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301. Chemical Microbiological And Toxicological Evaluation Of Pharmaceutical Effluent Wastewater

by Ali Sharif (2011-VA-266) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum .

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pharmaceutical effluent being a complex mixture of drugs and heavy metals may affect human health exhibiting a strong potential of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induction along with pathological changes in various organs of the body. The current study was focused to quantify the presence of heavy metals, detection of various drugs, determining the bacterial load along with isolation and identification of different bacteria and assessment of the mutagenic and genotoxic, cytotoxic and oxidative stress induction of pharmaceutical effluent wastewater when exposed to sheep lymphocytes, Salmonella typhimurium strains, cell lines and rats respectively. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to quantify heavy metals and showed the presence of arsenic, chromium, lead and iron in concentrations above the normal limits recommended by WHO and EPA. Gas Chromatograph mass spectrophotometer analysis shown the presence of digitoxin, lignocaine, caffeine and trimethoprim and various other organic pollutants. Microbiological evaluation showed a high bacterial load in the pharmaceutical waste water. Several bacteria were also found in PEW in the presence of different drugs and heavy metals. Aeromonas sobria, Micrococcus varians, Staphyoloccus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium showed tolerance to potassium di chromate and copper sulphate and resistance to various antibiotic discs. Ames assay revealed a strong mutagenic potential with and without the presence of metabolic activation mixtures. A concentration dependent effect was observed when samples were tested with increasing dilution factor. MTT assay and comet assay also showed a concentration dependent effect. The BHK-21 cell line was used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cell viability decreased with increasing concentration of PEW. Sheep lymphocytes used in comet assay exhibited a concentration dependent DNA damage. Different antioxidant enzymes were also evaluated. Rats were exposed to PEW at different concentrations and following 60 days oral exposure, rats were evaluated for the presence of total superoxide dismutase, catalase and hydrogen peroxide in kidney, liver and plasma. Exposure to Pharmaceutical waste water significantly decreased the (TSOD), (CAT) and (H2O2) levels in plasma, liver and kidney. Treatment with Vitamin E significantly ameliorated the levels of enzymes. Exposed rats were also evaluated for any pathological changes. Coagulative necrosis of renal epithelial cells were observed along with severe degeneration and cellular swelling in hepatocytes of hepatic cord. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2600-T] (1).

302. Clinico-biochemical Studies on Detomidine Analgesia and Effects of its Combinatios on Animals

by Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the newly introduced imidazole derivative, drug "detomidine" with alpha-2 adr2noceptor binding properties, and its various combinations in animals. A clinico-hiochemical study was carried out to explore the various aspects of a novel sedative and analgesic drug. Analgesia was evaluated by performing castration in small ruminants, rumenal fistulization in large ruminants, skin prick test, electric stimulation, and developing an experimental colic model in donkeys. The parameters used to evaluate analgesia revealed that detomidine has greater potential to lessen the pain during minor and major surgical interventions in different animals. However, its local usage to achieve paravertebral and epidural analgesia proved that detomidine produces general effect after getting into the circulation and very poor local effect. It has been concluded that the drug can be used as preanaesthetic with chloral hydrate and pentothal sodium anaesthesia to perform major surgical exercises in equine and canine respectively. In addition it has an edge over other sedative drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on various physiological parameters of the animals. Clinical trials have proved that detomidine "a novel sedative and analgesic" is a drug of choice for restraining, examination, and minor and major surgical manipulations on equine, bovine, caprine, ovine and canine species without any untoward effects. Availability: No items available Checked out (1).

303. Effects And Remedial Measures Of Aflatoxin B1 On Bovine Calves In Punjab

by Omer Naseer (2002-VA-65) | Dr. Jawairia Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Aflatoxins B1 are most toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus fungi in/on foods and feeds, probably best known and most intensively researched aflatoxins globally. AFB1 have been associated with several diseases, e.g. aflatoxicosis in livestock, pets including humans throughout the world. Occurrence of AFB1 is influenced by certain environmental factors like geographic location, agro-economic practices and susceptibility of feed commodities to fungal invasion during pre-harvest, storage, and processing periods. AFB1 has grabbed greater attention than any other mycotoxins due to their demonstrated potent carcinogenic effect in susceptible animals and their acute toxicological effects in humans. As the absolute safety will be never achieved, most of the world struggled to limit aflatoxin exposure by imposing regulations on feed commodities. So, in this study, we had collected 67 concentrated samples, thirty six samples from Gujranwala and thirty one from Kasur to examine the occurrence of aflatoxin B1. The aims of this study were to investigate the aflatoxin B1 in calf feed, effect of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 on productive performance of calves and determine the comparative efficacy of commercially available mycotoxin binders and liver tonics against AFB1 in bovine calves. Feed samples were obtained from different livestock farms and cattle feed mills, toxin levels in each feed sample were determined by HPLC. AFB1 level was higher at feed mills (40.33±2.21 ppb and 49.0±1.95 ppb) than farms (34.96±2.65 ppb and 44.95±2.41 ppb) both in Gujranwala and Kasur respectively. Fungus was isolated and grown on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar on the basis of microscopic characters and species within genus characterized by colony characters/macroscopic characters, mostly Aspergillus species was present in the feed samples which produce mycotoxins. The second most prevalent species were the Fusarium. Mucor and the Pencillium were respectively third and fourth in number. Our results have shown that Alternaria was not present in Gujranwala and Rhizopus was absent in the feed samples collected from the Kasur. Out of mycotoxin contaminated concentrate feed samples, the highest frequency of Aspergillus (43.3%) was observed, followed by Fusaram (38.8%), Mucor (8.9%), Penicillium(5.9%), Rhizopus (1.5%) and Alternaria species (1.5%). Our results also indicated that growth of Aspergillus spp. can be minimized by controlling the different factors like pH, temperature, light and humidity, which are essential for the proper growth and development. The antifungal activity of methanolic extract of clove, neem and garlic was also determined in which maximum MIC showed by garlic. Thirty six bovine calves of 6 to 12 months of age were kept in UVAS, Pattoki campus (Ravi Campus) .in four different replicates having 9 animals each. Different concentrations, i.e. 0.6 mg/kg, 0.8 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg was administered along with concentrated feed and check out productive performance along with physiological profile. The most pathological concentration of aflatoxin B1 in experiment number 3 was given to the two groups of bovine calves along with two different commercially available mycotoxin binders i.e. Yeast based and second one was clay based HSCAS mycotoxin binder at recommended doses. Efficacy of mycotoxin binders on feed samples was analyzed by using HPLC and also evaluates the productive performance of the animals.Efficacy of two liver tonics i.e.silymarin and choline chloride was observed on CBC, LFT and RFT of bovine calves. Present study has clearly displayed the adverse effect of aflatoxin B1 on feed consumption, hematological and serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney in bovine calf. Results indicated that HSCAS mycotoxin adsorbent was able to fully detoxify aflatoxin B1. Silymarin had great impact on the liver to cope the adverse effects of the AFB1 as compared to the choline chloride, which was proved with the help of CBC, LFT and RFT. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2630-T] (1).

304. Identification And Expression Analysis Of Genes Involved In Obsessive Compulsive Disorder In Pakistani Population

by Javeria (2008-VA-627) | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The background of this study is that WHO reports that psychiatry disorders affect worldwide 0.8 to 2% population. Anxiety illnesses are a class of illness associated with unreasonable and disturbing sensation of fear and tension. There are several types of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social phobia, OCD. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic disabling condition. OCD is characterized by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images, and impulses and by repetitive, ritualistic physical or mental acts performed to reduce the attendant anxiety. The severity of OCD depends on the amount obsessions and compulsions. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) is a reliable and consistent scoring system that can be used to categorize OCD. The major genes involve in OCD are SLC6A4, BDNF, SLC1A1 and COMT genes. The study was enrolled patients treated for OCD. Blood samples have been collected from the patients. DNA extracted from fresh blood. Primers were designed. Then DNA amplification have done by Bio-Rad thermal cycler. Then gel electrophoresis was done for PCR product quantification. PCR products precipitated and sequenced. SNPs were identified. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed for each sample with TaqMan Universal PCR mastermix which showed down regulation of COMT gene in OCD patients in Pakistani population. The aim of this study was SNP identification in Pakistani Population in Obsessive Compulsive disorder and to analyze the gene expression of COMT gene involved in OCD in Pakistani Population. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2620-T] (1).

305. Comparative Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Levamisole, Piperazine And Pineapple Leaves Extract(Ananascomosus)Against Ascaridiosis In Captive Java Sparrow (Lonchuraoryzivora)

by Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman Latif (2007-VA-26) | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Ascaradia galli imposes major health problems on pet birds including the java sparrows. It retards growth, decrease body condition, and lowers the clutch size which imparts huge economic losses to breeders and birds owner. Over dosage of frequently used anthelmintic increase the risk of adverse effects and stress on birds. So there arises a need to adapt alternative therapeutic approaches. The present study was designed to compare the anthelmintic activity of frequently used synthetic drugs levamisole and piperazine and herbal drug pineapple leave extracts against ascariasis in java sparrows.To study the comparative anthelmintic efficacy of levamisole, piperazine and pineapple leave extract against Ascaridia galli in captive java sparrows, fecal sample of (n=200) java sparrows captive for breeding purpose were screened for the Ascaridiagalli by direct fecal smear method. Among the all the infected birds 30 infected and 10 healthy birds were selected to conduct the study and divided into 4 groups and included in therapeutic trial.Birds were treated with levamisole, with piperazine and with pineapple leaves extract according to standard dose rate and route of administration in Group A, B & C respectively, Fourth group D comprising of 10 birds waskept as negative control. To evaluate the comparative efficacy of drugs, EPG will be calculated according to McMaster Technique post treatment at day 0 and after treatment on 7th, 14th and 21s. Results revealed that levimosle was the very effective against Ascaradia galli in java sparrows. Levaimsole decrease the average EPG of treated group to 50 from 600 and show 100 percent efficacy against Ascaradia galli and recovered all the infected birds of the group A. Piperazine was less effective as compare to the levamisole but show more effectiveness as compare to the pineapple leave extract. Piperazine reduced the average EPG of treated group B to 150 from 650 and show 70 percent and recovered 7 infected from 10. Pineapple leave extract showed least effectiveness and reduced the EPG of treated group C to 350. Pineapple showed 40 percent efficacy against Ascaradia galli and recovered only 4 infected birds of group C from Ascariasis.Pineapple leaves extract were effective against ascariasis in captive Java sparrows but least effective as compare to levamisole and piperazine having no adverse effects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2629-T] (1).

306. Study On The Repair Of Long Oblique Mid-Shaft Femoral Fracture In Domestic Fowl, Using Full Cerclage Wires With Or Without Intra-Medullary Pin

by Muhammad Waqas (2008-VA-224) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Hammad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Fracture is a challenging problem in domestic as well as wild birds. Caged birds are prone to stress and self-injury. Wing and leg fractures in birds are most common problems. The fracture of bones is common in avian species as a result of impact injuries due to collision with branches, electric lines or other obstacles, either natural or anthropogenic. The basic principles of fracture fixation are the same in birds and mammals. Fractures treated with biomechanically sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality. This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft femoral fractures in birds, with minimal side effects and stress to the patient. The Study was conducted on 12 adult, domestic fowls of either sex. The birds were received as clinical cases presented with long oblique femoral fracture at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore. They were individually marked with coloured plastic rings for the sake of identification. They were divided into three groups i.e. Group A , Group B and Group C comprising four birds each, which were designated as I, II, III, and IV respectively. In the birds of Group A long oblique femoral fracture was reduced and immobilized with intramedullary pinning, with pin size between 2.5mm to 3.0mm. While in Group B, similar fracture was treated with 2 – 3 full cerclage wiring. And in the final Group C both of the above techniques were applied simultaneously i.e. IM pin with 2 – 3 cerclage wires. The birds were maintained in separate cages post-operatively until the completion of the study. Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union, SUMMARY 74 fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters was illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Conclusion: Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably threaded) with at least 2 – 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long oblique mid-shaft femoral fracture in domestic fowl. The combination of both these techniques together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to the bone fragments. Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation, were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average practitioner. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2653-T] (1).

307. Relationship Of Parent’s Level Of Education And Socio-Demographic Variables With Child’s Immunization Status: A Cross-Sectional Study In The Rural Areas Of District Layyah

by Abida Zahoor (2012-VA-573) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Immunization is a very important element of public health. It is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, generally by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infections. It prevents against various communicable diseases such as Tuberculosis, Tetanus, Pertussis, Diphtheria, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis B and Measles. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 parents having at-least one child under five years of age. Data was collected from the rural areas of district Layyah. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between parent’s level of education and child’s immunization status on one hand and the effect of sociodemographic variables on child’s immunization status on the other hand. In this study, it was concluded that there was a significant association between parent’s level of education and the socioeconomic variables with child’s immunization status. Low rate of parent’s literacy, especially health literacy, poor socioeconomic status, large population size, parent’s refusal, difficulty in accessing immunization services and lack of health facilities were identified as the main barriers to immunization completion. As parent’s level of education is considered to be the corner stone in the progress of modern nation so education is a very important element as educated parents play a significant role in achieving the health of their children. It was concluded that there was a significant association between literacy status of parents, income status of parents and the immunization status of children. The immunization status of children in the rural areas can be improved by higher household income, literacy, better Summary 41 health knowledge, exposure to media, maternal empowerment and mother’s participation in decision-making process. The policy makers should stress on the education of the people especially female education. Health awareness campaigns should be carried out so that parents can gain the benefits of vaccination. 6.1 Hypothesis Ho: there is no significant relationship between parent’s level of education and child’s immunization status. H1: Parent’s level of education has significant relationship on child’s immunization status 6.2 Methodology A cross-sectional study of six months duration from July 2016 to December 2016 was conducted in the rural areas of district Layyah in which parents of children under 5 years of age were interviewed about the immunization status of their children. Convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data. Data was collected from 200 parents living in the rural areas of district Layyah. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. 6.3 Statistical Design The dependent variable “child’s vaccination” and independent variables “parent’s educational level, household income, parent’s occupation and family composition” were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 and Microsoft Excel. Data entry and analysis was done on SPSS-16. Chi-square test was used for statistical testing. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Cross Summary 42 tabulations were done among dependent and independent variables. Chi-square test was applied on different sociodemographic factors and child’s immunization status to define the significant associations. 6.4 Study Outcomes It is concluded that there is a significant association between literacy status of parents, income status of parents and the immunization status of children. The major benefit of this study is that, the research findings can be used to assess the relationship of parent’s education with child’s immunization status and to find out those factors which are the main hindrance in child’s vaccination coverage. It will also provide new dimensions for further research related to child immunization and the health managers will find new facts and figures that will help them to make national decisions with the certainty of success. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2654-T] (1).

308. Effect Of Colchicine On Cellular And Humoral Immune Responses In Mice

by Shahzada Khurram Syed (2007-VA-444) | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Shahbaz Yousaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Colchicine is a medication that treats gout. It is a natural product and secondary metabolite, originally extracted from plants Colchicum autumnale .It causes modulation of chemokine and prostanoid production and inhibition of neutrophil and endothelial cell adhesion molecules by which it interferes with the initiation and amplification of the joint inflammation. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of colchicine on cellular and humoral immunity in mice. There were five groups for each assay i.e. group I (negative control), positive control and three colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg). The number of mice in each group was five to eight. All these groups were administered doses intraperitoneally. To determine the effect of colchicine on cell mediated immunity , delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay, macrophage engulfment assay, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenic test and nitric oxide production was performed .DTH was performed by measuring skin thickness. DTH showed significant difference (P<0.001) of negative control to colchicine treated groups 40μg/kg, 80μg/kg and 160μg/kg. With increasing dose, there was decrease in skin thickness of the mice. Highest reduction of skin was found at 160μg/kg. Macrophage engulfment assay was performed to evaluate the effect of macrophage induced phagocytosis. There was significant ( P <0.001) difference of engulfment of SRBCs by macrophages with negative control to colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III(80μg/kg) and group IV(160μg/kg) groups. There was significant difference of engulfment of macrophages at 45 and 90 minutes. Cyclophosphamide induced neutropenic test was performed to assess the effect of colchicine on total leukocyte count (TLC) and differential leukocyte count (DLC). There was SUMMARY 77 reduction of TLC to about 45.3% in control to 48.3%, 54.68% and 65.42% in group II (40μg/kg), group III (80 μg/ kg) and group IV (160μg/kg) respectively when these were compared with primary values of TLC. There was significant difference of reduction in the neutrophil count of negative control 1057 (±120) to 902 (±67) in group II (40μg/kg), 734(±69) in group III (80 μg/ kg) and 609 (±71) in group IV (160μg/kg) of doses of colchicine. This test showed that with the increasing dose of colchicine, there was significant (P<0.001) difference of TLC count and neutrophil count. Nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages was performed for measuring different concentrations of nitric oxide produced. There was significant difference (P<0.001) in NO production by macrophages alone and LPS stimulated between negative control to group II (40 μg /kg), group III (80μg/kg), group IV (160μg/kg) of colchicine. With increasing dose, there was significant reduction in production of NO. There was significant P<0.0001 reduction in body weight andspleen weight difference of mice in different groups of colchicine treated 40μg/kg, 80μg/kg and 160μg/kg from negative control after treatment. There was difference of weight of Thymus of group II (40 μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg) but difference was statistically not significant. There were no histopathological changes observed in spleen and Thymus at 40μg/kg and 80μg/kg doses of colchicine. At 160μg/kg dose, increase in thickness of trabecular was seen .due to edema in the spleen. For evaluation of colchicine effect on humoral immunity, haemagglutination assay, mice lethality test and Jerne hemolytic plaque formation were performed. Haemagglutination assay (HA) was performed by using red blood cells injected intraperitoneally in mice to measure antibody titer. There was significant difference of (P >0.001) to colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg)with group I (negative control).With the increasing dose, there was reduction in the SUMMARY 78 HA titer. Mice lethality test was performed by testing immune response of the mice to the challenge infection of P.multocida. It was performed by comparing mortality ratio of mice after administration of drug. There was no death of mice in the negative control group in which there was administration of PBS and vaccine. At 40μg/kg dose of colchicine, there was 50% mortality ratio. At 80μg/kg dose of colchicine 75% mortality ratio was observed. Maximum mortality ratio was observed at the 160μg/kg colchicine dose i.e. 100%. Jerne plaque formation test was performed and plaques formed was enumerated and recorded as the number of plaque forming cells (PFCs) per million cells. There was significant difference (P<0.001) of reduction in number of plaques from negative control to all doses of colchicine 40 μg/kg, 80 μg/kg and 160μg/kg. Antibody formation was decreased with increasing the dose of colchicine. Therefore, it is concluded that colchicine suppresses the cellular and humoral responses in mice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2650-T] (1).

309. Pathogenesis Of Aflatoxin B1 In Quails Under Experimental Conditions And Detoxification By Biological And Chemical Means

by Sakhra Mahmood (2005-VA-251) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus Rana | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Secondary metabolites of certain fungi produce toxins under favorable conditions especially while growing on different food grains. Mycotoxins are among major threats to growing poultry industry and human beings. Aflatoxins are closely related, biologically active fungal metabolites and commonly produced by Aspergillus species. A research was carried out to evaluate the ability of Aspergillus flavus for Aflatoxin B1 production using rice, wheat and maize as substrates. Lethal effects on growth performance parameters, hematological and histopathological of graded doses of aflatoxin B1 in quails under experimental conditions were observed. Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on humoral immune response to Newcastle Disease virus vaccine in quails were determined. Biological detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Saccharomyces servisiae was evaluated in quails. Comparative evaluations of different commercially available toxin binders were checked. All these experiments were carried out till the six weeks (42 days). Aspergillus flavus was identified on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Rice, wheat and maize grains was used as substrate to check the level of Aflatoxin B1 produced by inoculating an aqueous suspension of 106 spores/ml. Aflatoxin B1 checked by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Quails were reared under standard management conditions in five groups (A, B, C, D and E) having sixty each. Each group was further divided in two independent units. Diets offered to groups were control (without toxins), 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2 mg Aflatoxin B1/kg feed. One unit of SUMMARY 187 each group was vaccinated with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccine while other was not and studied the lethal effects on growth performance, blood parameters, immune response and histopathology of vital organs. At the end of the experiment, it was found that the deleterious effects of Aflatoxin B1 were dose and duration dependent. As the level of the toxin was increased, the lethal effects were prominent. The growth performance parameters including gain in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was adversely affected at high doses. The body weight gain was significantly reduced in Aflatoxin B1 treated groups as compared to control group. Similarly feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly different from the control group. The hematological studies exhibited that aflatoxin B1 significantly reduced the hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total leukocyte count whereas the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly increased as compared to control group. The immune response against NDV vaccine was adversely effected in Aflatoxin B1 treated groups and values of Antibody titer in AFB1 were significantly low as compared to group A( control) In the second experiment, Saccharomyces cervisae (SC) dried powder was mixed in basal quail diet having 0.5mg Aflatoxin B1 for all experimental groups and control was without toxins. SC was added at levels of 0.5 gm, 1.0 gm and 2.0 gm /kg of feed. It was recorded that Saccharomyces cervisae (yeast) have the potential to remove the deleterious effects of Aflatoxin B1. Yeast effectively detoxified the Aflatoxin B1. The results recorded of growth performance and other parameters were non-significantly different from the control group. Chemical detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 was evaluated in quails using commercially available toxin binders. Toxin binders used were activated charcoal, kaoline, Myco AD and selenium plus vitamin E and mixed in basal quail diet having 0.5mg Aflatoxin B1 for all experimental groups and control was without toxins. The Myco AD and selenium plus vitamin E showed the highest detoxification potential as compared SUMMARY 188 to other chemical toxin binders. Groups E and F showed the results of growth performance, hematological, immune response and histopathological were non-significantly different from the control group (A). Kaolin was moderately detoxifying the toxin. Presence of aflatoxin B1 in soft tissues was checked by TLC and quantified using HPLC. The liver exhibited the residues of Aflatoxin B1 at high doses of toxin. Group D and E rearing on feeds having 1mg AFB1 /Kg feed and 2mg AFB1 /Kg feed of toxin showed the residues of AFB1 in liver and kidney. Statistical means for growth performance parameters, hematological, immune response and histopathological scores in each subunit of quails were analyzed by applying one way ANOVA and Duncans‟s Multiple Range (DMR) test at 95% probability. Aflatoxin B1 is lethal and lowers the performance of birds. The lethal effects can be detoxified by biological and chemical means to lower the economic losses to poultry industry. It can be concluded that biological detoxification is preferably better as compared to chemical detoxification. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2670-T] (1).

310. Molecular Identification And Treatment Of Theileriosis In Small Ruminants Of Northern Balochistan

by Mir Ahmad Khan (2005-VA-214) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Ovine and Caprine Theileriosis in Northern Highlands and Suleiman Mountain Region of Balochistan, Six thickly populated /union councils were included in the study area. Samples were collected from 2870 animals Sheep (n= 2200) and Goats (n= 670) for screening of the disease. The samples were collected and processed in Regional Disease Investigation Laboratories, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development Balochistan, T.B. Sanatorium Hospital Quetta and Center for Vaccinology, Bacteriology, The University of Balochistan, Quetta and Medicine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Data revealed 20.82% disease in sheep and 9.70%. in goats. The regional prevalence of theileriosis revealed 19.19% in Northern Highlands and 17.48% in Suleiman Mountain Region Chi-square analysis showed significant difference in the prevalence of disease in sheep and goats. The regional difference was not significantly different between two regions of Northern Balochistan. The comparison among union councils showed significant difference being highest prevalence (22.71%) in union council Kuchlak district Quetta followed by Aghberg (18.42%) and Hanna Urak (15.53%) in Northern highlands and Union Council Zangiwal Jogezai (19.83%) followed by Kach Amaqzai (16.30%) and Sinjavi (15.92%) in SMR. The disease prevalence when compared among 4 different breeds of sheep showed significant difference being highest in Karakul breed (34.62%) followed by Shinwari (24.54%), Bibrik (19.36%) and Harnai (16.40%). The highest prevalence of theileriosis in sheep and goats were observed in Summer season (30.30%) followed by Autumn 19.07%, Spring 14.52% and Winter SUMMERY 105 7.61%. Chi-square analysis of the data showed significant difference in the prevalence of the disease in different seasons of the year. The disease was also compared in three age groups of sheep and goats. The data showed 22.17% disease in adult animal group above 2 years of age followed by 15.85% in animals between 1-2 year and 7.99% in age group below one year. Statistically significant difference in all age groups was found in chi-square analysis. The sex wise prevalence of theileriosis revealed non-significant difference between male and female sheep and goats. Two different species of Theileria were reported by many researchers causing disease in sheep and goats. The PCR was carried out for the identification of Theileria species affecting sheep and goats in Balochistan. Two species specific sets of primers were designed using 18SRNA gene sequence to identify these two species of Theileria and the distribution among the two species of animals. The genomic DNA of two species of parasite was successfully amplified in positive samples. The assay was proved successful and we recommend for the prevalence surveys for theileriosis in sheep and goats. The data showed that the prevalence of T. lestoquardi was 73.80% in sheep and 69.23% was in goats in the target regions. It was found the T. lestoquardi was highly prevalent and causing theileriosis in small ruminants. The prevalence of T. ovis was 26.19% in sheep and 30.76% in goats respectively in the investigated animals; it was less than T. lestoquardi. It was concluded that both Theileria species were identified and found circulating in small ruminants in the target region of Balochistan. In the study we determined that PCR method based on 18S RNA gene could detect and differentiate T. ovis and T. lestoquardi. Effect of theileriosis in sheep and goats on hemeto-biochemical parameters were studied included RBCs, Hb%, PCV, Platelets, WBCs, MCV, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, Bilirubin and Creatinine. Blood samples were collected from Theileria confirmed, diseased animals (sheep and SUMMERY 106 goats) along with equal number of healthy animals for comparison. In sheep RBCs, Hb%, PCV, WBCs, MCHC, AST, ALT and Creatinine values showed significant difference when compared with values of healthy animals. Significant (p<0.05) reduction was noted in measurement of RBCs, Hb%, PCV and MCHC whereas, AST, ALT and Creatinine showed significant increase in diseased animals. In goats affected with theileriosis showed significant decrease in RBCs count and Hb%. The values for AST, ALT and Creatinine were found significantly increased in diseased animals when compared with healthy control group of equal number of animals. In present study it was noted that Butalex intra muscularly at the rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight is quite effective in eliminating the Theileria parasite from the blood of sheep and goats and treatment at the day 10 post treatment. Imizol was also found an effective treatment of theileriosis but less effective than Butalex. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2690-T] (1).

311. Comparative Studies On Egg Quality, Hematology And Reproductive Traits In Ring Necked And Green Pheasants In Captivity

by Qurat Ul Ain (2014-VA-963) | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. Ali Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Present study was planned to compare egg quality, hematology and reproductive traits in ring necked and green pheasants in captivity. Day-old chicks of both the pheasant species Phasianuscolchicusand P.versicolorwere tagged individually and maintained initially in a room for a period of 4 weeks. The chicks were then transferred to cages provided with separate feeding and drinking facilities to the individual bird. The birds were kept until the 16 weeks of life. The sex of the chicks was predicted at early stages by observing feathers and plumage and was confirmed later at adult ages. Eggs (n = 100) of both the pheasant species i.e. Phasianuscolchicusand P.versicolorwere collected. Each egg was weighed and its length and breadth was taken. These eggs were divided into three weight groups and were classified as light, medium and heavy category. The length and breadth of each collected egg was taken and surface area, egg volume and shape index were calculated.The egg quality test was performed on freshly collected eggs in the egg quality testing laboratory periodically. The eggs were weighed carefully on electronic digital balance. The albumen and yolk height and width, yolk index, albumen and yolk pH and Haugh unit score were recorded. During present study, chick weight in ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicusand green pheasant P. versicolorfrom day old chick to 6-month stage varied significantly. The average body weight in day old chick weight ranged from20.6±1.35g to 24.50±1.29g.Increase in chick weight in male ring necked pheasants was 24.50±1.29g to 1235.25±101.81g. Similarly increase in female ring necked pheasant was 22.47±1.79gto 1004.75±52.94g.The chick average weight was almost double during 2nd week. Body length was maximum in male green pheasant 5.00±0.81cm during 1st week. However significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight was observed during 1st to 4thweek.Higher increase in average body weight was observed during 6thweek. Significantly (p<0.05) increase in wing length and wing span was also recorded during 6th week. During 7thweek, non-significant differences in body weight were observed between male and female P. colchicus.Overall, minimum increase in chick weight was observed during 21st,22nd and 23rd week and maximum during 6th,7th and 8th week of chick age. The chick weight at hatching in light, medium and heavy egg groups were determined as 19.5g, 21.8g and 22.6g, respectively. Lowest increase in chick body weight in green pheasants ranged from 20.6±1.35g during 1st week to 837.00±49.45g during 24thweek of its growth. During present study it was determined that hatched chick weight increases with increase in egg weight. After completion of the incubation, the infertile egg percentage was 48% in ring necked pheasant and 42% in green pheasant. Increase in wing length varied significantly in male and female and between both species from day old chick to 6-month stage. The lowest increase in chick’s wing length ranged from 5.37±1.10cm to 33.75±1.70cm in female P. versicolor. Overall minimum increase in wing length was observed during 12thweek and maximum during 2nd,3rd and 6th week of chick age. During present study, significant differences in various hematological parameters were recorded during different ages of pheasants. RBCs values in P.cholchicusincreased with age, reached a maximum point then decreased. While in P. versicolorthe values decreasedat juvenile stage and then increased to young ages and decreased. However, maximum 4.04±0.6 values for RBCs were recorded in P. versicolorduring 3rd month. In young age,significant (p<0.05) differences in blood biochemical profile of both the pheasant species were observed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2674-T] (1).

312. Construction Of Cellulolytic And Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Consortium For Enhancing Efficiency Of Cellulose-Linked Bioremedial Processes

by Ali Hasan (2014-VA-939) | Dr. Waseem Ahmad Khan | Dr. Arshad Javid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Metallic and non-metallic pollutants originating from different industries are not treated before their final discharge into the environment. Consequently, environment is being degraded very rapidly and posing serious threats to all forms of life. For remediation of the said pollutants, a number of physico-chemical treatment methods have been practiced but couldn’t found suitable due to environmentally non-compatible natures and generation of secondary pollutants. The present study was, therefore, designed to treat artificially prepared sulfate-rich wastewater jointly with the help of cellulolytic and sulfate-reducing bacterial species while using a variety of agro-industrial wastes as cost-effective growth substrates. In order to achieve the goal, the two bacterial species were mixed in different proportions to achieve significant results of sulfate reduction. Statistical analysis revealed that rice straw appeared as the most efficient carbon source among all the agricultural wastes because it reduced about 96% of the total added sulfate in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation. And among all the industrial wastes, animal manure appearedasthe most efficient carbon source, it could reduce 93% of sulfate. Mixture of industrial and agricultural waste reduced about 90% of the sulfate. Findings of this project will be helpful in developing an economical and environmental friendly bio-remedial technique for the treatment of metallic and non-metallic wastes simultaneously which ultimately convert the industrial wastewaters into harmless and suitable discharge to aquatic environment.   Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2675-T] (1).

313. Comparative Efficacy Of Xylocaine Hcl And Bupivacaine Hcl For Ophthalmic Anesthesia In Horses

by Muhammad Asad Islam (2012-VA-576) | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Ophthalmic procedures can be performed by many clinicians in horses using local nerve blocks by using local anaesthetics for short duration of action for completion of these procedures. These surgical procedures may involve exclusion of third eyelid, suturing of laceration around eye orbit and tumor which can be caused due to any reason with in time period of thirty minutes. Inner chamber centesis can be done easily by using the above mentioned technique in standing horse. There are numerous benefits of doing standing surgical methods and avoiding general anaesthesia in horses. As hospitalizing horse may get other infectious diseases from surroundings like colitis and laminitis and also injured it when recovering from general anaesthesia. On the other hand standing surgical procedure reduced such complication by using local anaesthetic for short duration. Bupivacaine Hcl gave an ideal local eye anaesthesia compare to xylocaine Hcl for standing surgical procedures in horses. The present study was accomplished to assess the effectiveness of two local eye anaesthetics; xylocaine Hcl and bupivacaine Hcl by two different techniques i.e. retrobulbar technique and auriculopalpebral technique in horses. A total of 12 horses from indoor clinic and S.P.C.A were used in this study. These horses were subjected to two groups’ i.e. Group A and B. Each of these groups was further subdivided into two subgroups i.e. Group AI, AII and BI, BII respectively. SUMMARY 42 Horses in group A were administered xylocaine Hcl through auriculopalpebral technique and retrobulbar technique. While horses of subgroup AI were given xylocaine Hcl by auriculopalpebral technique and horses in subgroup AII were injected xylocaine Hcl by retrobulbar technique. Likewise horses in subgroup BI were given bupivacaine Hcl by auriculopalpebral technique, while those of subgroup BII were given bupivacaine Hcl through retrobulbar technique. The efficacy of above mentioned local anaesthetics was compared on the basis of Pattern of induction, Duration of anaesthesia and Recovery Pattern. Presence or absence of reflexes was also noted i.e. Pupillary Light Reflex and Blink reflex. The data were analyzed through one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The difference in group’s means was determined by Least Significant Difference (LSD) post-hoc test. A probability level of (P<0.05) was considered as statistically significantly difference. The statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version16. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2679-T] (1).

314. Epidemiology Of Influenza Virus H5n1 In Islamabad Capital Territory

by Zahida Fatima (2005-VA-246) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Khalid Naeem | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The poultry sector in Pakistan is the second largest industry that contributes to the national gross domestic products (GDP) and remains a major source of nutrition (protein and energy) for human population in Pakistan. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) outbreaks due to H5N1 virus in poultry have been recorded in over 62 countries, indicating the contagious nature of the disease and its potential to infect various avian species. These HPAI outbreaks in poultry have lead to killing/culling of around 120 million birds in various countries. During 2009, the Avian Influenza continues to occur in poultry in China, Hong Kong, India, Egypt, Nepal, Bangladesh and Canada . In Pakistan, an HPAI outbreak due to H7N3 virus was first observed in 1994-95 and those due to H9N2 virus in broiler and layer chickens were recorded between late 1990’s and early 2000. During the period between 2006 and 2008, poultry heavily suffered due to multiple outbreaks caused by H5N1 virus. The country experienced several and severe HPAI subtype H5N1 outbreaks during 2006-2008 in commercial poultry farms mostly, causing mass economic losses. In Pakistan all the four poultry production system exists being identified by FAO. The present study was conducted in peri-urban areas of ICT Islamabad, capital of Pakistan. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the outbreaks due to HPAIV H5N1 in 2006-2007 in ICT and identify the pattern and trends of these outbreaks. For this purpose descriptive epidemiological study was conducted and data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire regarding farm demography, culling, morbidity and mortality. The result statistical analysis showed a significantly (P< 0.05) higher morbidity, mortality, case fatality and culling rate in layers farms than breeders and broilers respectively. Layers and breeders of old ages were mostly affected with having higher mortality and culling in comparison to younger age layer and breeder commercial farms. The mean morbidity and mortality rates ranged 57–95% and 5-43% correspondingly. After the HPAIV H5N1 first reported outbreak in Pakistan in 2006 culling strategy was adopted after devastating outbreaks regularly reported from throughout the country. The reasons behind these emerging epidemics were unknown and several hypotheses were given birth after these outbreaks. Knowledge regarding potential risk factors responsible for HPAIV H5N1 epidemics in commercial poultry farms in Pakistan was lacking. Therefore we conducted a longitudinal cross sectional survey (1:1 matched case control study) to identify potential risk factors at farm level responsible for 2006-2007 HPAIV H5N1 infection in poultry in ICT. Information on farm characteristics, biosecurity practices and farm management were collected. Logistic regression model on data was used to unveil the potentially associated risk factors with cases (farms confirmed HPAI H5N1 Positive). Several candidate variables were studied and investigated for association. The results multivariable logistic regression showed that farm location such as in urban area (P<0.05: OR=18.50), wild birds entry (P<0.05: OR= 12.66) and farms situated in highly dense poultry populated area (P<0.05:OR=4.50) were found significantly associated with outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 infection in commercial poultry farms during 2006-2007 epidemics in the study area. Live bird markets (LBMs) are essential for poultry marketing in developing countries like Pakistan. One year active disease surveillance for influenza viruses in avian species in LBMs in ICT area was conducted in 2011. LBMs in Pakistan are typically urban that brings together many avian species produced by different suppliers. Which make LBMs in Pakistan a potential source of HPAIV viruses as well as other emerging poultry pathogens i.e. new castle disease virus,infectious bronchitis etc. The results of the present surveillance data showed that seroconversion against H5N1 and H9N2 is present in LBMs bird species which were isolated from different samples like serum, cloacal, nasal samples and organ samples.This indicates the continuous threat of AIV viruses circulating in the live bird markets set up of Pakistan. Findings of these studies will help to tailor control and prevention measure against devastating outbreaks in future regarding the local circumstances of commercial poultry farms as well as in LBMs. These studies also succeeded to unveil the true reasons behind these devastating outbreaks and their higher impact on poultry industry. Such type of surveillance programs will be useful in future to investigate several emerging diseases and outbreaks in Pakistan and other developing countries. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2700-T] (1).

315. Molecular Identification And Treatment Of Theileriosis In Small Ruminants Of Northern Balochistan

by Mir Ahmad Khan (2005-VA-214) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Ovine and Caprine Theileriosis in Northern Highlands and Suleiman Mountain Region of Balochistan, Six thickly populated /union councils were included in the study area. Samples were collected from 2870 animals Sheep (n= 2200) and Goats (n= 670) for screening of the disease. The samples were collected and processed in Regional Disease Investigation Laboratories, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development Balochistan, T.B. Sanatorium Hospital Quetta and Center for Vaccinology, Bacteriology, The University of Balochistan, Quetta and Medicine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Data revealed 20.82% disease in sheep and 9.70%. in goats. The regional prevalence of theileriosis revealed 19.19% in Northern Highlands and 17.48% in Suleiman Mountain Region Chi-square analysis showed significant difference in the prevalence of disease in sheep and goats. The regional difference was not significantly different between two regions of Northern Balochistan. The comparison among union councils showed significant difference being highest prevalence (22.71%) in union council Kuchlak district Quetta followed by Aghberg (18.42%) and Hanna Urak (15.53%) in Northern highlands and Union Council Zangiwal Jogezai (19.83%) followed by Kach Amaqzai (16.30%) and Sinjavi (15.92%) in SMR. The disease prevalence when compared among 4 different breeds of sheep showed significant difference being highest in Karakul breed (34.62%) followed by Shinwari (24.54%), Bibrik (19.36%) and Harnai (16.40%). The highest prevalence of theileriosis in sheep and goats were observed in Summer season (30.30%) followed by Autumn 19.07%, Spring 14.52% and Winter SUMMERY 105 7.61%. Chi-square analysis of the data showed significant difference in the prevalence of the disease in different seasons of the year. The disease was also compared in three age groups of sheep and goats. The data showed 22.17% disease in adult animal group above 2 years of age followed by 15.85% in animals between 1-2 year and 7.99% in age group below one year. Statistically significant difference in all age groups was found in chi-square analysis. The sex wise prevalence of theileriosis revealed non-significant difference between male and female sheep and goats. Two different species of Theileria were reported by many researchers causing disease in sheep and goats. The PCR was carried out for the identification of Theileria species affecting sheep and goats in Balochistan. Two species specific sets of primers were designed using 18SRNA gene sequence to identify these two species of Theileria and the distribution among the two species of animals. The genomic DNA of two species of parasite was successfully amplified in positive samples. The assay was proved successful and we recommend for the prevalence surveys for theileriosis in sheep and goats. The data showed that the prevalence of T. lestoquardi was 73.80% in sheep and 69.23% was in goats in the target regions. It was found the T. lestoquardi was highly prevalent and causing theileriosis in small ruminants. The prevalence of T. ovis was 26.19% in sheep and 30.76% in goats respectively in the investigated animals; it was less than T. lestoquardi. It was concluded that both Theileria species were identified and found circulating in small ruminants in the target region of Balochistan. In the study we determined that PCR method based on 18S RNA gene could detect and differentiate T. ovis and T. lestoquardi. Effect of theileriosis in sheep and goats on hemeto-biochemical parameters were studied included RBCs, Hb%, PCV, Platelets, WBCs, MCV, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, Bilirubin and Creatinine. Blood samples were collected from Theileria confirmed, diseased animals (sheep and SUMMERY 106 goats) along with equal number of healthy animals for comparison. In sheep RBCs, Hb%, PCV, WBCs, MCHC, AST, ALT and Creatinine values showed significant difference when compared with values of healthy animals. Significant (p<0.05) reduction was noted in measurement of RBCs, Hb%, PCV and MCHC whereas, AST, ALT and Creatinine showed significant increase in diseased animals. In goats affected with theileriosis showed significant decrease in RBCs count and Hb%. The values for AST, ALT and Creatinine were found significantly increased in diseased animals when compared with healthy control group of equal number of animals. In present study it was noted that Butalex intra muscularly at the rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight is quite effective in eliminating the Theileria parasite from the blood of sheep and goats and treatment at the day 10 post treatment. Imizol was also found an effective treatment of theileriosis but less effective than Butalex. Availability: No items available

316. Epidemiology And Control Of Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes Of Large Ruminants In Balochistan

by Muhammad Ramzan (2009-VA-653) | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Aneela Khurram.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The main area of research in this study was to assess the prevalence, hematological aspects of Bovine nematodiasis. Three main experiments were conducted to highlight the objectives of the present research study. The first experiment was conducted to find out the prevalence of large ruminants major nematodes for one year. For this purpose buffalo and cattle of either sexes and between < 1 year to > 2 years of age were selected from two sites i.e., Quetta and Qilla Abdullah. Fecal analysis of these cattle and buffalo showed overall higher (33.99%) nematodes prevalence recorded in buffalo in Quetta, (27.99%) in cattle at Qilla Abdullah followed by in cattle at Quetta (26.66%). Five nematode infection was recorded in all two experimental sites with higher prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in buffalo at Quetta and Ostertgia ostertagi in cattle at Quetta and Qilla Abdullah. The buffalo and cattle of < 1 year presented higher nematodes prevalence than 1-2 years and > 2 years. The female buffalo and cattle were infected with nematodes prevalence higher than male animals. These five nematodes were prevalent almost throughout the year, however a peak infection was recorded during August and September in cattle and October in buffalo. The high temperature, rainfall and humidity during these months may be predisposing factor of higher prevalence. Mostly the level of nematodes infection was low(< 800 EPG) and did not seriously impaired the buffalo and cattle productivity. Second experiment on assessing the comparative efficacy of anthelmintics (Levamisole, Oxafendazole and Ivermectin) against cattle and buffalo nematodes were conducted at Govt and private farms. The results showed that Ivermectin than Oxfendazole were found effective against cattle and buffalo nematodes. The higher (89-100%) reduction of EPG were recorded in cattle and 87 buffalo calves treated with Ivermectin followed by Oxfendazole (86-100%), Levmisole (88- 100%). Third experiment was conducted to determine the hematological values in healthy and nematodes infected animals. Different hematological parameters i.e., TEC, TLC, Hb estimation, were determined. The results showed that overall low Hemoglobin estimation and RBC were recorded in nematodes infected animals than healthy, while higher WBC were recorded in nematodes infected animals than healthy. The Lymphocytes and Neutrophil and Monocytes were higher in some nematodes and lower in other, while higher mean Eosinophil counts was recorded in all nematodes infected animals than healthy animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2730-T] (1).

317. Effect Of Pre-Weaning Diets And Varying Levels Of Concentrate During Post-Weaning Period On The Performacne Of Female Nili-Ravi Buffalo Calves Up To One Year Of Age

by Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal (2002-VA-55) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Nili-Ravi buffalo is a well-known buffalo breed in subcontinent Indo-Pakistan region and famous for its high milk production ability. Currently, buffalo calves and growing heifers are fed on deprived quality and quantity roughages with poor nutritive values resulting in reduced growth rate, reproduction with delayed attainment of puberty and high mortality. These constraints can be overcome through nutritional management of buffaloes. There is a need for the development of standards for adequate, cost effective provision of colostrum, whole milk/milk replacer and calf starter ration to neonatal calves up to weaning, establishment of nutrient requirements for growing buffalo heifer with aim of more average daily gain to reduce age at puberty and nutrients requirements for lactating buffalo according to their status and stage of milk production. The current study comprises of two experiments and was conducted at Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey, Pattoki, District Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan. The first experiment was performed with an aim to check the growth performance of female buffalo calves on whole milk & milk replacer and find out the cost effective and growth rate friendly alternate source of liquid diet. The duration of this experiment was 120 days. Thirty six female calves were selected and randomly divided into three (n=12) different treatments A (whole milk), B (50% whole milk & 50% milk replacer) and C (milk replacer). All the calves were given colostrum for first three days, then whole milk up to 15 days of age and transferred into three treatments. In addition to this all the calves were provided calf starter and fresh water ad-libitum. The calves were given SUMMARY 133 liquid diet @ 10% of their body weight for first two months and then gradually decline of 1% on weekly basis for the subsequent two months. Green fodder was started on three month of age. The average daily total dry matter intake was remained same for all the three treatments but the average daily gain was higher in treatment A (457.38±110.13a) compare to treatment C (362.22±107.83b) but it was same for treatment A&B and B&C, respectively. The mean FCR value was also better for treatment A (3.49±0.56b) compare to treatment C (4.30±1.24a) and it was same for treatment A&B and treatment B&C, respectively. The mean cost/kg gain was higher in treatment A (422.72±70.66a) compare to treatment C (352.97±97.49b) and it was same for treatment A&B and B&C, respectively. Animals had performed well on mix liquid (50 % whole milk: 50% milk replacer) diet and it was more cost effective than other two treatments. The aim in second experiment was to set the standard and cost effective level of concentrate ration for growing female buffalo heifer calves. For second experiment thirty (30) calves were selected from first experiment and were randomly dived into three treatments A, B and C. Treatment A was fed on concentrate ration according to 0.5 % of their body weight, treatment B 1.0 % and treatment C 1.5 % of their body weight. In addition to this all the calves were given ad-libitum green fodder and fresh clean water. All the calves were fed on similar concentrate ration having CP: 17 % and ME: 2.6 Mcal/kg. The duration of this experiment was 8 months. There was significant difference (P<0.05) in mean dry matter intake, protein intake, energy intake and protein per kg gain across all the three treatments and were higher (P<0.05) for treatment C then treatment B and lower (P<0.05) in treatment A, respectively. The average daily gain was remained same (P>0.05) for all the three treatments (497.32±17.92, 503.63±19.09 and 532.77±20.67). The higher feed efficiency was observed in treatment A (0.135±.004a) while it was same for treatment B & C (0.113±.003b & 0.108±.004b), respectively. The average body SUMMARY 134 condition & score, body mass index and blood constituents (RBCs, WBCs, heamoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, platelets count, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes) were unaffected (P>0.05) by different concentrate levels. Concentrate levels had significantly affected some of serum components (total protein and urea) but some components (glucose & cholesterol) were unaffected by dietary treatments. The values of mean serum total protein and serum urea were found lower in treatment A (6.12±0.17b & 42.34±1.59b) compare to treatment B (6.65±0.23a & 50.08±2.05a) and C (6.79±0.23a & 51.41±2.29a), respectively. The higher values of serum total protein and cholesterol in treatment B & C may be attributed to higher concentrate level in these two treatments. Concentrate levels had significantly (P<0.05) affected some of the digestibility parameters (DM %, CP% and NDF%) while other parameters (organic matter, fat, ash, ADF and urine pH) were remained same (P>0.05) on varying concentrate level diet. The mean body measurements (height at wither, body length and heart girth) were also not affected (P>0.05) by dietary treatments. There was significant difference across all the three treatments in total average daily dry matter intake cost and cost per kg gain. These were lower in treatment A compared to other two treatments B & C. It was observed that mean dry matter, protein and energy intake was lower in treatment A (0.5% of body weight) and weight gain was remained same on all the three dietary treatments. The mean feed efficiency was greater and mean cost per/kg gain was lower in treatment A. So, treatment A was remained more cost effective than other two treatments. Both experiments were planned by keeping in mind the problems of buffalo farmer. Rearing of calves with improved growth rate on least cost feeding regime is important in dairy farming. Milk replacer is an alternate source of whole milk. Most of the buffalo farmers don’t use milk replacer for rearing of calves because of slower growth rate. Mixing of milk replacer SUMMARY 135 with whole milk in 50:50 ratio make the consistency of liquid diet near to whole milk. Feeding of whole milk with milk replacer along with calf starter reduces the cost without affecting growth rate. At this stage farmers should keep in mid the cleaning of feeding pans to avoid the risk of diarrhea. In post weaning period calves’ rumen is fully develop and is completely shifted to solid diet. During this transition phase farmers don’t follow the nutritional requirements of calves, which slow down the growth rate and ultimately increase the age at puberty. As buffalo are efficient converter of low quality diet. If farmers offer concentrate ratio (16-18% CP) to buffalo heifers at the rate of 0.5% of body weight along with ad-libitum green fodder, growth rate can be improved cost effectively. 5.1. Conclusion: The findings of first experiment shows that 50% whole milk & 50% milk replacer @ of 10 of body weight along with adlibitum calf starter ration help in early rumen development, improved growth rate and better FCR on economical basis. So, it is recommended that whole milk and milk replacer in 50:50 ratio is growth rate friendly and cost effective for rearing of female buffalo calves up to weaning. The results of second experiment shows that growth rate, body measurements and body condition & score remained the same on all the three dietary concentrate levels but the feed efficiency was improved on lower concentrate level. So, it is recommended that it is cost effective to raise buffalo growing heifers on small amount of concentrate ration (0.5% of body weight) along with ad-libitum green fodder. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2720-T] (1).

318. Extraction Of Functional Polysaccharides From Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum) And Application As Edible Coating On Cheddar Cheese

by Muhammad Ali Sabir (2008-VA-433) | Dr. Muhammad Nadeem | Dr. Saima Inayat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Cheddar cheese was collected from the market and coated with three different coatings. All the reagents used in this study were High Performance Liquid Chromatography grade and obtained from Sigma Aldrich, USA. Experiment were performed in completely randomized design. Cheddar cheese was ripened for 60-days for lipolysis and was analyzed at the interval of 30-days interval. Composition of cheese milk and cheese, peroxide value, Iodine value, free fatty acids and changes in fatty acids (short chain and unsaturated fatty acids) composition were determined. Fat content of all the treatments and control went on decreasing throughout the storage period of 60-days. There was not-significant difference in the protein content of cheddar cheese coated with different coatings.Moisture contents of cheddar cheese coated with different coatings decreased with the decreased ripening period of the cheddar cheese (P>0.05). Free fatty acids increased in all the treatments during the entire ripening period from 0 day to 60 days, the concentration of free fatty acids in all the treatments at all the determination time points were not different from each other and control. There was also increase the peroxide value of control sample from 0 day to 60-day time period of cheese ripening. All the determination frequencies showed that peroxide value of control and experimental samples were not different.Iodine value decreased in control sample day 0 to day 60 continuously, the decline in iodine value of control and experimental samples was not different.Concentration of short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain fatty acid decreased during the ripening period of 60 days but the decline in all the treatments was non-significant.Anisidine value increased in control sample day 0 to day 60 continuously. There also increased the Anisidine value higher in all treatments and control (P>0.05). These results suggest that galactomannas based coating can be used for the coating of cheddar cheese. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2701-T] (1).

319. Prepration Of Cost-Effective Aquafeeds For Labeo Rohita Using Plant Based Feed Ingredients

by Afifa Bari (2009-VA-422) | Dr. Sumaira Abbas | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Abdul Razaaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In Asia Carp culture is dominated which is mostly extensive and semi-intensive. Now a days aquatic plants used in animal feed became very popular. Aquatic plants have been used to enhance the growth, reduce stress, induce appetite and play a major role as Immunostimulants that have antimicrobial effects in fin fish and shrimp. However, exact percentage contribution needs to be determined to obtain its benefits as over dose can have harmful effects. These plants are mechanically removed at a high costs and dumped. So, the use of unusual feed resources is a way of significant reduction in the cost of feed. Addition of Aquatic plants upgrade growth, enzyme level, body composition and immunity of Labeorohita (rohu) fingerlings.This study will produce useful information for aqua feed and fish industry concerning possible utilization source of aquatic plants for carp. It will also be helpful to save the increasing cost of aqua feed industry because of cheaper source of energy inproving health of fish thus enhance production. To compare the growth performance and meat quality of Labeorohitaunder different treatments Experiment was designed in glass aquariums and with two replicates in each treatment. The effect of inclusion of aquatic plants in the feed of Labeorohitawas also observed on histology under different treatments in aquariums. Before stocking all aquariums was disinfected with KMnO4. Each aquarium was stocked with 15 Labeorohitafingerlings and their morphometric parameters i.e,body weight and total length was recorded at the time of stocking. The physico-chemical parameters (DO, pH and Temperature) was monitored on daily basis from each treatments. For proximate and histological studies organs of fish was collected at the end of experimental. The feed was formulated for treatment T1, T2, and T3 having 35%, 30% and 25% of plant (Vallisneriaspiralis). The fish samples were captured randomly from each of the treated aquarium and their morpho-metric characteristics viz. total body weight and total length were recorded on weekly basis. And after obtaining the data the fish were released back into their respective aquarium. At the final harvest, the proximate composition of fish meat sample was studied. The findings of the present experiment are summarized as follow. 1-The average body weight of Labeorohitaremained as 91.2, 71.3, 62.2 and 58.2g under the treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively.Fish attained the maximum average body weight in T1 which was treated with 35% plant.Among the different treatment, maximum body increment in body weight was recorded in T1 as 91.2(g) whereas minimum body weight was recorded in T4 as 58.2 (g).. 2-Labeorohitashowed the minimum value of specific growth rate as 0.422 and 0.463 in T3 and T4. Maximum value of 0.789% of specific growth rate was noted in T1. 3-Among different treatments the maximum condition factor was observed as 2.717% in T1 while minimum was gained as 1.918% in T4. 4-Among different treatmentsLabeorohita showed the highest growth rate with the highest crude protein contents 18.70% under the treatment T1. while17.85%, 17,60% and 17.35% in T2, T3 and T4. 5-The maximum moisture content was observed as 75.22% in T1 and minimum moisture content was observed as 73.20% in T4 6-The maximum value of total fats was observes as 1.29% in T4 and minimum value was observed as 1.13% in T1 treatment 7- Among the abiotic factor water temperature played major role towards fish growth as higher increase in body weight was observed for all the treatments during July and august while minimum increase in body weight was observed in September and October which perhaps due to low water temperature.Maximum water temperature was observed as 24.6 °C in T1 and T3 treatments. While minimum was recorded as 21.3 °C. 8-The physico-chemical characteristics of water remained within the favourable limits for fish culture.and shows non-significant under all treatments. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2699-T] (1).

320. Solid Phase Dispersion Technique For Enhancing Water Solubility Of Diclofenac Sodium

by Sana Javed (2013-VA-901) | Muhammad Nabeel Shahid | Dr. Farzana Chowdhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Improving oral drug absorption and bioavailability is a major issue with the pharmaceutical industries and a number of approaches to enhance the intestinal absorption of drugs have been taken up. Particle size reduction has been proved an important aid in improving bioavailability and drug delivery by increasing the solubility and dissolution rates of poorly soluble drugs. In this study, Diclofenac Sodium was formulated with polyethylene glycol in different ratios to examine the effect of concentration of carriers on properties of diclofenac sodium and how it enhances the aqueous solubility of drug. Diclofenac sodium and other powder mixtures were characterized by compressibility, bulk and tapped density, angle of repose, solubility and dissolution. The data on flow properties, solubility and dissolution was calculated for comparative analysis of diclofenac sodium in bulk with formulated solid dispersion. Results showed improved flow of powders and improved water solubility of drug. The solubility and dissolution data showed the better results for the formulation with code SDF2. The physicochemical characteristics of the prepared formulations were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The DSC and FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between drug and carriers. It was concluded that the SD prepared by solvent evaporation technique using hydrophilic polymer enhanced solubility and dissolution and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2718-T] (1).

321. Islami Qanun Ki Khasoosiyat

by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Tahir Qadri.

Edition: 1st/ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Zia: 1995Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.55 Qadri 21895 1st 1995 Islam] (1).

322. Effect Of Bacillus Subtilis And Sodium Butyrate On The Morphometry Of The Small Intestine And Immune System In Healthy And Salmonella-Challenged Broiler Chickens

by Arbab Sikandar (2005-VA-154) | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Prof. Dr. muhammad Younus | Dr. Sima Masood | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Supplementation ofBacillus subtilis and microencapsulated sodium butyrate in the feed is being practiced as a substitute for antibiotics growth promoters. An expansive range of encouraging health-related properties exhibited by B. subtilis and SB has been published, but their exact effect on gut and immune system is not completely understood. Consequently, the evaluation of B. subtilis andSB as feed supplements is desired. To achieve this goal, the present study was aimed to investigate the effects of B. subtilis and SB on performance, immune system, gut and lymphoid organs microarchitecture in healthy and Salmonella-challenged broiler chickens. In the first experiment the research was targeted to investigate the effects of B. subtilis on performance, immune system, gut and lymphoid organ microarchitecture in broilers. A total of 120 d-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four groups, each group with three replicates containing 10 birds per replicate. The birds were fed a corn-soy-based basal diet (BD, control) or BD supplemented with 10% zinc bacitracin (ZnB), and 0.05g/kg or 0.1g/kg of B. subtilis, respectively. On d 21 and 35, six birds from each group were killed to collect blood and visceral organs (thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, liver and small intestine). Parameters evaluated included growth performance, immune responses, relative organ weights, lymphoid organs and gut mucosal morphometry, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count and goblet cell histochemistry in mucosa. Results showed that the group fed 0.1g/kg of B. subtilis had superior (P<0.05) mean body weight and weight gain, and lower FCR compared to the non-supplemented or ZnB-fed groups.The BS-0.1 group revealed higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND) virus and the supplemented groups against sheep RBCs (SRBCs) on d 35. Cell-mediated immune response post-phytohemagglutinin-P injection was attained (P<0.05) by birds in the BS-0.1 group at 24h, and by both the BS-0.1 and BS-0.05 groups at 48 and 72h compared to the ZnB and control groups. The BS-0.1 group gained higher (P<0.05) relative bursal weight on d 21 compared to the other groups. Compared to the control group, the liver, spleen and thymus weighed more (P<0.05) in the experimental groups on d 35. The histomorphological study revealed increased (P<0.05) thymus cortical width, and cortex/medulla ratio in the BS-0.1 group compared to the control. The area of the bursal follicles and germinal centers of the spleen also improved (P<0.05) in the BS-0.1 group compared to the control. Compared to the ZnB and control, higher (P<0.05) villus height, villus surface area and villus crypt ratio of the duodenum and jejunum were recorded on d 21, and higher (P<0.05) villus heightof the duodenum and ileum was noted on d 35 in the BS-0.1 and BS-0.05 groups. The number of goblet cells having acid mucin was significantly higher in the ileal mucosae of the BS-0.1 group chickens compared to the ZnB and control. In conclusion, B. subtilis type probiotics effectuated better growth performance, improved immune system and modulated morphology of lymphoid organs and gut mucosa in broilers. The second experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on growth performance, immune status, organ weights and the microarchitecture of lymphoid organs and the small intestine compared to the effects brought about by an antibiotic. The cell-mediated immune response at 48 h post-phytohemagglutinin-P injection, and antibody titer against NDV and sheep RBCs on d 35 was higher (P < 0.05) in SB-1 chicks compared to those in the ZnB and control groups. Higher (P < 0.05) weight gain, and lower (P < 0.05) FCR were attained by the supplemented groups compared to the control. The thymus and spleen weighed more (P < 0.05) in the SB-1 group and bursa registered more (P < 0.05) weight in both SB groups compared to the control. On d 21, areas of the thymus medulla and the spleen germinal centers were larger (P < 0.05) in SB-1 chicks compared to ZnB and control chicks. The VH and VSA increased (P < 0.05) in the duodenum and jejunum in both SB groups on d 21, and in SB-1 on d 35 compared to the ZnB and control groups. The villus to crypt ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in the duodenum in SB-1 chicks compared to ZnB and control chicks. On d 35, VH in all segments and VSA in the duodenum and jejunum increased (P < 0.05) in SB-1 chicks compared to ZnB and control chicks. Statistically, IEL count was not significant among supplemented groups. On d 21, the number of goblet cells containing acidic mucin increased (P < 0.05) in all the segments of the small intestines in the SB-1 group compared to the control group and on d 35 in the ileum compared to the other groups. In conclusion sodium butyrate elicited better growth performance, improved immune system and modulated the morphology of lymphoid organs and the gut mucosa in broiler chickens. The third experiment was focused to assess the effect of B. subtilis and SB on gut development, growth performance and immune system in broilers challenged with S. Gallinarum. Better growth performance was reported in the supplemented groups compared to the NC-S group due to better feed efficiency. The B. subtilis-supplemented group exhibited higher (P < 0.05) cellular immunity and antibody titer against NDV compared to the PC-S and NC-S groups. Furthermore, B. subtilis¬- and SB-supplemented groups reflected higher (P < 0.05) relative thymus and bursa weights, and improved microarchitecture of the lymphoid organs compared to the NC-S group. On d 21, villus surface area in the jejunum and ileum increased (P < 0.05) in sodium butyrate-treated birds. The crypt depth of the jejunum decreased (P < 0.05) in B. subtilis and sodium butyrate groups compared to NC-S and PC-S groups. On d 35, the villus height, villus surface area and VH:CD ratio of the duodenum increased (P < 0.05) in the supplemented groups compared to the NC-S group. The FCR, Salmonella population in ceca and mortality were higher (P < 0.05) in the NC-S group. In conclusion, the prophylactic use of the B. subtilis probiotic and SB alleviated stress associated with SalmonellaGallinarum infection and improved performance, immune function, lymphoid organs and gut mucosal development in infected broilers. Further analyses are needed to reveal the mechanism(s) by which B. subtilis and sodium butyrate produce such effects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2790-T] (1).

323. Molecular Detection & Isolation Of Benzimidazole Resistant Haemonchus Contortus And Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Activity Of Herbal Extracts

by Kazmi Ali (2009-VA-392) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad FaizwQamar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Iahtasham Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Recently, DNA-based techniques have been applied for specific identification and characterization of parasites and also to evaluate the level of infections. The most commonly used group of anthelmintics is Benzimidazoles (BZ). BZ includes Thiabendazole, Mebendazole, Albendazole, Oxfendazole, Oxibendazole, Febantel and Netobimin. It binds to β- tubulin and inhibits polymerization of tubulin dimers to microtubules H. contortus involves mutations in β-tubulin genes at specific amino acid sites determine the BZ resistance. This study involves the Haemnochus contortus (barber pole worm) present in abomasums of small ruminants. n= 300 total samples were randomly be collected from the different sampling locations. Out of 300 samples of worms, 30 worms had been subjected to DNA extraction and PCR reaction. PCR recipe was prepared with following composition with total volume of 20μl, Master mix (enzynomics) 10μl, Distilled water 4μl, Forward primer 2μl, Reverse primer 2μl and genomic DNA 2μl. After PCR product has been obtained, gel extraction was done by PureLink Quick Gel Extraction Kit of INVITROGEN for purifying the DNA to allow it for gene sequencing. Only selected positive amplification products had been subjected to DNA gene sequencing and were sent to Philco company for ABI type sequencing. The polymorphic sites had been identified by using the standard set of ambiguity nucleotides through BLAST searches at NCBI/primers used to generate the β- tubulin gene sequence from H. contortus. DNA nucleotide sequences obtained are aligned on BIO EDIT SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT EDITOR software to understand the mutation, deletion, replacement of nucleotides. Genetic variation exists in all the samples sent for gene sequencing. These findings show that genetic diversity and genetic variation existing in β-tubulin isotype 1 of the H. contortus population of small ruminants in Jhang and Toba Tek Singh districts of Central Punjab, Pakistan. Samples exhibits different gene sequence and are from Jhang and Toba Tek Singh district. Genetic sequences are retrieved with the sequence and research papers of previously work done on GENBANK NCBI shows 100% query cover and ident with the isolates and clone of China, UK, USA, Australia, Brazil and somewhat similarity of 94% query cover and 100% ident with isolates of India. Some of those H. contortus worms which have been identified as BZ resistant strains were subjected in vitro anthelmintic activity of the herbal extract. Herbal formulation manifests the anthelmintic activity in dose-dependent manner in AMA and EHT. Mortality of worms was comparable with the reference drug used Levamisole at 200mg/ml concentration just from the start of exposure in AMA. Conclusion drawn from the experiment is that the herbal extract efficacy is comparable with the efficacy of the synthetic anthelmintics and can be marketed as these are field friendly, environment safely, economically and socially efficient. However before starts commercialization and marketing of such products at large scale, these materials must be subjected to standardized protocols and procedures of parasitology to be accomplished. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2792-T] (1).

324. Comparative Efficacy of Different Techniques in Tracheal End to End Anastomosis

by Muhammad Saad Uzair (2009-VA-181) | Dr. Naveed Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: CD Corrupt. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2808-T] (1).

325. Comparative Efficacy Of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol Combination With Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac Tromethamine In Dogs

by Ameer Hamza Rabbani (2009-VA-58) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The study was designed on the premise that use of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol combination was more efficacious in providing better depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia than the combination of Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine. Two separate combinations of anesthetic cocktails i.e. ketamine-xylazine-tramadol and ketamine-xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine were tested for their comparative efficacies. A total of 8 mongrel adult clinically healthy male dogs between 1 to 2 years of age which were presented to clinic for castration, were managed in to two groups comprising 4 (n=4) individuals in each. These groups were designated as group A and B. General and clinical examination of the animal, LFT and RFT were performed prior to surgery. Atropine was administered at dose rate of 0.04mg/kg SC twenty minutes prior to the surgery. Both anesthetic regiments were used respectively in either groups and their efficacy was tested based upon the depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. In case of group A ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and tramadol at a dose rate of 2mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia was monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. In case of group B, ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and ketorolac tromethamine at a dose rate of 0.5mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia were monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. Surgical procedure for castration was SUMMARY 58 performed as surgical plane of anesthesia was acquired. Postoperatively, Intramuscular antibiotics were injected for 5 days to avoid secondary bacterial infections to wounds. Cleaning of the wound with good antiseptic solution and excellent hygienic measures were adopted to minimize infection. Balanced diet was given to improve health of animals. LFT and RFT were performed preoperatively (baseline), and one hour postoperatively in each dog. The measurements were analyzed as change from baseline in each dog. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05), using statistical analysis software Statistica. The results of temperature, pulse and respiration were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05). Observations pertaining to depth and quality of sedation were analyzed by using t-test with statistical analysis software Statistica. Statistical significance was assigned at p≤0.05. This study was helpful in determining efficacy of tramadol an opioid against ketorolac tromethamine which is an NSAID. This study emphasized upon discovering the most efficacious adjuvant to anesthetic combination of ketamine and xylazine. This study aimed to reduce the dose of xylazine without compromising the anesthetic effect of the combination while mitigating its side effects as well. This study provided us with a viable analgesic agent which may be administered peri-operatively to provide analgesia during immediate post-surgery period. Furthermore magnitude of improvement in depth of anesthesia helped determine an effective and cheap adjuvant to ketamine-xylazine combination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2807-T] (1).

326. Comparative Efficacy of Different Surgical Techniques and Suturing Patterns for Cystotomy in Rabbits

by Uroosa Anjum (2015-VA-601) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Dr. Raheela Akhtar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: CD Corrupt. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2814-T] (1).

327. Epidemiology Of Major Bacterial And Parasitic Causes Of Foal Diarrhea

by Ikramul Haq (2010-VA-60) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Present study was carried out in District Lahore and District Sargodha, Punjab province of Pakistan, from January, 2016 to December, 2016. The study was conducted to study the prevalence of Diarrhea in foals and to identify the major viral, bacterial and parasitic causes of diarrhea in foals in these districts. The foals that passed lose feces a least 4 to 5 times a day were considered diarrheic. The results showed that the prevalence of diarrhea was 72.8% in the foals. District wise prevalence showed that the prevalence of diarrhea in foals were 73.7% in district Sargodha and were 72% in District Lahore. According to the results the prevalence of diarrhea in male foals was 74% and in female foal were 72%. The diarrhea was more prevalent in donkeys at is 76.6% as compaired to horses which was 74.5%. The viral (rotavirus), bacterial (Salmonella, Clostridium perfirengens and E. coli) and parasitic causes of diarrhea were identified by appropriate technique. The viral causes were diagnosed using ELISA technique. The bacteria were isolated by culturing and were confirmed by polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The parasitic causes studied using microscopic examination. To identify the cause of diarrhea 400 samples (200 from each district) were collected and processed for viral, bacterial and parasitic detection. The results showed that 91.1% of the samples were positive for one or more infectious agents. District wise results showed that the prevalence of more or more than infectious agents were higher in district Lahore (95.5%) as compared to district Sargodha which was 87.5%. The isolation of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in males it is 92.7% while were low in females which was 90.5%. The results showed that the prevalence of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in horses (92.4%) in comparision with donkey which was 87.8%. Experiment No. I: Investigation of Parasitic causes of Foal Diarrhea Fecal samples were preserved in 10% formalin and transported to the laboratory for diagnosis of parasites. The fecal samples from foals suffering from diarrhea were processed by using following parasitological examination. 4. Direct microscopic examination The sample negative with direct microscopic examination was examined using simple floatation examination. 5. Simple floatation examination The sample negative with Simple floatation examination was examined by using sedimentation floatation technique. 6. Sedimentation floatation Technique The sample negative by using Sedimentation technique was recorded as negative for parasites. The results show that 340 (85%) out of 400 samples were positive for one or more than one endo-parasites. The prevalence of endo-parasites was higher in district Sargodha it is 87.5% as compared to district Lahore, which was 82.5% (Table No.7). Gastrodiscus Spp were the higher prevalent endo-parasite and 308 (77%) (Table No. 10) of the samples were positive for Gastrodiscus Spp while the lowest prevalent endo-parasite was Anoplocephala spp with (3) 0.75% prevalence (Table No. 12). other helmenth such as Dictyocaulus Spp. (22.5%), Oxyuris Spp. (15.75%), Strongyloides Spp. (15.75%), Ascaris equorum (4.75), Tridontophorus Spp. (2%), Trichomena spp. (1.5%) Strongylus spp. (1.5%), and Paranoplocephala Spp. (5%) Experiment No. II: Molecular Diagnosis of Bacteria Causes of Foal Diarrhea The samples were culture for Salmonella, E.coli and Clostridium perfirengins on respective selective media and DNA was extracted from the culture. DNA was amplified by PCR and the bacteria were confirm using PCR. To diagnose Lasonia the DNA was extracted directly from fecal sample and were processed for lawsonia. The result show that 55% of the samples were positive for one or more than one type of bacteria. Maximum prevalence were observe of E. coli 48.75% and none of the sample were positive for lawsonia. The other isolated bacteria were Salmonella 18.24% and Clostridium perfiengens 18%. Experiment No. III: Investigation of Viral causes of Foal Diarrhea Foal suffering from diarrhea were screened and analyzed for presence of rotavirus by using commercially available ELISA kit The result of detection of rotavirus shows that rotavirus was detected in (70) 17.5% of the sample processed for the diagnosis of rotavirus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2800-T] (1).

328. Pathological Effects Of Natural And Experimental Lead (Pb) Toxicity In Lohi Sheep At Jhang, Pakistan

by Muhammad Sajid (2010VA-61) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Muti ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Heavy metal toxicity is increasing due to increasing trends of urbanization and industrialization. Lead poisoning has been recognized as a major public health risk, particularly in developing countries. It is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic for animals and human. Sewerage water, fertilizers, leaded-gasoline and lead based batteries are the sources of lead contamination in soil and forage. The lead particles are taken up by animals from contaminated forages and excreted in animal products like milk and meat. The presence of Pb in drinking water, waste water, plant products and animal products has been studied which is a serious risk for animal and public health. The legislations for the disposal of household wastes and industrial effluents are very poor in Pakistan. The calculation of safe Pb levels in different products is still to be needed. Pathological effects of higher Pb levels have not been studied in Pakistan. The present study was aimed to unveil the toxic effects at constant dose of Pb over a period of three months in a local sheep breed of Pakistan. The status of Pb toxicity was also investigated in a polluted area around sewage drain and mutton slaughter house at District Jhang, Pakistan. The Pb concentration in soil, forage and irrigating water was found to be below the permissible limits and was safe for agriculture but long-term ingestion of low Pb concentration may have cumulative effect. The serum Pb concentration was found to be above the recommended safe limits for producing Pb toxicity in animals. The different tissues like kidney, liver and skeletal muscles also contained higher Pb level from the permissible limits and found to be unsafe for public use. Kidney showed the highest Pb concentration and the muscle contained the least Pb level in the present study. Summary 142 The erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume showed inverse correlation with Pb concentration and mean values were below the normal range in Pb treated sheep but anemia was not developed. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was also influenced by given dose of lead acetate during third month of treatment. The white blood cells also revealed no effect on given dose of lead acetate in Lohi sheep in this study. The biochemical parameters of field and treatment group showed higher concentration as compared to control group of Lohi sheep but their means were falling within the normal range of reference values. The disturbed biochemical parameters in apparently healthy sheep with higher serum Pb concentration were indicative for liver and kidney damage. Lohi sheep exhibited less effect on given dose of lead acetate during first two months but more pronounced changes of chronic Pb toxicity were observed during last month of trial. The histological changes were not observed on early period in lead acetated treated sheep. The characteristic histological changes were observed on last slaughtering at day 90 in kidney and liver including degeneration and focal areas of necrosis, dilatation of blood vessels with accumulation of red blood cells and fibrosis in some areas. The nuclear changes were more typical with intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal tubular epithelial cells but less distinguishable in hepatocytes. It was concluded that soil, forage and water contained low Pb levels in the study area. The ingestion of low Pb level for longer period had cumulative effect in animals. The animals might be resistant to low Pb level but their products are a severe risk for public health. So the necessary measures should be adopted to minimize the heavy metal contamination in animal products. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2820-T] (1).

329. Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis, Economic Losses and Control of Haemonchosis in Sheep and Goats

by Muhammad Faiz Qamar | Prof. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: CD not available. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2840-T] (1).

330. Treatment Of Long Oblique Tibial Fracture With Intramedullary Pin Alone And Full Cerclage Wires In Cats

by Syed Muhammad Faheem Ahmed (2010-VA-147) | Dr. Ayesha Safdar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad Zahid Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Fracture of long bone in animals is a challenging problem these days. Leg fractures in cats are quite common problem. Fractures treated with biomechanically sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality. This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft tibial fractures in cats, with minimal side effects and stress to the patient. For the study total twelve adult cats as and when presented at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore, and Saleem Veterinary Clinic and petshop Lahore, having long oblique fracture of tibia irrespective of breed, sex and considering almost similar age group, both stray and domesticated were selected. These cats were divided into three groups i.e groups A, B and C comprising of four cats in each group, and designated as 1, 2 3 and 4 respectively. They were admitted as clinical trial patients and were kept in separate cat cages at Saleem Veterinary Clinic until the completion of the study. Specific tagged collars were applied on all the cats. They were kept under comfortable environment and on a standard commercially available cat feed diet with ad labitum access to water. All the cats of three groups, having long oblique tibial fracture were treated with 3 separate techniques for comparison. In group A, fracture was reduced and immobilized with intramedullary pinning. In group B, fracture was treated with full cerclage wires alone while cats of group C were treated with intramedullary pin and cerclage wires. Thus comparative fracture healing and efficacy of individual techniques in their respective cases were evaluated. Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union, fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters were illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Conclusion: Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably threaded) with at least 2 - 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long oblique mid-shaft tibial fracture in cats. The combination of both these techniques together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to the bone fragments and also to counteract different forces acting on the fracture site.Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation, were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average practitioner. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2891-T] (1).

331. Comparative Efficacy Of Advanced Surgical Hemostats In Rabbit Spleen

by Maheen Shafeeq (2010-VA-102) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The spleen is delicate organ which is at high risk of damage after blunt trauma to the abdomen. Splenic accidents such as spleen rupture and splenic hemangiosarcoma, are most common cause of intra-abdominal hemorrhage in dogs. When an incision is given on spleen there is always a high risk of bleeding. In severe cases animal often leads to death due to massive blood loss and hypovolemic shock. The objective of study was to check the efficacy of latest and advanced surgical hemostats i.e., Surgicel Original and Surgicel Snow to control bleeding when spleen is severed either accidentally or surgically. These hemostats are affordable, safe, reliable and convenient. For this, Rabbits were arranged in three groups. Group A consisted of 4 Rabbits on which Surgical Gauz was used. In Group B Surgicel Original was used. On rabbits of Group C Surgicel Snow was used. Hemostasis time of all the groups was monitored and number of leucocytes, erythrocytes, platelets AST, ALT and ALP were evaluated. The results of present study clearly indicated that Surgicel Snow is better choice to control hemorrhage than Surgicel Original. Therefore, when ligation and other conventional methods of controlling blood stand impractical, Surgicel should be used to control arterial, venous and capillaries bleeding during surgery. Conclusions On the basis of findings of this study, it has been concluded that Surgicel Snow is better hemostat than Surgical Original. Surgicel Snow yields ideal stoppage of hemorrhage and does not impair vital function of spleen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2945-T] (1).

332. Prevalence, Molecular Diagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Degnala Disease In Large Ruminants Of Punjab.

by Mudassar Nazar (2005-VA-92) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: In Pakistan, Livestock is considered as a social security for poor villager as it can be a source of cash at the time of need. Degnala disease reduces the production of these animals directly. Along with other side issues related to Degnala disease, this study was done to diagnose the actual cause of Degnala disease by applying different latest scientific techniques. Prevalence along with risk factors was calculated in the rice growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Fungal isolation (n=40) was performed from the rice straw feedings of the Degnala disease affected animals through the technique of spot culture on SDA. Then these fungal isolates were identified through comparing their microscopic and macroscopic characters. Then toxigenic potential was checked for all these isolates through the application of TLC and HPLC. After that, from those isolates which were positive for mycotoxin production potential, most cytotoxic isolate was checked with the application of MTT assay. Then the most cytotoxic isolate was inoculated on non-contaminated rice straw and fed to the experimental animals to see a similarity of natural cases of Degnala disease. Finally treatment was conducted to see a proper combination of various drugs against this disease. Toxigenic potential of different candidate fungi, isolated from rice straw feeding of Degnala disease affected bovines was analysed along with Species, age, gender and season wise prevalence. Out of 1536, 104 (6.77%) cases showed positive signs for this disease with a significant association (p<0.05) between rice straw feeding in buffaloes, winter season and bovines having an age of more than one year. Complete Blood Count showed marked increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and all white blood cells numbers, except lymphocytes in positive cases. There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in Alanine amino transferase, Aspartate amino transferase and Alkaline phosphatase noticed in Liver Function Test. At the same time, increased value of Creatinine was noticed in Renal Function Test. For isolation and screening of toxigenic fungi, rice straw samples (n=40) being fed to the positive cases were processed further, out of which there were 85 fungal isolates mainly of Aspergillus (57), Penicillium (10), Fusarium (04), Zygomycetes (03), Curvularia (01) and unidentified (10). All isolated fungi were subjected for mycotoxin production and only 11 showed mycotoxin producing capability (including Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium isolates) analysed by Thin Layer Chromatography and quantified through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. It is concluded that all the fungi, contaminating rice straw feeding of Degnala affected animals are not toxigenic. This work will help in establishing major mycotoxin producing fungi leading to the probable cause of Degnala disease in bovine. With the help of MTT assay on vero cell line, most cytotoxic fungus was identified. After an incubation with vero cells, OD values of all the candidate fungi were compared through one way ANOVA. Results of this analysis showed that Fusarium was at the highest ranking and then was the A. flavus with a significant value of 0.006 and 0.039. Finally it was concluded through these systematic steps of converging the diagnosis that, out of all the 85 suspected fungi, Fusarium (isolate number S 8.1) was the most cytotoxic isolate obtained from the rice straw feedings of Degnala affected animals in our study. For molecular diagnosis of the most cytotoxic isolate of Fusarium, PCR was conducted and the results showed that ultimately the final PCR product was successfully amplified against the mentioned primer of ITS conserved region for Fusarium genera and the DNA product was with a length of 570 base pairs. Experimental feeding trials were conducted by inoculating Fusarium (the most cytotoxic isolate) and A. flavus (second most cytotoxic one after Fusarium) separately and in combination compared with the negative control group, all groups were of eight animals each. It was concluded that alone Fusarium was able to produce Degnala disease, while its combination with A. flavus was more lethal. Ultimately the treatment trials proceeded with penta-sulphate, oxytetracycline and antiseptic topical application as therapeutic treatment were shown to be very effective against Degnala cases. While in all the affected animals feeding of affected rice straw was ceased. Only withdrawal of affected rice straw from the feedings of Degnala affected animals was not effective unless proper treatment as mentioned here was not conducted. analysed The expected results of the study shall be helpful to make exact diagnosis and treatment of infected buffaloes and cattle that is further helpful for timely prophylaxis and control of the Degnala disease in the rice growing areas of Pakistan and South Asia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2960-T] (1).

333. A Study On Postural Sway In Horses During Different Sedation Protocols Along With Clinico-Biochemical Evaluation In Clinical Cases

by Hamad Bin Rashid (92-AG-676) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: 6.1. Observational study of postural sway using accelerometer in horses sedated with different sedative combinations Balance is the ability to maintain center of gravity by a body within the base of support, whereas the phenomenon of continuous movement and improvement of the position of the center of gravity within the base of support is referred to as postural sway. Most of the living creatures including man, horse and other animals need to maintain their postural balance for their daily requirements, as most of them are either bipeds or quadrupeds. To attain this balance, co-ordination between sensory system, skeletal muscle system and the central nervous system is required. These systems are responsible for the pattern of walk in the horses, which is called as gait. Any abnormality in the nervous system results in an altered gait, which if assessed properly is a useful tool in diagnosing many ailments & disorders of the locomotor system. To assess these changes in the gait pattern, many methods have evolved over the years. The gait can be assessed by Kinematic or Kinetic Analysis. An accelerometer is a detecting element that measures acceleration. Accelerometers can measure: vibrations, shocks, tilt, impacts and motion of an object. An accelerometer by itself is only a sensing element, in order for it to be useful the sensor needs to be combined with other elements such as, power, logic, memory and a means to translate the output. An acceleration recorder incorporates all of these elements into one package. There is a measurable difference in postural sway at stance between different sedation protocols. This study aims to document and quantify the postural sway of horses undergoing various sedation protocols, with the aim of identifying a sedation protocol that will reduce sway and improve the ease with which standing non-painful diagnostic imaging procedures (Radiography, Scintigraphy and MRI) can be carried out. The present study assessed the postural sway during sedation in horses and evaluated a sedation protocol with minimal sway in horses. Equine surgery depends heavily on various imaging procedures. Diagnostic imaging plays important roles-first, in diagnosing and localising a disease process; second, in assessing the surgical intervention to be applied; and third, in the follow-up evaluation of the patient. Many imaging techniques like Radiography, Ultrasonography, Scintigraphy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography are used at veterinary hospitals and clinics, the world over. In order to achieve good results for these diagnostic modalities, various drugs and their combinations have been used by scientists to achieve good standing sedation in horses (e.g., Acepromazine, Butorphanol, Detomidine, Ketamine, Romifidine, Xylazine, etc.). The reason for integrating sedations which use combinations with Ketamine in this study and its different effect on the musculature i.e. increasing the muscle tone, while the alpha2-agonists (Romifidine, Detomidine, Xylazine), all reduced the muscle tone. Potentially, increasing the muscle tone of a horse will reduce the sway, as the constant correction of postural position with reduced muscle tone may be avoided. Horses that are In-Patients and Out-Patients brought to the Large Animal Hospital, Dept. of Vet. Clinical Studies, EBVC, RDSVS, UoE, UK, and have the medical need for diagnostic imaging procedures, and that require sedation so that these procedures can be carried out safely, were included in the study. The measurements were recorded pre-sedation and post-sedation while the horse is being imaged. The horses were observed during Radiography, Ultrasonography, Scintigraphy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or some other minor/major surgical intervention, under the influence of standing sedation. The body sway was measured using a MicroStrain G-link wireless triaxial accelerometer. It was secured on the skin above the midline of the sacrum with adhesive tape. Both sway episodes as well as continuous postural adaptations was assessed from the sum vector of the three acceleration traces. The results of current study showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean values of postural sway between different drug groups. All drug combinations produced sedation in standing horses. However, pre-sedation mean values were significantly different from post-sedation mean values of postural sway. This shows that the subjects which were administered different combinations of sedatives exhibited variation in the postural control over time that is the readings of accelerometer either increased or decreased after sedation when compared to baseline (pre-sedation) values. The findings of current investigation also revealed a significant combined effect of drug groups and measurement time. Which means that the horses within groups, administered with different sedative combinations showed a change in postural sway values measured by accelerometer over time and these mean values either increased or decreased post-sedation. However, Post hoc Tukey’s test could not establish a significant difference (p<0.05) in the multiple comparision tests. Although post-sedation mean values of postural sway of group 2 (romifidine alone) and group 7 (detomidine alone) were different from pre-sedation values (p<0.1). The mean values of accelerometer for group 1 (detomidine+butorphenol) and group 4 (xylazine alone) were decreased from pre-sedation values that means the horses in these groups were more stable and had better control over their stance when compared with pre-sedation values. In the current study, the mean values of accelerometer for group 2 (romifidine alone) and group 7 (detomidine alone) were increased from pre-sedation values that means the horses in these groups were less stable and had poor control over their stance. This showed that detomidine alone with a dose range of 3 to 9 μg/kg is insufficient for standing procedures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2970-T] (1).



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