed in ad-libitum and 3 hours fed quails while significantly lower mean dressing %, liver weight, gizzard weight, giblet weight, breast weight and mean intestinal length and weight in one hour fed quail. Blood profile showed significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum glucose, urea, albumin and total protein level in ad-libitum and 3-hours fed quails while significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum cholesterol level was observed in one hour fed quails. Heart weights (g), keel length (cm), shank length (cm) were not affected significantly among different treatments and close-bred stocks. Conclusion Based upon the findings of the present study it may be stated that 1. Maximum (P≤0.05) feed intake; body weight gain and improved FCR were observed in three phase dietary lysine regimen leading to maximum profit margins. 2. Significant improvement in carcass characteristics was recorded in three phase dietary lysine regimen. 3. The best FCR leading to maximum profit margin was observed in 3 hour-fed group in Japanese quails when subjected to different feed restriction regimens. x 4. Three hour fed quails showed superior carcass characteristics at par with ad-libitum fed groups especially in terms of carcass weight, dressing percentage and thigh weight. 5. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum glucose, urea, albumin and total protein level were recorded in ad-libitum and 3-hours fed quails while significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum cholesterol level was observed in one hour fed quails. Suggestions and Recommendations Four lysine dietary regimens having 1 week each may successfully be employed in Japanese quails in order to get maximum profit. It may further be recommended that Japanese quails may be subjected to feed restriction of 1-hour after 2nd week. The present series of experimentation is a step towards optimizing the nutritional and managemental strategies in Japanese quails, however, a lot more is still needed to be worked out in this direction. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2340-T] (1).

268. Development Of A Suitable Semen Extender For The Cryopreservation Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Semen

by Fazal Wadood (2007-VA-557) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Dr. Muhammad Younas | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Presently, buffalo farmers are dissatisfied with fertility rates of the frozen semen used in the field and tend to use bulls. This study was designed to develop a suitable semen extender for cryopreservation of Nili Ravi buffalo semen that can improve conception rate in buffaloes. Experiment-I, an attempt was made to develop semen extender with optimal osmotic pressure for buffalo semen using tris citric acid (TCAE), skim milk (SME) and coconut water (CWE) extenders (each extender have 260, 270, 280, 290 and 300 mOsm/kg osmotic pressure levels). In Experiment-II, best extender (TCAE: 300 mOsm/kg) of experiment-I was tried to improve post thaw spermatozoa characteristics by supplementing antioxidants [0.0, 1.75, 2.0 and 2.25 mM butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and 0.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 8.0 mM L-cysteine]. Post thaw spermatozoa motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), DNA damage rate and lipid peroxidation were assessed in first two experiments. In Experiment-III, pregnancy rate assessment of extended semen was carried out by using Trial extender (best of experiment II) or Control extender of Semen Production Unit (SPU), Qadirabad, Pakistan (50 inseminations of each extender). Higher spermatozoa motility at ≥ 270 mOsm/kg was noted in TCAE than both SME and CWE could be due to less intracellular ice formation in zwitterions extender. Higher spermatozoa viability in TCAE and CWE compared to SME may be attributed to extender effectiveness. Higher acrosomal integrity rate at 300 mOsm/kg in TCAE and SME may be because of less intracellular ice formation in isotonic extenders. At 290 mOsm/kg, higher spermatozoa PMI in SME and lesser DNA damage in three extenders might be due to lesser intracellular ice formation at cryopreservation. Decreased spermatozoa DNA damage in SME might be due to the presence of natural antioxidants i.e., casein. Higher lipid peroxidation in CWE than TCAE and SME may be due to presence of natural antioxidants (in SME) and higher cell dehydration potential of TCAE. Higher spermatozoa motility recorded at 2.0 mM BHT compared to other BHT groups including DMSO might be due to fact that BHT protects spermatozoa mitochondria by reducing oxidative stress. Lower spermatozoa viability, PMI rates and higher DNA damage at 2.25 mM of BHT may be due to BHT toxic effects. Lower lipid peroxidation in BHT treated groups compared to DMSO and BHT control groups might be related to BHT strong antioxidant properties. L-cysteine caused higher spermatozoa DNA damage at highest level (i.e., 8 mM) that could also be due to antioxidant’s toxic effect. Pregnancy rate 18 % higher was noted in Trial than Control semen extender; however no significant difference have been noted that might be due to less no of inseminations. In conclusion, TCA extender (300 mOsm/kg) having BHT (2.0 mM) improved post thaw semen quality and yielded numerically better pregnancy rates. Results of study indicated that osmotic stress damaged the spermatozoa internal structures more severely than injury to plasma membrane. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2360-T] (1).

269. Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Pregnant And Aborted Women Of Rural And Urban Areas In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab Pakistan

by Shakeela Anjum (2006-VA-172) | Dr. Iahtasham khan | Prof. Dr. Abdul shakoor | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of animals and human. According to OIE (Office International des Epizooties), it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the world after rabies Brucellosis is more common in countries with Poorly standardized animal and public health programme. Human Brucellosis caused by B. abortus, B. abortus are small, non-motile, aerobic, facultative intracellular, Gram-negative cocobacilli. The symptoms of human brucellosis are undulant fever, headache, weakness, body pain, and sometimes endocarditis, orchitis, or arthritis may develop. Prolonged use of combination of antibiotics and human vaccine is main control measure strategies for human brucellosis. This disease is under investigated and hence people are ignorant of this insidious problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheap tool to diagnose this problem. There is also need to know that which diagnostic antigen (Pakistani or French) is more sensitive and specific from disease eradication and control point of view. Unfortunately annual incidence of brucellosis in whole Pakistan is unknown but they are expected above 2 per 100,000 people. The hypothesis of present study was that brucellosis is considered to be endemic in Pakistan but there is no data available about seroprevalence of brucellosis in pregnant, aborted, rural and urban women with different risk factors in Pakistan. In present study sero-screening of total 199 serum samples of pregnant and women presenting with abortions from district Jhang, district Chinoit and district Faisalabad. Test was performed on 199 samples which showed 40 (20%) positives by RBPT (Pakistan) and 42 (21%) positives by RBPT (France) (Table 4.4). While the indirect modified ELISA showing 5 (2.5%) positive samples. All sera tested positives (5) with modified i-ELIA were also tested positives with another specific and highly expensive ELISA (Verion Serion) at OIE reference Summary 41 Laboratory for brucellosis, Germany. Prevalence data was analyzed by chi square test using SPSS version 20 Software (Apache License, USA) to find out correlation between risk factors and brucellosis prevalence. Risk factors such as consumption of raw milk, contact with animals, and symptoms were significant. In our opinion, indirect modified ELISA is more sensitive than RBPT (Pakistan) and RBPT (French). RBPT, (Pakistan) can be used for primary screening of brucellosis cases because of cross reactivity present in RBPT antigen and confirmation must be made with a more specific and sensitive serological test, such as B. abortus-specific indirect modified ELISA. The results of present study showed that RBPT, Pakistan antigen showed almost same sensitivity and specificity as that of RBPT (Pourquier, France) antigen. Indirect modified ELISA is more specific as compared to RBPT (Pakistan) and RBPT (French). It is highly suggestive to combine serodiagnostics test with molecular detection including PCR and Real time PCR to increase the detection rate of brucellosis. Human ELISA kit is extremely expensive that cannot be afforded in developing countries like Pakistan to screen the human. PCR technique is highly reliable and less time consuming. It is highly suggestive to conduct the study on human brucellosis on other districts of south Punjab as it is believed that brucellosis is endemic due to lack of awareness and vaccination in these areas. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2359-T] (1).

270. Seroprevalence Of Camel Brucellosis In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab, Pakistan

by Sana Fatima (2007-VA-455) | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Dr. Amar Nasir | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: This is a representative study from Pakistan conducted in three districts of Punjab i.e., Jhang, Chiniot and Bhakkar which are rich in livestock population. There is a lot of research work on livestock and dairy animals but camels are neglected and under-investigated animals. Nomads mainly depend upon camels for milk, meat, milk byproducts and their earnings. Indeed, it is a precious animal for them and therefore, to ensure the good health of their animals it is essential that owners maintain healthy husbandry conditions. Brucellosis is one of the major and unreported problems amongst the camels of our country. It results in losses to the economics of the farmers/owners in terms of poor health, abortions, long calving interval, production of weak offspring’s and poor quality of milk and meat. This disease is under-investigated and hence people are ignorant of this insidious problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheaper tool to diagnose this problem. Determination of the seroprevalence is important to know the load of disease and pockets of infections in the areas of central Punjab, Pakistan. There is also a need to know which diagnostic antigen is more sensitive and specific from disease eradication and control point of view. A total of 200 camel serum samples were collected from three districts of the Punjab province and tested by conventional screening test i.e., Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT) by using two antigens of different countries origin i.e. RBPT (IDEXX, Pourquier, France) and RBPT (VRI, Pakistan) and then tested with confirmatory competitive Enzymelinked Immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The data thus obtained regarding seroprevalence was analyzed by using Chi-square and logistic regression IBM SPSS Statistics 20 (Apache software license,USA). Summary 44 Of the total 200 camels (50 male and 150 female), 5% (10 of 200), 4% (8 of 200) were seropositive for anti-Brucella antibodies. Different risk factors were also included in study like origin (nomadic and organized), area, age, gender, season, type of herd, abortion history and orchitis in male. All of these risk factors were statistically analyzed to reveal the truth about camel brucellosis. Of the various risk factors studied, the risk factors including camels (cows) positive history of abortion (45.5%), orchitis (camel bulls) (33.3%), rearing with other ruminants (9.4%), winter season (11.5%), nomadic production system (2.67-6.67%), and area Jhang (6- 12%) and Chiniot (2-8%) were statistically significant which could be potential source of threat for humans and other animals. The testing was performed using conventional methods as well as using cELISA. It is concluded that cELISA is more specific than conventional screening tests but molecular diagnosis is highly suggestive for future studies. ELISA performed in Pakistan (cELISA, Svanovir) and the ELISA (iELISA, ID VET Kit, France) performed in OIE reference lab for brucellosis in Germany showed perfect agreement between them (both tested four camel sera positive). The current study will help to minimize and eradicate the low prevalence of camel brucellosis by creating awareness amongst the farmers and through vaccination and herd immunization of all camel calves at age of 4-8 months. Adopting the policy of testing and culling of positive reactors will be pivotal to achieve the objectives. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2361-T] (1).

271. Prevalance, Diagnosis and Economic Losses Due to Bovine Cysticercosis in Punjab

by Muhammad saeed (2009-VA-254) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1379-T] (1).

272. Detection Of Salmonella And Total Plate Count In Abattoir Meat And Premises

by Dr.Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food safety is scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This include a number of routines that be followed to avoid potentially serve health hazards. The track within this line of thought are safety between industry and market and then between the market and consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety consideration include the origin of food include the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and guidelines for the certification system for food. In considering market to consumer practices the usual thought is that food brought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In developed countries there are standard for food preparation, where as in lesser developed the main issue is simply the unavailability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. Foodborne illness is any problem resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, virus or parasite that contaminate food, as well as chemical or natural toxin. Beef and Mutton meat is an ideal food for all groups of ages, due to its high meat yield, low shrinkage, easy cooking and serving. In my study all sampling was done from Lahore Meat Processing complex which is the most modern abattoir in Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of meat in human diet the total plate count and salmonella detection in abattoir meat was done. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2365-T] (1).

273. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Immunopotentiating Agents In Subclinical Mastitis In Dairy Cows

by Muhammad Ibrahim (2013-va-435) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Waseem Shahzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Mastitis, an important disease of dairy animals influences the quality and quantity of milk. Mastitis, the inflammation of the udder regardless of the cause, is the most costly disease of dairy cows. It affects the milk quality and production of cow along with changes in the composition of milk and the extent to which various compositional changes occur depends on the inflammatory response. There is also fluctuation in complete blood count (CBC). The study was conducted in dairy cow at different government and private dairy farms in and around Lahore Total n=30 cows were included in study trials and for treatment trials n=24 cows suffering from subclinical mastitis were taken and divided into 5 groups, 1st group was Vit E + Se 2nd group was Garlic, 3rd group was Black pepper and 4th group was Lemon having n=6 cows in each group randomly. A 5th group was formed comprising of n=6 healthy cows served as negative control. The drug trials showed that it Vit E+ Se and Garlic were the most effective drugs by boosting immune system by increasing the hematological parameters and improving the milk compositional contents and after that Lemon showed the good results while treating subclinical mastitis. The Black Pepper showed significant role by enhancing immunity nut didn’t cure as much of subclinical mastitis. Statistical Design: The data on chemotherapy, hemogram and milk composition and milk sodium chloride level was analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired T test using SPSS 20.0. A probability levels <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2373-T] (1).

274. Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutic Study On Babesiosis In Different Breeds Of Cattle In Balochistan

by Muhammad Essa Kakar (2005-va-229) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Babesiosis which is also called as piroplasmosisis, Texas fever, redwater or tick fever, is an emerging, tick-transmitted (by a vector ixodidea) disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia having considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. Keeping in view the importance of babesiosis under local conditions, the present study was designed to evaluate the status babesiosis in Balochistan. For this purpose field and experimental studies were carried in two districts Quetta and Sibi of Balochistan Province to find out the status of babesiosis in Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Crossbred cattle. During field study epidemiological status of babesiosis was highlighted by selecting 600 cattle randomly from each district. The animals were distributed into 2 major groups i.e. Young animals less than 12 months and adult over 12 months of age. These groups were further sub-divided into Young animals (less than 6 months, up to 9 months and up to 12 months) while Adults animals (up to 2 years, 3 years and over 3 years). The vector of babesia was also kept under keen observation for the prevalence/infestation rate, identification and economic losses caused during the course of study. Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for further confirmation of babesia infection. The blood samples were also processed for hematological study to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters. For experimental study 148 animals were selected through clinical signs of babesiosis, blood smear examination and PCR. Out of theses 40 animals were maintained for therapeutic trail to find out the cheapest and easily available drug against bovine babesiosis. For this purpose Neem leaves were used in decoction form while Imidocarb dipopionate was kept as standard control. The Summary 177 results of epidemiological study revealed higher prevalence of babesiosis (20.5%) in district Quetta while 15.16% was recorded in District Sibi. Similarly higher prevalence was recorded in Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle respectively in both districts Quetta and Sibi. Furthermore higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in adult groups of Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle. Similarly season wise higher prevalence of babesia infection was noticed in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter respectively while higher prevalence was noted in female group of animals than male animals. Blood smears examination and PCR confirmed two babesia species i.e. babesia bigemina and babesia bovis. Similarly Boophilus tick species were identified as the vector of babesia parasites. During present study mixed hemoprotozaon infection of babesia mixed with theileria was recorded in both districts. The results of conventional method and modern diagnostic technique (PCR) revealed that PCR identified higher babesia infection during the entire 4 seasons as well as in all age groups whereas blood smears examination was capable to diagnose babesiosis in adult groups during the months of summer and spring season. Breed wise prevalence was also higher in samples treated with PCR than blood smears examination and even samples that were declared negative by blood smears examination were also found positive. The results of complete blood cell count from blood samples of infected experimental animal showed regenerative, macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Blood smear examination showed presence of many babesia with reticulocytes. Abnormalities in erythrocyte structure were seen. The result of blood parameters of total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin showed significant decrease in all three affected Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Cross bred cattle. The values of MCV and MCH were increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal value. No efficacy of neem decoction was noted against bovine babesiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2367-T] (1).

275. Proteomic And Genomic Analysis Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus And Efficacy Of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Essential Oils

by Sarwat Ali Raja | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Tayyaba Ijaz | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: A Cohort study (prospective and observational) was performed to study the prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the healthy individuals of community, hospitalized patients and associated health-care workers and indigenous plants essential oils were screened as new, improved & potent antibacterial/s against resistant strains of MRSA. The method involved isolation and identification of MRSA from surgical wounds of hospitalized patients & associated health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore and healthy volunteers from the community. Plant essentials oils & extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against selected MRSA isolates. Oils were recovered by steam distillation using an all-glass distillation assembly. Then in vitro sensitivity and MICs of plant essential oils were determined using vancomycin and linezolid as commercial standards. The essential oils were screened further for the active constituents by column chromatography using various solvents and identification of compounds were performed by GC/MS analysis and the fractions which showed prompt results were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against the MRSA isolates in quest to find new therapeutic options. Finally effective essential oils and their active fractions were studied for their toxicity using in vitro Genotoxic assays such as Ames and Comet assays. To further ensure their beneficial effects antimutagenic effect of the essential oils were also studied. Prevalence of S. aureus among patients was 52.9%, in HCWs 86.5% and in community 74% with an overall percentage of 72.6%. Among S. aureus those declared as MRSA were 91.8% from patients, 50.6% from HCWs and 59.5% from community with an overall percentage of 62.2% MRSA. Among the isolated MRSA overall 90.6% were Coagulase positive and 75.2% were biofilm positive. SUMMARY 211 The pattern of MRSA resistance against current antibiotics have shown an overall increase in the resistance with maximum shown for lincomycin followed by tetracycline, ampicillin, fusidic acid, amoxicillin and piperacillin with tazobactam. The most effective options among current regime were tigecyclin, amikacin and meropenem showing an overall least resistance. Resistance against linezolid was observed with an overall percentage of 25.6 % and vancomycin 33.3% by disc diffusion method. The MRSA isolates resistant to one or more groups of antibiotics were declared as MDRs. Among patients and health-care workers all were declared as MDRs where as in community 93.1% isolates were MDRs. Upon Protein profiling using whole cell proteins 44 bands of the polypeptides were produced with molecular size 10-200kDa from the three sampling groups and were categorized into 5 clusters showing an overall significance correlation with each other explaining an interesting fact that all these strains were interlinked establishing the fact of flow of hospital acquired MRSA in the community and vice versa. This analysis also gave an insight in explaining the fact of horizontal transmission of infection within the hospital. Keeping in view the raise in resistance among current available antibiotics indigenous medicinal plants essential oils were screened for active constituents exhibiting anti-bacterial effects against MRSA isolates. Maximum yield was obtained from Carum copticum followed by Cuminum cyminum and minimum yield was obtained in case of Zingiber officinale. Upon qualitative analysis of all five essential oils Carum copticum essential oil showed zones of inhibition greater than the standards vancomycin and linezolid followed Cuminum cyminum and Zingiber officinale in all three SUMMARY 212 sampling groups. Anethum sowa and Myristica fragrans essential oils showed no activity against MRSA. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the three essential oils determined by micro broth dilution method indicated that Carum copticum showed least value in all three types of MRSA isolates followed by Zingiber officinale and Cuminum cyminum. Effective essential oils were further fractioned using silica gel gravity columns. All the fractions obtained were screened for the anti-bacterial activity against all three types of MRSA isolates. Only fraction F1 of Carum copticum showed activity greater than pure essential oil and the two commercial standards of vancomycin and linezolid. For the identification of active constituents GC/MS analysis was performed on all three essential oils and their respective fractions. In case of fraction F1 the most dominant constituents were Carvacrol, p-Cymene, Ʈ-Terpinene and Apiol. In other two plants none of the fractions were effective. Therefore it was concluded to use pure essential oils in case of Zingiber officinale and Cuminum cyminum rather than their individual fractions and incase of Carum copticum Fraction F1 has shown superior activity. Finally these essential oils were tested for possible mutagenic effect using bacterial reversion mutation assay and Comet assay. No mutagenic effects were observed at MIC and above doses. These effective essential oils were also evaluated for possible antimutagenic effect. Both Carum copticum and Zingiber officinale essential oils showed strong antimutagenic effects and weak antimutagenic effect by Cuminum cyminum. Upon analysis of nuclear damage none of the plants essential oils and fraction F1 of Carum copticum showed genotoxic effects and indicated to be safe. Thus from the study it was concluded that Carum copticum essential oil and its fraction F1 were the most effective to be further investigated as an alternative treatment for MRSA infections. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2410-T] (1).

276. Comparative Efficacy Of Chemical And Surgical Debridement For Management Of Proud Flesh In Equines

by Assad Moon (2008-VA-187) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Shahla Gul Bukhari | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Wound healing in equines is one of the most laborious and expensive challenge to all stud farmers and surgeons. Exuberant granulation typically is an irregular and unhealthy appearing tissue with many grooves and clefts. Histologically exuberant granulation tissue has remains of fibrin deposits, which have not been cleared by the acute inflammatory response. Horses are predisposed to trauma wounds that can be labour intensive and expensive to manage. Wounds localized at the trunk region are less problematic and heal faster than wounds located at the distal aspect of the limb. Complications such as wound infection, formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) and hypertrophic scarring are frequent. The EGT or “Proud Flesh” is considered similar to the keloid of the human skin and together with wound contamination/infection, is currently the most complicated aspect of wound management in equines. The present project was designed to evaluate comparative efficacy of surgical and chemical debridement of such kind of wounds in horses. The clinical study was conducted on 20 already traumatized horses of either sex. The animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III and IV) comprising five animals each. These animals were kept in S.P.C.A, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. In a group I, Surgical excision was carried out to remove excessive growth from wounded area. Local anaesthesia with two percent lignocaine was in filtered for removal. Antiseptics were applied and over-granulation was smoothly removed from one margin of skin to other. Group II animals were treated with ten percent copper sulphate ointment, Group III animals were treated with two percent silver nitrate ointment and Group IV animals were treated with white lotion. Each technique had its own advantages and disadvantages. The results proved that surgical removal was a best choice for management of hyper-granulated wounds. It also had good scar formation SUMMARY 72 and faster recovery as compared to other chemical agents. It allows the closure of large wounds and faster epithelization to margins. The results of present study clearly indicated that surgical excision of hyper-granulated wound on early stages yields good recovery and proper union. Although silver nitrate has better penetrating power in wounds but it has no ability to epithelize the wound which terminates in slow recovery. Moreover silver is an expensive and less affordable to a common man. Copper sulphate has good recovery but it causes irritation while application and animal feels pain. White lotion is one of the good choice but expensive. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2413-T] (1).

277. Clinico-Epidemiological And Experimental Observations On Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease Among Domesticated Cats

by Abeera Naureen (2007-VA-541) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Idiopathic Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (iFLUTD) has been known as a major as well as important problem throughout the world especially the veterinary profession. Nicks of this problem also found in Pakistan, however the veterinarians are usually unable to properly diagnose this disease due to lack of knowledge as well as the ancillary diagnostic equipment availability for this disease. Present study was divided into two phases. Phase – 1 included clinico-epidemiological data. To this end, target of more than 502 domesticated client-owned cats of either sex, age, breed, etc showing signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) as per Buffington (1994) were examined accordingly from 3 different cities (Lahore, Faisalabad, and Islamabad) of Pakistan). All data collected was based on a predesigned proforma by using structured interview of the owners. Diagnosis was solely based on serum-cortisol levels, urinalysis, radiography and ultrasonography. Phase II involved experimental trial. The data obtained from whole of the study was then presented in tabulated form as frequencies and percentages. Treatment and outcome of the disease were also analyzed accordingly. According to the present study conducted it is proved that iFLUTD is present among the cats in Pakistan. Its proper cognizance among the Pakistani veterinarians is still non-existent and is misdiagnosed as colic or constipation issues in cats. The present study was undertaken to bring iFLUTD into the reportive of small animal practitioners working in Pakistan. The present study debunked various previous notions like iFLUTD is associated with commercial diets and canned foods only if we talk about this region majority of cases were noticed that had home-cooked food given by the owner. Moreover, cases in Siamese breed are larger than Persian breed. It has been strongly associated with Indoor housing management. Additional work is still needed to explore untouched areas of epidemiology including factors other than those being studied in the previous literature. Academicians in veterinary pathology and veterinary medicine of Pakistani universities should embrace this malady in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) curricula. According to the present study results it is concluded that two factors like stress and pain accelerate the sympathetic nervous system outflow compared to normal felines leading to the inflammatory response. Thus the stress factor must be reduced in the form of making hiding places for cats at home to reduced down the fear factor along with enhancing the feeling of owes for that particular place. Moreover, some more practices should be performed by the owner to reduce down the stress factor like playing with the pet, giving full attention, placing toys and other attractive things like yarn balls at the feline places (where they live/placed). There was no significant difference found between the groups based on the food with health score along with the therapeutic judgment. Hence, it is recommended that more experiments should be performed on larger scale to assess GAG therapy on increased number of felines and need of hour is to conduct more veterinary studies to get information and authenticity for its use against iFLUTD. From this study conducted, I recommend to the owners that the cats must be provided with the indoor hiding places and play with their pets in order to reduce the stress factor that increases the risk of idiopathic lower urinary tract disease. Moreover, the trend of home-cooked diet should be reduced along with increase in water intake by the cat. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2420-T] (1).

278. Sedative And Analgesic Effects Of Xylazine, Ketamine And Diazepam In Ducks

by Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad (2013-VA-856) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Mostly of the drugs given intramuscularly are ineffective in producing anesthesia in ducks. There are some combinations which have a synergistic effect for producing good sedation and analgesia. This combination includes ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-xylazine-diazepam. This study was conducted on ducks which are divided into two groups (A, B). The group A was given xylazine (5 mg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg) and the birds of group B was given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg), xylazine (2.5 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5mg/kg) cocktail. Anesthesia is the desensitization of body through nerve blockage. It is the reversible state of analgesia and loss of responsive-ness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes, decreased stress response, or all of these simultaneously. The average body temperature of ducks treated with KX and KXD was 105.02±0.12, and 104.97±0.18 oF, respectively. The average heart rate of ducks anesthetized by KX and KXD was 103.75±3.18, and 98.63±2.24 beats/min, respectively. The average respiratory rate of ducks treated with KX and KXD was 19.2±1.62, and 16.11±0.52 breaths/min, respectively. The onset of sedation in ducks anesthetized by KX, and KXD was recorded in 2.11±0.75 and 1.14±0.04 minutes after drug administration. The duration of sedation in the ducks anesthetized was 87.33±6.74, and 127.42±18.60 minutes, respectively. The recovery of ducks from sedation was recorded in 89.53±6.22, and 128.56±18.52 minutes. Onset of analgesia in ducks anesthetized by KX and KXD was recorded in3.22±0.54, and 1.67±0.77 minutes after drug administration. The duration of analgesia in the ducks anesthetized with KX and KXD was 39.76±3.89 and 81.15±11.17 minutes, respectively. The recovery of ducks from analgesia was recorded in 43.37±4.42 and 82.82±11.15 minutes, when anesthetized with KX and KXD respectively. The onset of sedation, onset of analgesia, duration was relatively delayed in KX SUMMARY 36 group; recovery from sedation and analgesia was observed in ducks anesthetized with KX group is early than KXD group. These effects can be obtained from a combination of drugs to achieve very specific combinations of results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sedative and analgesic effects of xylazine- ketamine and diazepam in different combinations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2422-T] (1).

279. Physiological, Behavioral And Immune Response In Three Commercial Broiler Strains Under Four Heating Systems

by Muhammad Jamil Alvi (2008-VA-480) | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Saima | Dr. Shahid Mehmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The performance of broilers maintained under four different brooding systems with respect to behavior of the birds, blood profile and immune response in comparison to different strain of broilers raising needs to be studied under local conditions as it has been reported to possess better prospects. Furthermore, broiler performance in four different brooding zones having different air quality needs to be investigated in view of their effect on performance of broilers. In the trial, 360 commercial (Hubbard, Ross, Cobb) day-old broiler chicks purchased from the local hatchery. Hence the present study was conducted, Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus, Pattoki with the objectives to compare the effect of strains and heating sources on the behavior (Walking, Feeding, Jumping, Litter Pecking, Lying, Standing, Preening, Breathing, Fearfulness, Body stretching, Rubbing beak with body) of the birds. In the present study effect of strains and heating system on blood biochemistry and immune response were also identified. The behavior of broilers strains studied under four different heating systems. Each treatment replicated 03 subgroups. The experimental chicks randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 10 chicks each after the adaptation period of three weeks. The heating system will be split into 04 groups (A, B, C and D). The birds in group A kept over hot water pipe lines. The birds in group B will be kept in gas heater area. The birds in group C kept in diesel brooder area. The birds in group D kept under pen cake brooder area. The data were analyzed according to analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) under factorial arrangements using GLM procedures. Means separated through Duncan Multiple Range (DMR) test with the help of SAS, 9.1. Results of the present study showed significant highest jumping behavior in birds reared on hot water pipes as compared to gas heater during starter SUMMARY 48 phase and grower phase. In interaction, significantly more jumping behavior was recorded on electric bulbs in Ross when compared with Ross on hot water in starter phase. Significantly highest aggression was showed in birds reared on gas heaters than birds reared on electric bulb and diesel brooder. The preening behavior significantly improved in birds reared on gas heaters in starter, grower and finisher phase. While minimum was recorded on hot water during starter, grower and finisher phase. The feather picking behavior and walking behavior significantly higher in birds reared on gas heater during starter, grower and finisher phase. The laying behavior was statistically significant in Cobb broiler chicks during finisher phase. The feeding and litter picking behavior significantly higher in Ross broiler chicks during finisher phase. The under heat source, stretching and rubbing beak with body behavior significantly improved in Hubbard broiler chicks during starter phase. The blood profile was not significantly influenced by strains and heating source. The antibody titer against ND and IBD was higher in Ross reared on water heating system as compared to other strains and heating sources while blood biochemical profile was also higher in Ross when reared at floor heating system. Conclusion:  Ross reared under hot water during brooding showed better and healthy behavior including jumping, aggression, walking, standing, drinking, lying, feeding and litter picking  Ross strains exhibited better immune response and serum chemistry at hot water brooding system. Suggestion and Recommendations:  Hot water can be used as alternative brooding source  Behavior of commercial poultry needs further investigation and research. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2428-T] (1).

280. Study On Autologous And Homologous Platelet Rich Plasma As A Surgical Wound Healing Promoter In Rabbits

by Muhammad Shahid Tahir (2012-VA-996) | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Wound healing is a complex process in which tissue repairs itself with the complete or incomplete regeneration. During recent years, new advances have been employed in the monarchy of tissue healing by initiation of use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) as a wound healing promoter in both soft and hard tissue surgeries. Platelet rich plasma is highly potentiated with growth and healing factors that can lead to marked acceleration in the tissue adaptation, repair and healing as compared to PRP non-facilitated healing process. This study was conducted on 16 adult healthy rabbits contributing 2 different groups, each group with 8 rabbits. Rabbits of both groups were surgically operated for skin autogenous grafting. Group A received an application of autologous PRP subcutaneously and in the surroundings of the graft defect, while group B received homologous PRP. Efficacy of both autologous and homologous PRP was evaluated on the basis of selected macroscopic and microscopic (histopathological) parameters of tissue repair and healing. The results, obtained in form of grades, were statistically analyzed by graphical representations. A successful use of autologous and homologous PRP with the desired results did not only boost up the surgical success rate in the specie under study but it opened a new vista on the same lines for other species to bring a better wound healing process. This study uprooted the conventional methods of managing wounds associated with injuries and helped the animals to get confidently satisfactory health status. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2452-T] (1).

281. Comparative Studies of Beta Glucan And Plant Stimulants on the Growth and Immune Response of Labeo Rohita

by Rafia Tayyab (2007-VA-313) | Dr. Noor Khan | Prof. dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Thesis submitted without cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2481-T] (1).

282. Season-Based Anatomical, Histological And Functional Modulations In Testes Of Nili-Ravi Buffalo Bulls In Sahiwal And Bahawalpur Divisions

by Sajid Hameed (2012-VA-651) | Dr. Saima Masood | Dr. Muhammad Younis | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Morphometric/histomorphometric analysis on testes of any species is necessary to assess qualitative changes in testicular components and spermatogenic functions. Testicular biometry, histomorphometry of seminiferous tubules, semen characteristics and dimensional characteristics of spermatozoa are generally affected by the climatic variations. In Pakistan, breeding bulls are kept at different semen productions units located in different climatic zones without any consideration of the climatic conditions and scientific justifications. In this breed until now, few reports are available on the seasonal variations in testicular biometry and semen characteristics. Seasonal influence on histomorphometry and dimensional characteristics of spermatozoa has not been studied before in this breed. Furthermore, all these parameters have not yet been studied in different climatic zones simultaneously to investigate the comparative climatic effect on the bull performance which may form the basis for keeping Nili-Ravi buffalo breeding bulls under best climatic zone for optimal performance. Keeping in view the above facts and gaps, the present study was conducted with objectives; to study the climate-led modulations in biometry and histomorphometry of testes, semen characteristics and dimensional characteristics of spermatozoa in Sahiwal and Bahawalpur divisions (two different climatic zones of Punjab) and to study the modulations in biometry and histomorphometry of testes, semen characteristics and dimensional characteristics of spermatozoa due to seasonal variations within each climatic zone in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. The study was carried out in Sahiwal and Bahawalpur divisions simultaneously for the period of one year divided into seasons (autumn, spring, dry summer, humid summer and winter). The study was accomplished in a set of two experiments. In Experiment-I, testicular biometry and Summary 140 histomorphometry was studied in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls in both the divisions. For testicular biometry, 14 adult Nili-Ravi buffalo breeding bulls (n=7 from SPU Karaniwala, Bahawalpur; n=7 from SPU Qadirabad, Sahiwal), aged 5-8 years, were used. Body Weight and orchidometric parameters viz. Scrotal Circumference, Testicular Length, Testicular Width and Paired Testicular Volume were recorded fortnightly. Whereas, for histomorphometry of testes, 200 healthy adult Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n=20 during each season from each division), aged 5-8 years, slaughtered at abattoirs, were used. For this purpose, cube pieces of testicular parenchyma (about 1cm3) were collected, processed for paraffin sectioning techniques, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Diameter of Seminiferous Tubules and Seminiferous Epithelial Height were measured using software (PixelPro). In Experiment-II, semen characteristics and dimensional characteristics of spermatozoa were studied. For this purpose, semen was collected fortnightly from Nili-Ravi buffalo breeding bulls used in experiment-I, viz. {14 adult Nili-Ravi buffalo breeding bulls (n=7 from SPU Karaniwala, Bahawalpur; n=7 from SPU Qadirabad, Sahiwal), aged 5-8 years}. Semen characteristics; Semen Volume, Color, pH, Mass Motility, Percentage of Individual Motile Spermatozoa and Concentration of Spermatozoa were studied. Dimensional characteristics of spermatozoa from semen samples of all breeding bulls were studied using Eosin-Nigrosin stain. The six dimensional characteristics of spermatozoa viz. Head Length, Head Breadth, Head Shape, Mid-Piece Length, Tail Length and Total Sperm Length were studied on software (PixelPro). Body weight, scrotal circumference, average testicular length, average testicular width and paired testicular volume were 706.05±3.03kg, 34.62±0.22cm, 13.45±0.07cm, 6.29±0.03cm and 640.65±11.51cm3respectively in Sahiwal division and 690.99±3.96kg, 32.93±0.19cm, 13.04±0.07cm, 6.08±0.03cm, 561.95±9.43cm3 respectively in Bahawalpur division. In Sahiwal Summary 141 division, body weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in autumn and winter, whereas in Bahawalpur division non-significant differences in body weight were observed among all the seasons with highest body weight in winter and lowest in humid summer. Overall mean body weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division as compared to Bahawalpur division. In Sahiwal division, highest scrotal circumference was found in autumn followed by spring, winter, humid summer and dry summer with non-significant differences among the seasons. Similar results were obtained in Bahawalpur division. It was recorded to be higher (P<0.05) in Sahiwal than Bahawalpur division. Pattern of seasonal variations in average testicular length was similar to that of scrotal circumference in both the divisions. Overall average testicular length was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division as compared to Bahawalpur division. Average testicular width was highest (P>0.05) in autumn in both divisions. Overall average testicular width was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division compared with Bahawalpur division. In both divisions, paired testicular volume was non-significantly higher (P>0.05) in autumn followed by spring, winter, humid summer and dry summer. Overall paired testicular volume was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division than Bahawalpur division. There was found a significantly positive (P<0.01) correlation between body weight and various testicular biometrical parameters in both the divisions. All the testicular biometrical parameters were also significantly positively (P<0.01) correlated with each other in both the divisions. Values of seminiferous tubule diameter and seminiferous epithelial height were 248.52±1.07μmand 70.03±0.46μm, respectively in Sahiwal division and 225.85±1.01μm and 66.03±0.42μm, respectively in Bahawalpur division. In both divisions diameter of seminiferous tubules was significantly higher (P<0.05) in autumn and spring. Lowest values were observed in dry summer in Sahiwal division, while it was lowest in humid summer in Bahawalpur division. Summary 142 Seminiferous tubule diameter was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division than Bahawalpur division in all the seasons. Seasonal and climatic influence on the seminiferous epithelial height was almost similar to the seminiferous tubule diameter in both the divisions. Seminiferous tubule diameter showed a significantly positive (P<0.01) correlation with seminiferous epithelial height in both the divisions. Ejaculatory volume, semen color score, pH, mass motility score, individual sperm motility and sperm concentration were4.63±0.11mL, 1.06±0.06, 6.48±0.04, 2.06±0.06, 66.02±0.76% and 1023.27±30.90 million/mL respectively in Sahiwal and 2.60±0.09mL, 0.88±0.08, 6.67±0.04, 1.86±0.09, 49.72±2.70% and 854.27±28.53 million/mL respectively in Bahawalpur division. In both the divisions non-significant difference (P>0.05) in ejaculatory volume was recorded in all the seasons with maximum volume in spring in Sahiwal division but in humid summer in Bahawalpur division. Ejaculatory volume was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division compared with Bahawalpur division in all the seasons. In Sahiwal division significantly higher (P<0.05) semen color score was observed in autumn, whereas it was non-significantly higher in autumn in Bahawalpur division. Overall, it was found non-significantly higher (P>0.05) in Sahiwal division as compared to Bahawalpur division during all the seasons. In Sahiwal division the significantly lowest (P<0.05) pH was observed in autumn. Significantly highest (P<0.05) pH was observed in winter. In Bahawalpur division pH was also lowest in autumn and highest in winter but the differences were non-significant. Overall pH was significantly lower (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division than Bahawalpur division. In Sahiwal division mass motility score was significantly higher (P<0.05) in autumn with lowest score in winter. In Bahawalpur division the non-significant effect of the season on mass motility was observed. It was non-significantly higher in Sahiwal division than Bahawalpur division. In Sahiwal division Summary 143 significantly lowest (P<0.05) individual sperm motility was observed in winter and it was highest (P<0.05) in spring. In Bahawalpur division non-significant differences were observed among the seasons with maximum individual sperm motility in dry summer and minimum winter. It was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division than Bahawalpur division. In Sahiwal division significantly higher (P<0.05) sperm concentration was found in autumn with lowest value in winter. In Bahawalpur division there was non-significant influence of season. Overall sperm concentration was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division. In both divisions ejaculatory volume showed non-significant correlation with all other semen parameters. Semen pH showed significantly negative correlation (P<0.01) with mass motility, individual sperm motility and sperm concentration. Mass motility, individual sperm motility and sperm concentration showed significant positive correlation (P<0.01) with each other. Sperm head length, head breadth, head shape, mid-piece length, tail length and total sperm length were 7.60±0.01μm, 4.80±0.02μm, 1.59±0.01, 11.54±0.02μm, 43.62±0.42μm and 62.75±0.42μm respectively in Sahiwal division and 7.58±0.01μm, 4.74±0.02μm, 1.60±0.01, 11.64±0.02μm, 39.88±0.51μm and 59.10±0.50μm respectively in Bahawalpur division. Season had non-significant effect (P>0.05) on the sperm head length in both the divisions. It was also non-significantly longer (P>0.05) in Sahiwal division as compared to Bahawalpur division. In both divisions significantly higher (P<0.05) value of sperm head breadth was found in autumn. Sperm head breadth was non-significantly higher (P>0.05) in Sahiwal division compared with Bahawalpur division in all the seasons. Sperm head shape value was significantly lower (P<0.05)in autumn than other seasons in Sahiwal division and almost similar results were obtained in Bahawalpur division. Overall it was non-significantly lower in Sahiwal division than Bahawalpur division. In both divisions the mid-piece length was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Summary 144 winter than spring and lowest in the spring. Overall mid-piece was significantly shorter (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division. In Sahiwal division sperm tail was significantly longest (P<0.05) in autumn. In Bahawalpur division it was significantly longer (P<0.05) in autumn and spring. Overall the sperm tail was significantly longer (P<0.05) in Sahiwal division. The pattern of seasonal and climatic influence on total sperm length was almost similar to that of sperm tail length. Similar correlation results were observed in both the divisions. Head shape and mid-piece length had significant negative correlation (P<0.01) with other parameters. Head length, head breadth, tail length and total sperm length had significant positive correlation (P<0.01) with each other. In overall, body weight and testicular biometrical parameters were negatively correlated with ejaculatory volume and pH, while positively correlated with semen color, mass motility, individual sperm motility and sperm concentration. In overall, body weight and testicular biometrical parameters had negative correlation with sperm head shape and mid-piece length (with some exceptions in Sahiwal division) and the positive correlation with head length, head breadth, tail length and total sperm length in both the divisions, non-significantly in Sahiwal, whereas significantly(P<0.01) in Bahawalpur division. In overall, semen color, mass motility, individual sperm motility and sperm concentration had negative correlation with sperm head shape and mid-piece length, whereas correlation was positive with sperm head length, head breadth, tail length and total sperm length. In contrary, pH had positive correlation with sperm head shape and mid-piece length, whereas correlation was negative with other sperm parameters in both the divisions. In conclusion, the milder seasons are favorable for optimal performance of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls and climate of Sahiwal division is more favorable than that of Bahawalpur division. Summary 145 In conclusion, testicular biometric / histomorphometric parameter values are better in autumn and spring than summer and winter seasons and in Sahiwal than Bahawalpur division. Likewise, superior quality semen is produced in autumn and spring than summer and winter seasons and in Sahiwal than Bahawalpur division. Autumn and spring seasons and climate of Sahiwal division have additive effect on sperm dimensions, except mid-piece length. Orchidometric parameters are positively correlated with semen quality. Diameter of seminiferous tubules is positively correlated with seminiferous epithelial height. Superior quality semen has a positive correlation with sperm head length, head breadth, tail length and total sperm length. From the results of present study, it has been concluded that testicular biometry, histomorphometry, semen characteristics and dimensional characteristics of spermatozoa are influenced by the seasonal and climatic variation i.e. overall bull performance is influence by these variations. Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls perform better in autumn and spring than other seasons and in Sahiwal division than Bahawalpur division. Therefore, it is clear that the seasonal and climatic conditions of the region / location should be considered for the establishment of new semen production units for the optimal performance of the Nili-Ravi buffalo breeding bulls. Future studies are recommended on comparative fertility rates using the semen collected and cryopreserved from the bulls kept in different climatic zones. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2480-T] (1).

283. Productive And Physiological Performance Of Nili-Ravi Buffaloes Under Various Housing Management Practices During Summer

by Umair Younas (2002-VA-58) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Jalees Ahmad Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Back ground: Among various factors that are affecting buffalo productivity, heat stress is challenge for the dairy farmers of Pakistan since the geographical location of Pakistan is sub-tropic as it is situated 23.6 degree above the line of equator between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn and summer season prevail for long duration with high ambient temperature and relative humidity. Information on production potential of mature Nili-Ravi buffalo against hot-dry and hot-humid season and its adaptability to the sub-tropical conditions of central Punjab has not been documented before. In this regard, study is designed to understand the relationships of environmental stress with physiological, behavioral and production responses in Nili-Ravi buffaloes under different housing and cooling conditions. Hypothesis: Developing and implementing housing and cooling systems to mitigate heat stress may decrease this effect but must be cost effective. To test these hypotheses, the proposed study was carried out at Buffalo Research Institute (BRI). Methodology: Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the physiological, productive, serum biochemical and behavioral profile of mature Nili Ravi buffaloes under subtropical conditions, at BRI (Buffalo Research Institute), Pattoki. Experiments were conducted during proposed duration of March-April; May-June; July-August and September-October on various physiological and productive parameters. Lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes (n=20) were divided in to four groups with five animals in each group. Group A buffaloes were kept under roof shades EXPERIMENT 4 157 only (control). Group B was supplemented with yeast powder under roof shade; C group buffaloes were raised under ceiling fans and group D was treated with ceiling fans and showers. During all summer periods, fans with showers (D) showed highest milk production followed by fans only (C), then control A and B have been similar for most of times. However, in early summer (March-April), the additional cost of supplement feed and cooling strategies was higher than revenue generated from increased milk. Cost per liter of milk produced was higher and thus marginal revenue was lower than expected. Whereas, shaded group A showed comparatively less milk production which was offset by low production cost as there were no additional costs of supplementing feed or cooling strategies. In all other periods of mid-summer (hot-dry: May-June and hot-humid: July-August) and late summer (July-August), higher milk production was noticed in group D followed by group C despite additional costs of cooling strategies. Lower cost/ liter of milk were noticed as well as high marginal revenue. During these periods, fans were noticed as more effective strategy to alleviate thermal load compare to supplemental feed as cost per liter was high and marginal revenue was less in group B. Looks like feed additive may only be applicable in early summer compare to fans group but shaded group A had best performance in terms of cost per liter and revenue. Group D was found best followed by C in terms of lower cost per liter and high marginal revenue in mid and late summer. Statistical Analysis: The recorded data was subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) under completely randomized design (CRD). The difference of means among treatment groups were determined by using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT; SUMMARY EXPERIMENT 4 158 Steel et al., 1997) for the interpretation of results and portraying conclusions with the help of statistical software (Statistical packages for social sciences; SPSS). Conclusion: However, it is noted that during March and April control group buffaloes performed better economically but they had lower production and higher physiological responses. Improved performance and health of animals under fans with or without showers did not produce enough marginal income to pay for the additional costs. Shaded group A showed comparatively less milk production which was offset by low production cost as there were no additional costs of supplementing feed or cooling strategies. Therefore, small scale farmers may use shade only for their buffaloes during early summer only but progressive farmers better go for shower and fans strategy since early summer as this approach works best throughout other periods of summer season. Since, the group D was found best followed by C in terms of lower cost per liter and high marginal revenue therefore, fans with showers would be a quite useful technique for progressive farmers and also necessary from animal’s health point of view. Also, small scale farmers may use fans to avoid drastic decrease in milk production and take maximum achievable measures according to their affordability during mid and later summer. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2490-T] (1).

284. Prevalence Of Fasciolosis In Sheep And Goats Under Range Management Conditions In Azad Jammu And Kashmir

by Imtiaz Ahmad (2009-VA-535) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad S. Anjum | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Fasciolosis is the disease of sheep, goats, cattle and other ruminants. Human and equines are unusual hosts in which instead of liver the flukes may found in lungs or under the skin. Transmission depends on an intermediate host lymnae snail. Animal ingest metacercaria, the worm migrates to the liver where it causes extensive damage and mature worm lives in bile duct. The disease occurs as an acute, sub-acute or chronic infection. Chronic Fasciolosis characterized by anemia, hypoalbuminaemia, emaciation, submandibular edema and loss of condition. Clinical disease is well known but sub clinical infections are often unnoticed, leading to marked economic losses, reduced milk yield, weight loss, reduced fertility and immunity, consequently leading to significant economic losses. Fasciolosis has recently been recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease. Infections in human may be asymptomatic but sometimes nonspecific pain in abdomen, anorexia, dyspepsia and vomiting may occur. Pain in right hypochondrium, epigastrium and jaundice occurs in chronic phase. Sometimes ectopic migration of worm causes abscesses in many organs. The present study investigates the prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats at different geographic locations on the basis of altitudes in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. 4662 (sheep n=2242; goat n=2420) fresh fecal samples from sheep and goats were collected from three village/towns each of Mirpur, Poonch and Muzaffarabad Divisions. Stool samples were collected from 566 pastoral families of AJK to determine the zoonotic potential of the disease. Prevalence of the disease was calculated on the basis of centrifugal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The intensity of infection was calculated using the McMaster egg counting technique. The risk factors of the disease studied included altitude, season, sex, age, and effect of deworming and flock size on the rate of prevalence. An overall prevalence was recorded as Summary 111 17.88%. Prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep revealed 26.49% and that of goats 9.91%. The data was analyzed using Chi-square test which revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease in sheep and goats. The overall prevalence rate in both species was recorded as15.09% at altitude <3000 feet, 25.00% at 3000-6000 and 15.74% at >6000. The highest prevalence was recorded at an altitude 3000-6000 feet. Chi- square values showed significant difference (P<0.05) among three different altitudes. The altitude of 3000-6000ft showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats. The overall prevalence showed 13.93% rates in spring and 21.77% in autumn. Chi-square values showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease, higher in autumn than Spring. Sex wise prevalence showed 16.67% in male and 18.59% in female animals. The data showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in Chi-square analysis. The prevalence of the disease in the age group below 1 year was 04.40%, 1-4 years revealed 17.73% disease and 36.18% in >4 year. The data showed significantly different (P<0.05) rates in all age groups. Highest prevalence was recorded in sheep and goats above 4 year of age and lowest in those below 1 year. The prevalence in animals with no recent history of deworming was recorded 23.22%. The data showed 15.37% disease in small flocks of sheep and goats <30 as compared to 18.72% in large flocks >30. Chi-square showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of the disease in large flocks. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was used to evaluate the contribution of risk factors (epidemiological factors) to the variations in the prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats. All the epidemiological factors i.e. altitude, species, season, gender, age group, deworming and flock size were processed. The deworming appeared to be the most significant factor in the model contributing maximum variations in disease with highest Odds followed by age groups, Summary 112 species, season, altitude, flock size and gender. The risk factors for the Fasciolosis in sheep and goats were found, lack of practice of deworming, age group >4 year, species sheep, season Autumn, altitude 3000-6000 and flock size >30. The 75% of the disease prevalence was due to above mentioned risk factors. The deworming, specie goat, age group <1 year, season Spring, altitude <3000, and flock size less than 30 were appeared to be the protective factors in the Generalized Linear Model. The intensity of infection was analyzed through Factorial analysis for difference in species, altitude and season. The difference in eggs per gram of feces was found significantly different (P<0.05) in sheep and goats. The effect of season on egg per gram (EPG) of feces showed a higher mean values in sheep (191.49) and goats (219.72) in Autumn as compared to 158.04 and 180.61 in Spring. In both seasons the mean for goats was found higher than sheep. The effect was found significant (P<0.05), higher during Autumn. Factorial analysis of the data showed significant interaction (P<0.05) between species and altitude. The data showed mean values for sheep 174.04, 191.87 and 168.33 at altitude <3000, 3000-6000 and >6000 feet respectively. The mean values for goats were 232.22, 194.95 and 170.59. The data revealed higher mean for goats as compared to sheep on all three altitudes. Goats revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) number of EPG. POST HOC Tukeys test showed a non-significant difference in intensity of disease between <3000 and 3000-6000 feet, rest of the differences were significant (P<0.05). The overall prevalence in pastoral communities of AJK was 0.88%. The samples were collected from male and female of 4 age groups <10 year, 11-20, 21-40 and >40. The prevalence in male was 0.76 and in female was 0.98%. The data showed that age groups below 20 year were Summary 113 the susceptible groups in both sexes. The highest prevalence (2.25%) was found in female age group 11-20 year. Age groups above 20 year did not revealed any positive sample. 227 adult liver flukes were collected from livers of infected animals of different animal species (sheep, goats. cattle and buffaloes) and geographic locations for morphometric and molecular identification of the species of Fasciola. Flukes were identified on the basis of measurements of body length, body width, diameter of suckers, distance between oral and ventral sucker and distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of the body. The measurements of F. hepatica showed a body length range 13-34mm with an average length of 21.51mm whereas, F. gigantica ranged from 28-52mm with an average of 42.27mm. The average body lengths of F. hepatica below 3000ft was 21.9, at 3000-6000ft was 21.07 and above 6000 ft was 22.00mm and that of F. gigantica was 42.05 and 42.44mm at 3000 and 3000-6000 feet. The measurements of F. hepatica revealed an average body width of 10.05mm, average diameter of oral and ventral suckers of 0.74 and 1.28mm respectively and average distance between the two suckers of 1.34mm. The readings for F. gigantica were 9.46, 0.89, 1.55 and 1.72mm respectively. Average distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of the fluke in case of F. hepatica was 18.35mm at all three altitudes and host species of animals and it was 38.26mm in case of F. gigantica. The overall mean worm load was 13.56 worms per liver of animal with a range 5-26. The mean worm load of F. hepatica was 10.9 and that of F. gigantica 13.11. Mixed infections were noted at altitudes below 6000 ft. Infestation with F. gigantica was not found at altitudes above 6000ft and F. hepatica was encountered at all three altitudes. 51.98% of the recovered flukes were F. gigantica which showed the equal chances of infection with either species of Fasciola in AJK. The results revealed that F. hepatica was the fluke affecting animal population at altitude above 6000 ft and F. gigantica was the major fluke below Summary 114 3000 ft. At altitudes between 3000-6000ft, 36.20% of flukes were F. hepatica while its prevalence was reduced to 17.30% below 3000 ft. Once the species of the liver flukes were identified morphologically they were subjected to molecular conformation through amplification of the genomic DNA of the two species through PCR using two sets of species specific primers. In the PCR based on primer set 1, a product of 391 bp was generated from the genomic DNA of Fasciola hepatica whereas no product was generated from the DNA of Fasciola gigantica. PCR based on primer set 2 amplified a 235-bp product from the DNA of Fasciola gigantica. The molecular identification in the present study showed that morphometric identification of the two species is valid and standard population of both species were found present at different geographic locations and species of the animals of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir except F. gigantica not found above 6000 feet altitude. The ethno veterinary practices for Fasciolosis were documented through Participatory Rural Appraisal. A total of 173 respondents/key informants were interviewed during the study period in the study area. The majority of the traditional healers (n=33) elders of pastoral families (n=53) and sheep/goats owners (n=56) were above the age of 40 year. Veterinary officers (n=6) and assistants (n=25) were interviewed as a part of verification process. 31.69% of the respondents were found using allopathic anthelmintic along with ethno veterinary medicines. 53.52% of the respondents were using ethno veterinary medicines because of non-availability or cost effectiveness of allopathic anthelmintic. 95.18% of the respondents were using plants or part of the plant as traditional anthelmintic in their sheep or goats.18 plant families were identified during the survey which include Acanthaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Boraginaceae, Cannabinaceae, Chenopodaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Summary 115 Gentianaceae, Juglandaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Oxalidaceae, Punicaceae, Rhamnaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae. The species of medicinal plants identified during the study were Berberis lyceum, Nicotiana tabacum, Asparagus officinale, Calotropis procera, Aloe vera, Mallotus philippensis, Adhato davesica, Artemisia scoparia, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Artimisia maritime, Verbascum Thapsus, Acacia Arabica, Cordlia myxa, Cannabis sativa, Rhamnus purpurea, Juglansregia, Oxalis corniculata, Punica granantum, Artimisa fragrans, Swertia petiolata and Abutilon indicum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2430-T] (1).

285. Comparative Efficacy Of Polypropylene And Polyester Mesh For The Repair Of Abdominal Wall Defect In Pigeons

by Muhammad Naveed Ali (2007-VA-114) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Polypropylene is a widely used biomaterial for the treatment of ventral abdominal wall hernias. It exhibit pain, prominent inflammatory response and foreign body reaction. Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction. The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of polypropylene and polyester meshes for the treatment of abdominal defect. Both are non-absorbable meshes. Polypropylene mesh is available in Pakistan with the trade name of Prolene® (Ethicon,Johnson & Johnson, USA). Polyester mesh is not available inPakistan and was acquired from Al Zahrawi Medical, a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brandname of (Parietex®, Covidien, France). The experimental study was conducted on 16 (sixteen) healthy pigeons presented for massive abdominal defect repair. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The birds were allocated into two different groups, viz. Group A and Group B with 8 birds in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The Polypropylene mesh (Prolene®, Ethicon) was used for the treatment of abdominal repair for group A. The birds of group B was treated with Polyester mesh (Parietex®, Covidien). Ventral abdominal wall repair was performed in both groups using Polypropylene and Polyester mesh respectively. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both meshes were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation. During experiment, it was observed that polypropylene mesh resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fibre. It was observed that Polyester mesh resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. Polyester mesh showed remarkable advantages over polypropylene mesh in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that polyester mesh is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2495-T] (1).

286. Assessment Of Avian And Mammalian Diversity At Selected Sites Along River Chenab

by Muhammad Altaf (2008-VA-725) | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. Waseem Ahmad Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The River Chenab is an important wetland of Punjab province and the tree plantations around the river are the part of tropical thorn forest. But as a consequence of deforestation much of the natural forested areas have been turned to agricultural land. The main objective of study was to assess the avian and mammalian diversity of the study area; to identify and assess anthropogenic impacts on avian and mammalian diversity of the study area; and to explore the level of humanwildlife conflict selected sites of river Chenab i.e. district Sialkot, district Gujrat and district Gujranwala from May, 2013 through April. Surveys were made during dawn (5:00 am to 8:00 am) and dusk (4:00 pm to 7:00 pm). During the waterfowl study recorded 51 species belonging to 33 genera, 16 families and 8 orders were recorded from the study area. Throughout the year a total of 2531 birds from recorded from head Marala, 2026 from the head Khanki and 2230 from head Qadirabad. Diversity indices were analyzed through statistical software PAST version 2.17 C. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index at head Marala was 2.62, at head Khanki it was 2.64 while at head Qadirabad it was 2.78. It can be concluded from the present study that the River Chenab is waterfowl rich and should be declared as protected site for waterfowls. The study area was divided into different habitat types on the basis of vegetation and urbanization and was designated as forest habitat (FH), wetland habitat (WLH), rural forest habitat (RFH), agriculture habitat (AH), agriculture rural habitat (ARH), urban non vegetative habitat (UNVH) and urban vegetative habitat (UVH). A linear count method was applied and data was collected through direct and indirect observations. Habitat preference of the birds varied f declined from forested habitats to the urban landscapes. It can be concluded from the study that Summary 152 many of the avian species are habitat specific and the connection/corridors between similar habitat types might be fruitful for the conservation of avian species. The anthropogenic impacts and habitat preferences of mammalian species along river Chenab, Pakistan was also assessed the mammalian diversity was recorded along forested landscapes, cultivated plantations, semi-urban and urban areas. The data on diversity and distribution of various mammalian species was collected through point count method viz. direct observation (personal count and record voices) and indirect observation (presences of carcasses, fecal pellet, pug marks and meeting with local communities). The habitat preferences of large, medium and small mammals varied significantly. A decline in mammalian diversity was observed from forest habitat to urban landscapes. Indian wild boar, Asiatic jackal, Indian fox, jungle cat, Indian pangolin and long eared desert hedgehog preferred forested areas as well as slightly modified habitats while Northern palm squirrel, house mouse, house shrew and rat species preferred human habitations. Similarly, few species such as the small Indian mongoose, Soft-furred field rat, short tailed mole rat, Asiatic jackal and Indian gerbil preferred cultivated areas. It can be concluded that many of the mammalian species are habitat specific and corridors and connections between different landscapes are important for the conservation of mammalian diversity. Medicinal and cultural significance of avian species along the River Chenab were assessed through Relative Popularity Level (RPL) and Rank Order Priority (ROP). One hundred and nine persons were interviewed and data regarding socio-economic status of the respondents, qualitative data on cultural significance from three selected districts. The compiled data are analyzed using different quantitative tools, such as relative frequency of mention (RFM), fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level RPL and rank order priority (ROP). Out of total 155 Summary 153 avian species recorded from the study area, 28 have medical importance while local people were using feathers of almost all the bird species for making different toys. Ten species were most popular and highest RFM values (0.58) were recorded for house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Similarly, highest FL values (100%) were recorded for house sparrow (P. domesticus) and domestic chicken (Gallus gallus). These studies indicated that the area is rich in avian diversity and many of these species have medical and cultural significance for the locales. Mammals are source of food and medication for humans from ancient times. A survey was conducted along the Rver Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan and 109 persons were interviewed to investigate the extent of human dependency on mammalian species of the area. A total of 30 mammalian species were recorded from the study area. Highest relatively frequency of mention (RFM) values (0.5) were observed for desert hare, Lepus migricollis dayanus while maximum (100%) fidelity level (FL) was recorded for cow Bos gaurus, sheep Ovis aries and cat Felis domesticus. Seven species were most popular. It can be concluded from present survey that local people have strong association with mammalian species of the study area and dependent for food and medicines on these species. In depth studies are recommended to explore medicinal importance of the species. The study area was part of tropical thorn forest but a larger portion has been changed into agricultural land or human habitations. Data regarding socio-economic value of area, financial losses to crops and livestock, peoples’ attitude and tolerance towards wildlife, protection methods for livestock and crops from predators and profile of 150 respondents were collected through a questionnaire. The age of the respondents was between 20 to 65 years, out of them 54% were literate, 99% were Muslims and all these respondents were from different professions viz. farmers (32%), livestock managers (37%) and others (31%). Most of the respondents (52%) Summary 154 were unaware about the role of wild species in ecosystem, certain respondents (28%) disliked wild species in their areas and 20% respondents had positive view about wildlife in the area. The collected data revealed that crops are mostly damaged by the Indian wild boar (42%), Asiatic jackal (34%), diseases (11%), Indian crested porcupine (6%) and others (7%) including rats, squirrels, crows and sparrows. Similarly, the livestock animals are affected mostly by diseases (36%), Asiatic jackal (34%), jungle cat (10%), Indian fox and others (6%) including raptor birds. Most of the respondents were of the view that wildlife is declining in the area. The River Chenab is an important wetland of Punjab, Pakistan. Water of the river is becoming pollutedt due to anthropogenic impact i.e. industrial waste, urbanization, agriculture intensification. The main objectives of the study were to know the diversity and distribution of fish species of river Chenab. Both, direct and indirect methods were applied to find out fish diversity of the area. The diversity indices were analyzed through statistical software PAST version 2.17 C. During the sampling 34 species was recorded from the river Chenab. The diversity indices indicate that higher diversity is present at the head Qadirabad than head Khanki and Marala. The reason is that there is present large number of natural and manmade ponds; during the flood these pond fishes move to the river further eggs and fingerlings move to rivers through birds and fisherman. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2520-T] (1).

287. Comparative Efficacy of Steroids and Non Steroids Anti-Inflammatory Drugs On Wound Healing In Equines

by Sajid Ali (2009-VA-129) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Hamid Akbar | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Blank CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2502-T] (1).

288. Nutritional, Microbiological And Organoleptic Evaluation Of Yoghurt Prepared From Goat-Buffalo Milk Blends

by Noor Haider (2009-VA-661) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Due to the high nutritional quality, goat milk is considered important daily food. But in our country, less usage of goat milk is due to lack of information about its basic nutrients and nutritional benefits, which provides less profit to the goat owners. Present study has been designed to prepare yoghurt from goat-buffalo milk blends for physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological evaluation and to find out the best goat-buffalo milk blend for yoghurt preparation through organoleptic acceptability studies. Raw goat and buffalo milk was collected from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pattoki Campus, Pakistan and transferred to laboratory for analysis. After yoghurt preparation, chemical analysis was conducted for total solids, pH, ash content, lactose, cholesterol, protein, acidity and then physical analysis for viscosity and syneresis was conducted. Samples of yoghurt were microbiological analyzed for total viable count of Lactobacillus acidophilus, yeast, molds, coliforms by using different media. Yoghurt was also studied for sensory and nutritional evaluation after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of storage at 4 °C. The data obtained was statistically evaluated through two way ANOVA by applying CRD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2522-T] (1).

289. Welfare Assessment Of Wild Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) Subjected To Free Range, Semiintensive And Confinement Rearing Systems

by Irfan (2008-VA-724) | Dr. Arshad Javid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The volume of turkey production is as small compared to the broiler production, although, the turkey industry has attained a significant increase since 1980, rising from 122 million to 226 million turkeys by 2006 within the European Union, while values of turkeys produced in the US during 2010 was $4.37 billion. The s scientific literature about welfare of confinedly reared turkeys is scarce compared to other poultry birds. There is a need for more insight into the factors that enhance turkey welfare, not only to sustainable production of turkey meat where the public demands s management practices for the welfare of turkeys, but also because the information is needed to decrease losses due to poor performance of the birds. Besides ecological importance, Meleagris gallopavo also have aesthetic values which mainly contribute to decline in population of turkeys due to poching in their native habitat. Demand for poultry meat is increasing throughout the world, due to of its lower cost when compared to other meats such as pork and beef, and also lower fat content and excellent source of protein. The consumption of turkey meat is about 4.7 million metric tons annually throughout of the world and with the US accounting for 50% of all consumption. A total of 120, day-old turkey (Maleagris gallopavo) chicks were arranged into four groups. Four diets having varying levels of crude protein (CP) viz. 16% CP, 18% CP, 20% CP and 22% CP were prepared and were designated as control (T0), treatment 1 (T1), treatment 2 (T2) and treatment 3 (T3) diets, respectively. Group 1 birds were fed with T0 diets, group 2 with T1 diets, group 3 with T2 and group 4 birds were fed with T3 diets. Significantly higher weight gain 2950.86±1952.58g, body length 30.064±11cm, beak length 3.53cm, body girth 43.41±16.30cm, thigh length 18.18±6.47cm, sternum-length 11.98±4.70cm, wing-length 47.10±16.17cm, wingspan 101.36±34.32cm, shank-length and tarsus-length 13.78±4.47cm were Summary 90 recorded in M. gallopavo fed with T3 diets. Feed conversion ratios (FCR) for T0, T1, T2 and T3 diets were 2.296, 2.236, 2.099 and 1.934, respectively. Internal and external quality parameters of egg were also analyzed. The time budget of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) reared under free-range and confinement rearing systems was recorded and compared from day old chick to the sixth month of age. Throughout the study period, M. gallopavo reared under free-range rearing system spent relatively greater time litter pecking (23.51%) followed by walking (19.99%), feeding (16.33%), preening (13.72%), feather pecking (6.07%), aggression (5.94%), drinking (5.90%), immobility (2.36%), standing (2.29%) and jumping (1.96%). Similarly, the birds reared under confinement rearing system spent relatively greater time in lying (17.82%) followed by litter pecking (15.71), preening (12.93%), walking (11.47%), standing (8.35%), drinking (8.31%), aggression (6.85%), feeding (6.46%), feather pecking (6.04%), immobility (4.59%) and jumping (1.46%) behavior. It was observed during the present study that the birds reared under free-range rearing system spent significantly greater time in litter pecking, walking and feeding behaviors as compared to the birds reared under confinements. These behaviors are indicators of good health of the animals, therefore free-range system is recommended over confinement rearing system for farming of M. gallopavo. Growth performance, carcass yield and meat sensory quality attributes of turkeys Meleagris gallopavo reared under free-range and confinement rearing systems were compared. There were two treatments, i.e. indoor and free range, each containing 25 birds. In indoor treatment, the turkeys were raised in a 20 × 20 feet (length × width) well ventilated room while in free-range treatment, the birds were housed in an open shed having same dimensions i.e. 20 × 20 feet (length × width), however, an additional free-range grassy paddock was provided to Summary 91 them. To compare sensory attributes, 4 ready to-cook turkeys having equal size were selected from each the rearing systems, were skinned and boneless breast fillets and thighs were prepared, weighed and steam roasted. The roast breast meat of free-range turkeys was darker and yellower than thigh meat from indoor birds. Score for breast meat tenderness and appearance varied significantly (P<0.05) between free-range and confinement reared birds. However, nonsignificant differences were recorded for thigh meat tenderness between free-range and confined turkeys. Significantly higher (P<0.05) meat redness was recorded in thigh meat of turkeys reared in free-range system than thigh meat of confined M. gallopavo while non-significant differences in breast meat color were observed between free-range and confined birds. Significantly higher juiciness and oiliness was recorded for confined birds as compared to the free-range reared turkeys. Morphological characteristics of turkey Meleagris gallopavo semen were recorded and hatchability percentages of the artificially inseminated hens were assessed. To study the effect of natural mating on hatchability 15 (12♀, 3♂) M. gallopavo were randomly selected and both the genders were kept separately for two weeks, thereafter these birds were arranged in three groups, each containing one male and four female birds. For AI, male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) birds were kept separately through the experiment and female birds were inseminated on weekly basis. Male birds were conditioned and trained for semen collection through abdominal massage and morphological characteristics of the collected semen were recorded. Mean abnormal spermatozoa rate was 14.61±1.61% with most common acrosomal defects 36.67±3.80% followed by defects in mid-piece 8.59±0.24%, head defects 7.15±1.21% and tail defects 6.69±1.97%. Laid eggs were collected, stored and were incubated for hatching. Hatchability percentage in artificially inseminated hens was greater 88.85% than natural mating 82.35%. Summary 92 Variations in serum biochemical profile with increase in age were analyzed in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Gender-wise variations and effect of rearing systems i.e. free range, semi-intensive and confinements were also assessed from the 1st to 6th month of age. Variations were recorded in serum biochemical profile with increase in age. Significantly (P<0.05) higher values of cholesterol 8.39±0.48 mmol/L, globulin 2.71±0.34 g/dL, albumin g/dL 3.82±0.58 g/dL, total protein 5.35±0.55 g/L, urea 26.95±0.65 mg/dL, creatinine 0.83±0.01 μmol/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 35.56±1.16 iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 44.16±1.83 iu/L were recorded for adult birds while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values were significantly higher 104.86±16.39 iu/L in grower birds. Similarly, the rearing systems also influenced biochemical parameters of M. gallopavo and significantly (P<0.05) higher values for cholesterol 6.18±0.07 mmol/L and ALT 31.26±1.67 iu/L were recorded in birds reared under confinement rearing system. Values for globulin 1.92±0.36 g/dL and creatinin 0.77±0.08 μmol/L were higher in birds reared under semi-intensive rearing system while significantly higher urea concentrations 33.45±3.39 mg/dL were recorded from the serum of the birds reared under free range rearing system. However, non-significant variations in albumin, total protein, ALP and AST were recorded for all the three rearing systems. Significantly higher values of cholesterol, globulin, albumin, creatinine and ALT were recorded from the serum of male M. gallopavo while urea and ALP were higher in hens’ serum. However, non-significant variations were recorded for total protein and AST among both the genders. It can be concluded from the present study that age, gender and rearing systems strongly influence blood biochemical profile and hence the immunity in M. gallopavo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2530-T] (1).

290. Epidemiology Of Bovine Tuberculosis And Its Public Health Significance In Peshawar

by Irfan Khatak (2011-VA-562) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Umer Sadique | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and associated risk factors in cattle and buffalo in Peshawar, Pakistan. Cattle and buffalo, randomly selected from all four towns of District Peshawar were screened for bovine tuberculosis using comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT). For obtaining data on risk factors, socio-demographic condition, animal characteristics and management, interviewer administered pretested questionnaire to animal owners. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to measure association between risk factors and comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin reactors. A total of 556 cattle and buffalo were screened for bovine tuberculosis. Out of 556 animals screened, 5.75% (3.9-8.0%) were found positive. The prevalence was higher in old animals (P= 0.001) as compared to younger animals. Prevalence also varied with source of animal (either raised on farm or purchased), stay of animals at night (indoor or outdoor) and herd size. Farmer’s knowledge about transmission of TB from animals to human as well as signs and symptoms of TB was extremely low. Only 3.6% farmers correctly stated the combination of three major symptoms of TB. Results of the study call for immediate intervention to control bTB in animals as well as its transmission to human population. Furthermore, it is suggested to emphasize on local epidemiology of bTB and husbandry practices of cattle and buffalo during the control program. To assess the presence of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in milk sold at retail shops and find the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about tuberculosis (TB) in the high risk M. bovis contaminated milk consumers, milk samples were obtained from 92 milk shops and analysed for presence of M. bovis. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and KAP about TB was Summary 152 obtained from 800 M. bovis contaminated milk consumers. Mycobacterium bovis was detected in 8.7% (8/92) milk samples. Although 97.4% of the participants had heard of TB but only 39.6% knew that cough lasts for more than 3 weeks was one symptom. Only 79.2% have awareness that TB can be prevented and the most frequently stated (48.4%) method of TB prevention was good nutrition. Participants believed that TB can be cured by prayers/ eating well (41.8%) and also by herbal cures/ consulting Hakeem (35.7%). Mean knowledge score for the participants was 12.1± 2.47 out of maximum 22. Mean knowledge score varied significantly with ethnicity, level of education and residential status (Urban vs rural). Overall knowledge about TB was low. Therefore community’s health education focused on increasing knowledge of TB must be initiated. This part of study was conducted to determine the occurrence of active pulmonary tuberculosis due to M. bovis in abattoir workers, butchers, livestock farmers and veterinarians and to document the Knowledge and practices of these professional regarding bTB. The cross sectional study included 141 abattoir workers, 317 butchers, 50 livestock farmers, 5 veterinary doctors and 3 veterinary assistants. Sputum samples were collected from those respondents who had chronic cough that last for more than 2 weeks. Four out of 16 suspected abattoir workers and 1 out of 50 livestock farmers were found positive for M. bovis by Polymerase chain reaction analysis. Duration of work as abattoir worker was found significantly associated (p<0.05) with occurrence of zoonotic TB. The knowledge of abattoir workers, butchers, livestock farmers and veterinary assistants regarding transmission of bTB from animal to human and symptoms of TB in human was very low. Most of these professional did not use protective material/ techniques and are considered at high risk of acquiring zoonotic tuberculosis. This study declares zoonotic tuberculosis a critical public health issue especially for professionally exposed groups in Summary 153 Peshawar, Pakistan and warrant immediate intervention for control of bovine and zoonotic tuberculosis. The last part of study aims to determine the proportion of zoonotic TB cases out of overall human TB patients and school children, drug resistance of M. bovis isolates and knowledge, attitude and practices about TB. Total 300 human TB patients and 100 school children were included in the study. Sputum samples were processed by PCR for presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis. Sputum samples from TB patients were cultured and M. bovis isolates were subjected to drug susceptibility testing. Data on knowledge, attitude and practices were obtained from TB patients by administering pre-tested questionnaire. Among TB patietns 4% (12/300) were infected with M. bovis. None of the school children was positive for M. bovis. Residence, occupation, presence of animals at home and sleeping in shed at night was found significantly associated with occurrence of zoonotic TB. Except one all M. bovis isolates were resistant to Pyrazinamide. Among other drugs resistance to streptomycin and isoniazid was high. Low level of knowledge and practices were observed. The study concluded that considering zoonotic aspect of TB during diagnosis and treatment of TB is necessary and recommends national survey for true estimation of burden of zoonotic TB in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2540-T] (1).

291. Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Ruminants At Sale And Purchase Markets And Abattoirs In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab, Pakistan

by Muhammad Tahir (2008-VA-301) | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Syed Ehtisham-ul-Haque.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: This is a representative study from Pakistan accompanied in three districts of Punjab i.e. Jhang, Layyah and Toba Tek Singh which are rich in livestock population. There is a lot of research work on livestock farms but the sale and purchase markets and abattoirs are neglected. Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock contribute a major share to agriculture in Pakistan GDP and its economy. Sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes contribute in the economy of Pakistani people by milk and meat production on majority basis. Livestock contribution to the agriculture value added is 56.3%, while it contributes 11.9% to the national GDP during 2014-15. More than 8.0 million rural families of the country are involved in raising livestock. But productivity of livestock is questioned by a lot of factors. Infectious zoonotic diseases are among these. Brucellosis is one of the major and unreported problem amongst livestock markets and abattoirs of our country. It results in losses to the economics of the farmers or owners in terms of poor health, abortions, long calving interval, production of weak offsprings and deprived quality of milk and meat. This disease is under investigated and hence people are unaware of this deceptive problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheaper tool to diagnose this problem. Determination of the seroprevalence is important to know the load of disease and pockets of infections in the area of Punjab, Pakistan. There is also a need to know which diagnostic antigen is more sensitive and specific from disease eradication and control point of view. A total of 300 animals serum samples were collected from three districts of the Punjab province and tested by conventional screening test i.e. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT) by using two antigens of different countries origin i.e. VRI (Lahore, Pakistan), IDEXX (Pourquier, France) and ID.vet, France and then tested with indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA). The data thus obtained regarding seroprevalence was analyzed using Chi-square SPSS version -19 (Nahar et al. 2009). Of the total 300 animals (77 male and 223 female), 1.3% male and 35.66% female were seropositive for anti-Brucella antibodies. Different risk factors were also included in study like sex, area, age, gender, abortion, reproductive problems and also history of orchitis in male. All of these risk factors were statistically analyzed to reveal the truth about ruminants brucellosis. Among the various risk factors studied, the risk factors including history of abortion (16.44%), orchitis (1.3%), retained placenta (26.47%), species cattle (35.55%) and in Toba Tek Singh (47.36%) were statistically significant which could be potential source of threat for humans and other animals. The testing was performed using conventional methods as well as using iELISA. It is concluded that iELISA is more sensitive and specific than conventional screening tests but molecular diagnosis is highly recommended for future studies. The current study will help to minimize and eradicate the low prevalence of ruminants brucellosis by creating awareness between the farmers and through vaccination and herd immunization. By implementing the policy of testing and culling of positive reactors will be pivotal to achieve the objectives. For confirmatory diagnosis all the sera were further tested with iELISA. For this purpose an exclusive commercially available iELISA Kit (ID.vet, France) was used which would be able to differentiate anti-Brucella antibodies of B. abortus and B. melitensis and this iELISA kit would be able to be used for multispecies including cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2556-T] (1).

292. Clinico-Pathological And Pathomorphological Studies On Co-Infection Of Avian Influenza (H9n2) With Escherichia Coli In Broiler Chicken

by Shahid Jaleel (2003-VA-93) | Dr. Muhammad Asif Idrees | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Muhammad Arshad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: E.coli is an important pathogen of domestic poultry and is prevalent in commercial poultry. LPAIV H9N2 infections are emerging respiratory problems in poultry industry, causing huge economic losses especially in the presence of other co-infecting pathogens such as E.coli. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. The mixed infections may provide increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to poultry and public health. Moreover, mixed infections of low pathogenic avian influenza with bacteria can also lead to devastating pandemics and a major threat to poultry health, worldwide in future. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. The mixed infections may provide increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to poultry and public health. Moreover, mixed infections of low pathogenic avian influenza with bacteria can also lead to devastating pandemics and a major threat to poultry health, worldwide in future. The aim of the present study was to investigate the infection of LPAIV A/chicken/Pakistan/10RS3039-284-48/2010 (H9N2) in chickens challenged with E.coli (O78:K80). This study had three objectives. First, it is designed to develop co-infection experimental models LPAIV (H9N2) + bacteria (E.coli) in the avian model. Second, it aims to study the hematological and biochemical alterations during co-infection in avian model. Finally to study the pathological and histological alterations during co-infection in avian model, this study will help researchers and veterinarians in implementation of necessary control measures. E.coli stockculture was prepared by inoculating MacConkey’s agar with a loop full of reference E.coli strain culture and incubating at 37°C for 24 h. The estimated colony count was confirmed by plating 0.1 ml of a 104 and a 105 dilution of the final culture onto separate MacConkey’s agar plates. Avian influenza A virus, A/chicken/Pakistan/10RS3039-284-48/2010 (H9N2) was obtained from Poultry Research Institute (PRI) Rawalpindi Pakistan. Viral stocks were prepared and titrated in 9-day-old to 10-day-old chicken embryonated eggs the median embryo infectious dose (EID50) was computed using previously reported approaches The viral stocks were diluted in medium containing antimicrobials to give a final titre of 106 EID50/ ml The study were ran on 80 broiler chicks (3week old), procured from local hatchery. All fowl were held serologically innocent and free from flu virus by haemagglutination inhibition (HI). Chicken were infected under experimental conditions with E.coli (O78:K80) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strain (A/chicken/Pakistan/UDL-01/08) (H9N2) alone or in combination. The experimental groups were identified as follows: negative control, E.coli, AI, and E.coli plus AI. Infected birds showed clinical signs of differing severity, with the most prominent disease signs appearing in birds of the E.coli plus AI group. Moreover, birds in E.coli plus AI group showed significant decrease in weight, enhanced macroscopic and microscopic pathological lesions. Specifically, the survival rate was 60%, 90%, and 100% in birds inoculated with E.coli + AI, E.coli and control negative or AI virus alone, respectively. Hematological studies revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia especially in co-infected birds. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, glucose and albumin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Prominent increase in creatinine, urea and uric acid were significantly detected in the infected chicken. The results showed that experimental co-infection of E.coli and H9N2 increased the severity of clinical signs, mortality rate and gross lesions and suggest than E.coli infection can induce higher economic losses and mortality if H9N2 LPAIV is also present. The HI titer against LPAIV infection in the co-infected group was significantly higher than the HI titer of AI group, which may indicate that E.coli could promote the propagation of H9N2 LPAIV or stimulate the immune response. The present study revealed that co-infection E.coli and H9N2 LPAIV caused more serious synergistic pathogenic effects and indicates the role of both pathogens as complicating factors in poultry infections.   Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2552-T] (1).

293. Immunomodulatory Effect Of Hing (Ferula Foetida) Along With Infectious Bursal Disease (Ibd) Vaccine In Broiler

by Muhammad Javed Raza | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: A number of feed additives including antibiotics have been extensively used in poultry feeds. However, the use of antibiotics has been restricted due to the drug resistance and the issue of residues in meat. Now a day, the use of medicinal plants is being popular as an alternate remedy. Asafoetida is a natural feed additive and antimicrobial, immune stimulator, antiviral, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, anti-cancerous, and vasodilator activities. It is being used for the control of some viral problems. Some previous studies also indicated that it has beneficial effects on the immune system. Therefore, the present study was designed to estimate the immunomodulatory effects of F. foetida with IBD vaccine in enhancing the immune system and ultimately increase the production of poultry products. A total of n=90 day old broiler chicks were purchased and kept under the optimum conditions at CVAS Jhang. Birds were divided into three groups A, B, C and group B and C were further divided into three subgroups (B1, B2, B3 and C1, C2, C3). Group A was treated as positive control group and was administered with commercially available IBD and ND vaccine and routine diet while group B was administered with asafoetida at the rate of 2%, 4%, and 6% along with vaccine to see the impact of different levels of asafoetida on the immune system and to see the effects (if any) of various doses of asafoetida. Group C was only administered with asafoetida in feed at the same rate as to group B. At the end of study birds were slaughtered to observe the effects of asafoetida administration. Positive effect of asafoetida has been reported by many studies. F. foetida is a medicinal herb used for the prevention and treatment of many diseases, because of having antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Also act as a good growth promoting agent and have beneficial effects on the immune system. So, it was hypothesized that the present Summary 39 study was helpful to determine the immunomodulatory effect of asafoetida for commercially available IBD vaccine and could reduce the cost of vaccination for commercial poultry farmers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2562-T] (1).

294. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Feeding Allium Sativum Against Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) Vaccinated Broiler Birds On IBD Vaccine.

by Uzma Riaz (2008-VA-286) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Muhammad Asif Idrees | Dr. Iahtasham Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: A number of feed additives including antibiotics have been extensively used in poultry diets for the purpose of weight gain to improve feed efficiency and growth rate. However, use of antibiotics has restricted due to the bacterial resistance and the issue of residues which make the chicken meat harmful for human consumption. So the medicinal plants are gaining interest as alternative feed strategies now a day because of their low cost, easy availability and presence of no residues. Garlic was used for the medicinal purposes and as a health supplement by the ancient Egyptians. It is a natural feed additive and is antimicrobial, immune stimulator, antiviral, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, anti-cancerous, and vasodilator activities. Previous studies indicate that it has beneficial effects on the immune system and is a best immune stimulator then the other herbal plants and medicines. Therefore, the present study was designed to estimate the immunomodulatory effect of garlic to commercially available IBD vaccine in enhancing the immune system. Total N=99 day old broiler chicks were purchased and kept in the experimental shed of CVAS Jhang. Birds were divided into three groups A, B, C and group B and C were further divided into three subgroups (B1, B2, B3 and C1, C2, C3). Group A was treated as control group and was administered with commercially available IBD and ND vaccine and routine diet while group B was administered with garlic at the rate of 4%, 5%, and 7% along with vaccine to see the impact of different levels of garlic (Allium sativum) on the immune system and to see the toxic effect (if any) of high dose of garlic. Group C was only administered with garlic in fee Summary 44 at the same rate as to group B. At the end of study birds were slaughtered to check the effects of garlic administration. Positive effect of garlic has been reported by many studies. Garlic is a medicinal herb used for the prevention and treatment of many diseases, because of having antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Also act as a good growth promoting agent and have beneficial effects on the immune system. Results of the study indicate that administration of garlic powder in different doses alone and combined with commercial IBD vaccine have good effects on the growth, blood parameters and the immune system of the broiler birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2561-T] (1).

295. Comparison Of Suturing And Sutureless Techniques For Gastrotomy Closure In Canines

by Muhammad Atif (2007-VA-133) | Dr. Naveed Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Gastrotomy is suggested in case of gastric dilatation with volvolus, gastric foreign bodies, gastric retention, out flow obstruction, hypertropicgastropathy, gastric neoplasia, and gastroduodenal ulceration. Gastrotomy closure technique after gastric surgery is very crucial to avoid post-operative complication like peritonitis. Different techniques are considered to close gastric incisions like absorbable suturing material, stapler suture and use of adhesive glue. These techniques give different kind of effects on gastrotomy closure. The present study was carried out on 12 adult mongrel dogs with an average of 15 to 20 kg body weight. They were divided into three groups, each group having 4 animals and designated as group A, B and C. Standard Gastrotomy procedure was performed in group A B and C. After performing surgery, the dogs of group A were sutured by cushing suture, followed by continuous lambert suture by 2/0 synthetic absorbable suture. While in group B dogs, stapler sutures were used to close gastric incision and in dogs of group C, incision site was closed through use of tissue adhesive glue (cyanoacrylate). Comparison of all suturing and sutureless techniques was carried out through Physical evaluation, food, water intake and defecation, Weight loss / gain, Complete Blood Count, Leakage evaluation by contrast radiography and postmortem findings. It was concluded that suturing technique (using absorbable suture material in two layers) maybe considered much better than other two methods (adhesive glue and stapling) economically, due to use of ease and least post-operative complication. Although glue may be considered as second option due to easy handling, minimum fibrosis, least stenosis and better healing time. Stapling may be the third one SUMMARY 55 because it experiences difficulty to fire, greater chances of infection due to staples and more prone to leakage and stenosis. The results of this study will help veterinarian, field workers and pet practioners to use suturing technique as most effective and appropriate technique for gastrotomy closure in terms of better healing, less blood loss and least chances of post operation complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2559-T] (1).

296. Seroprevalence Investigations And Molecular Detection Of Mycoplasma Synoviae Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) In Poultry

by Madiha Kiran (2008-VA-272) | Dr. Syed Ehtisham ul Haq | Dr. Usman Waheed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pakistan poultry industry has been making remarkable progress from the last few decades but it is still threatened to certain infectious diseases which may cause heavy economic losses. Respiratory distress is of major concern, caused by a number of bacteria and viruses. Mycoplasma synoviae is the second most economically significant bacterial pathogen causing infectious sinusitis which contributes greatest in respiratory distress cases, and infectious synovitis. Serology is a best tool to detect the prevalence of infection in a flock but sometimes it is associated with imperfections in results. Accurate and early diagnosis through molecular technique is necessary for timely treatment of the disease. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) represents a rapid and sensitive alternative to conventional PCR, showing to be a robust, inexpensive, simple, and powerful method for selective and specific detection of M. synoviae. A total of n=300 sera samples were collected from broiler and layer flocks. Samples were tested against MS antibodies by Rapid Serum Agglutination (RSA) using SPAFAS MS Plate antigen (Charles River Inc., CT, USA). For LAMP based identification, tracheal and synovial swabs samples were collected from sero-positive birds. To perform LAMP, DNA was extracted through organic extraction method from swab samples, as well as from Indicating FTA® classic cards (for positive control). The vlhA gene targeted primers were designed using Primer Explorer V5. Primers were synthesized over 200 nmol scale. FIP and BIP were subjected to Reverse Phase Cartridge (RPC) for purification. The LAMP reaction mixture was incubated at 60оC temperature in a water bath for 60 minutes. After amplification of DNA, Bsm DNA CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 44 polymerase had been inactivated at 80оC. Results were read after gel electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel. A real-time LAMP assay was also performed using ESEQuant tube scanner with FAM as reporting dye. The total samples positive for MS infection were 153 when tested through RSA, indicating 51% seroprevalence of MS in poultry flocks of Jhang. The positive percentage for broiler and layer birds was 48% and 54%, respectively. LAMP assay detected 54% positive samples. The results of successful LAMP assay indicated a specific ladder-like pattern. The developed LAMP assay was found 100% specific, as it did not amplify the DNA of other mycoplasma species (M. gallisepticum and M. imitans). The sensitivity of the Real-time LAMP assay was noted as 10fg/μl of DNA. The study concluded that Mycoplasma synoviae infection is prevalent in poultry flocks of District Jhang of Punjab, Pakistan, and the LAMP assay is a sensitive rapid molecular method for the detection of M. synoviae. In summary, the developed LAMP assay is an ideal, robust and simple method to diagnose M. synoviae in poultry. Based on its high specificity and sensitivity, LAMP can be considered as a promising tool for small as well as large-scale detection of M. synoviae in poultry flocks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2589-T] (1).

297. Study Of Factors Affecting Quality Of Silage As A Component Of Total Mixed Ration On Growth And Production Performance In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

by Rafi-Uddin (2004-VA-152) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Silage production is at initial stages to be a part of animal agriculture in Pakistan. The lack of research on silage making and its benefits for livestock production under local conditions is an important factor for slow propagation of silage in our country. Under such scenario a multi-step study was conducted. At first, the effect of proper maturity stage for harvesting different fodders was investigated, and then the effects of silo type and silage additives were assessed on silage quality. In last part of the study the feeding trials were conducted on growing calves and lactating buffalo to evaluate the effect of silage feeding on growth and milk production respectively. In all the three fodders i.e. oats, maize and sorghum, the full bloom stage for harvesting produced the best results regarding silage quality and fermentation characteristics. Although the trench silo produced best results regarding fermentation characteristics and silage quality, the expected operational cost and dry matter losses during face management for trench silo would make it harder for farmers to adopt. Under such circumstances, for long term use the bunkers would be a good choice for silage making with comparable silage quality as that of trench silo. Silage inoculants certainly improved the silage quality and it is highly recommended to use such additives for silage making and these additives are not that costly. Buffalo calves raised on fresh corn fodder and three different silages showed similar daily weight gain. Further growth trials on buffalo calves with varying levels of concentrate feeding along with silage are suggested to investigate silage feeding in calves. Corn silage fed lactating buffaloes had lower dry matter intake and total milk yield, but higher total solids as compared to fresh fodder feeding. The future studies of silage feeding compared to different inclusion levels of fresh and dry roughage sources would add further to explore the economic implications of silage feeding. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2590-T] (1).

298. Effects Of Aqueous Extract Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves Against Colibacillosis In Broiler

by Muhammad Azfar (2014-VA-1111) | Dr. Asif Idrees | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Iahtasham Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In Pakistan the poultry sector has developed rapidly in the last two decades. The poultry production as practiced today is specialized one and concentrating more on the use of high performance birds. The major factors for successful poultry production are high genetic potential, balanced nutrition and health maintenance (Nayaka et al. 2012). Utilization of immunostimulant is one solution to improve the immunity of animals and to decrease their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Immunostimulation comprises a prophylactic and therapeutic concept aimed at stimulation of the non-specific and specific immune response (Hyde and Patnode, 2001). Most of the commercial poultry growers use antibiotics as growth promoters and to reduce the chance of occurrence of infectious diseases, which usually result in higher costs of production and ultimately lower net returns. There are great concerns about the use of antibiotics as therapeutic immunomodulators and growth promoters as it has given rise to antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this modern world of science, the researchers are once again intending towards exploring the potential benefits of the conventional medicines. Neem (A. indica) is an herbal plant which is known to exhibit various beneficial pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory effect in broilers. Poultry sector is facing some problems one of which is bacterial disease which cause economic loss. Farmers use different antibiotics as growth promoter and to reduce the incidence of different diseases on poultry which increases cost of production and lowers the net returns. In addition, use of antibiotics giving rise to other problems like increasing drug resistant against these antibiotics especially Gram –ve bacteria (Salmonella and E. coli). It’s necessary that antibiotic residues in meat would not adversely affect human health. Specifically, it has been recommended that the penicillins, tetracyclines, tylosin, and Summary 54 sulfonamides as growth promoters should not be use any more. So scientists are giving attention to the use of indigenous medicine instead of antibiotics for better rearing of poultry. Pakistan is blessed with different medicinal plants one of which is Neem (Azadirachta indica). For thousands of years the medicinal properties of Neem have been recognized. Each part of the Neem tree has some medicinal property. Biological Activity of Neem is due presence of different chemicals like nimbolide, nimbin, nimbindin, quercetin among others. Biological activities include Anti-inflammatory; Antiarthritic; Antipyretic; Hypoglycemic; Antigastric ulcer; Spermicidal; Antifungal; Antibacterial; Diuretic; Antimalarial; Antitumour; Immunomodulatory A. indica grow fast and is evergreen tree which has medicinal and nutritive value for broilers. Broilers which are given Neem leaves extract in water have shown improved FCR and weight gain. This medicinal Plants compete with synthetic drugs as it strengthens the immune system by activate Cell mediated immunity and have no residues in meat. Neem extracts also improve performance and hematological parameters However, I did the research work in short-term basis (only 42 days) and modern equipments were also not available. Therefore, an extensive research and development work should be undertaken on Neem and its products to make the findings more accurate and effective for their better economic and therapeutic utilization. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2613-T] (1).

299. Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Dairy Cattle In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab, Pakistan

by Ahmad Raza (2008-VA-271) | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Muhammad Faiz Qamar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Brucellosis is an infectious disease of domestic and wild animals with serious zoonotic implications in humans. The disease in animals causes tremendous economic losses. Since brucellosis is primarily an animal disease, emphasis should be given to control the disease in animal populations by adopting well organized control strategies to protect the public from the risks of acquiring this zoonosis. A total of 300 blood samples (N=300) were collected randomly from cattle species with one hundred samples (n=100) from each district of Chiniot, Sargodha and Sahiwal. Approximately 04 mL of blood was collected and transferred in a blood Vacutainer having gel containing clot activating factor, stored immediately at 4 °C in an ice box and was transported to laboratory. The serum samples were screened by RBPT which is screening test for brucellosis and it was observed that 38 animals were seropositive by RBPT. Then serum samples were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as ELISA. Out of 300 samples, 33 animals were confirmed as seropositive by Indirect ELISA. The overall prevalence in each of this district by RBPT was found to be 12%, 12% and 14 % in Chiniot, Sargodha and Sahiwal respectively. The overall prevalence in each of this district by iELISA was found to be 10%, 11% and 12 %. By RBPT, Seroprevalence in females was 13.57% based on gender, animals having abortion history had high seroprevalence for brucellosis (30%) than the non-aborted animals (10.83%) and the animals with history of retained placenta are 19.30%. Seroprevalence of iELISA based on gender showed 11.79%, cattle having history of abortion 30% and animals having history of retained placenta in cattle (24.57%). The risk factors i.e. sex, abortion, retained placenta and areas are highly significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2602-T] (1).

300. Chemical, Microbiological And Toxicological Evaluation Of Textile Dyeing Industry Wastewater

by Muhammad Furqan Akhtar (2011-VA-265) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity, pathological lesions and oxidative damage. The aim of the present study was to quantify metals and identify organic pollutants in untreated textile dyeing industry wastewater, to determine the bacterial load of wastewater, isolate and identify heavy metals tolerant bacteria and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential, influence on normal physiology and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis through AAS revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Various organic pollutants such as chlorpyrifos, cucurbitacin-b and phthalates were identified by screening through GC-MS. Microbiological evaluation of textile dyeing industry wastewater revealed a high bacterial load. Different bacteria isolated from wastewater such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphyoloccus epidermidis and Micrococcus varians exhibited resistance to Cr and Cu salts and antibiotics to varying degree. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. Bacterial reverse mutation assay revealed that the mutagenicity of textile dyeing industry wastewater decreased with increase in dilution of wastewater. In-vitro comet assay revealed the evidence of high oxidative DNA damage induced by textile wastewater. Wastewater exhibited concentration dependent genotoxicity in sheep SUMMARY 147 peripheral lymphocytes. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/ plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C at a dose of 50mg/Kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. Industrial effluents may decrease activities of T-SOD and CAT and concentration of H2O2 in liver, kidney and blood/plasma of Wistar rats. Vitamin C may have a possible ameliorating effect on industrial effluent induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wastewater exposed rats exhibited necrosis of epithelial cells of nephron, pulmonary emphysema, and inflammation of the lungs, degradation and infiltration of cardiac myocytes, fibrosis of the liver, damage to the intestinal mucosa and sloughing off epithelial cells from the intestinal lumen. This study concludes that untreated textile dyeing wastewater being a complex mixture of inorganic and organic pollutants may be highly eco-toxic and may contaminate of the environment via continuous release of various organic and inorganic pollutants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2580-T] (1).



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