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51. Study On Chemical Composition Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Milk

by Yasir Abrar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Jaleed | Mr. Muhammad Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Milk is a complete food and contains all the nutritional components in balanced form. It helps to meet important nutritional needs of the human body. Vitamins, minerals, sugar, Fat, and protein are present in milk. Among the established breeds of buffalo in Pakistan. the Nili-Ravi breed originated in the valleys of Sutlej and Ravi rivers is dominant in the Punjab province. The purpose of the study is to determine the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of buffalo milk. The milk animals, Buffaloes were divided into 3 groups on the basis of lactation period i.e early, middle and late lactation. Five animals were present in each group. Six milk samples. 3 in the morning and 3 in the evening from each animal was collected. A total of 90 milk samples were obtained for analysis. Milk in bottles of 500 ml capacity was transported to lab. [he samples were analyzed in Livestock Production Research Laboratory, Livestock Production Research Institute Bahadurnagar (Okara). Temperature, Density, Conductivity and freezing point was determined by using Milkoscan. Buffalo samples were analyzed for proximate analysis, parameters like fat, crude protein, lactose, ash, solids not fat, total solids, pH and acidity were determined. Fatty acid profile of buffalo milk was determined by the method of AOAC (2000). Milk fat content (%)was Ihund to be significantly (p<0.05) lower in the early (6.52) and mid lactation (6.61) stages than the late lactation stage (6.85). The content of TS (%) was found to be significantly (p<O.05) higher in the late lactation (14.62 and 15.45) stage than the early (12.94 and 13.65) and mid lactation (13.76 and 14.14) stages. In contrast, the content of total protein (4.31 to 4.78%), SNF (X.4() to8.70%), lactose (4.36 to 4.74%), and ash (0.l8to 0.19%) did not vary significantly among the different lactation stages. Fatty acids profile also checked from Cl to C20. The values of Butyric acid, Caproic acid. Myristic acid, Stearic acid, and Oleic acid showed significant increase towards end of lactation. 'lhcse values of fatty acids also revealed that there is significant difference among the animals and between the lactation stages of Nih- Ravi buffalo milk. Results showed that Capric acid, Laurie acid, Palmitic acid, Palmitoleic acid, Linoleic and Linolenic acid decreased in early to middle and increased towards end of lactation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1220,T] (1).

52. Clinicopathological Changes Induced By Heat Stress, Their Resolution By Minerals And Vitamin C Supplementation In Quails

by Khurshid Anwar | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present study was designed to overcome heat stress in Japanese quails through potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and vitamin C solution in calculated amount in water on thermo tolerance, histopathology and hematology of quails exposed to heat stress: This experimental trial was carried out at Avian Research and Training Centre (ARTC), UVAS Lahore and tests were performed at Department of Pathology UVAS, Lahore. There were three replicates in each treatment group and each replicate was of twenty quails, each group was comprised of 60 birds. The body weight of each the bird was. recorded on weekly basis. Blood samples were collected on the 21, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30 and 31 days of treatment from each group to evaluate the serum potassium and bicarbonate level in the blood. For hematological parameters the blood samples were collected on 22, 28 and 31 day of treatment and the vital organs for histopathology were collected after slaughtering 3 birds from each group. The hematological parameters were studied and the data was analyzed by two ways ANOVA. Group A quails revealed significantly higher weight gain than those of group B, but no significant difference was observed, when all groups were compared. Significantly less weight gain was revealed by the quails of group B, when compared to all other groups. Comparison between groups A, C, D, E, F and G was non significant. The highest FCR was exhibited by the birds of group A while the group B showed the poorest FCR. Better FCR was exhibited by group C, D, E, F and G. Serum samples were obtained from each group, for bicarbonate and potassium determination by spectrophotometric method. Group A, C, E, F and G exhibited a significantly higher serum potassium level than those of groups B and D. A significantly higher bicarbonate level was revealed in the serum of group A, D, E, F and G as compared to group B and C, on day 23 and onwards. But no significant difference was observed in serum of groups A, D, E, F and G. Blood hematology revealed no significant difference in red blood cells of groups A, C, D, E, F and G. Group B exhibited a significant lower values of red blood cells, packed cell volume, basophils, monocytes and showed a significant increase H/L ratio and eosinophils when compared to all other groups. Histopathological studied showed infiltration of heterophils, hyperemia, congestion of liver, heart and adrenal gland. It is concluded that, quails of group B (kept in high environmental temperature) revealed a decreased weight gain, poorest FCR, decreased serum potassium and bicarbonate level, decrease in hematocrit, monocytes and basophils and increased in eosinophils and H/L ratio. Supplementation of electrolytes and vitamin C (125 mg/L KC1, 75 mg/L NaHCO3 and vitamin C 62.5 mg/L) in water effect on heat stressed quails exhibited the better results in term of weight gain, serum electrolytes, blood profile and histology than those quails kept in heat stressed condition with no supplementation. From the present results it is concluded that 125 mg/L of KCI, 75 mg/L of NaHCO3 and 62.5 mg/L of vitamin C solution in water, alone or in combination may be used in quails to combat the effect of high ambient temperature and heat stress. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1226,T] (1).

53. Immuo-Pathological Response Of Pigeons To Challenge Infection Of Newcastle Disease Virus (Ndv)

by Yasir Amin | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: This study trial was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two locally available live Newcastle disease vaccines (Medivac ND LaSota and VRI, Mukteshwar ND vaccine), also to compare two routes (Oral and Ocular) of vaccine administration in term of antibody titre and assessment of protection against field (chicken) isolated virulent Newcastle virus challenge (NDV) in pigeons. Study of clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesion in different organ of non-vaccinated and challenged birds was also the part of our present study. For this purpose one hundred and twenty pigeons were purchased from the local market and screened for Newcastle disease antibodies using Hemagglutination inhibition test. Healthy pigeons were randomly divided into six groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, comprising 20 birds each. Group E and F were kept as positive and negative Control respectively. Group A and C were vaccinated with Medivac ND LaSota vaccine at day 7th and 21st of experiment through oral and ocular route. Similarly Group B and D were immunized with VRI (Mukteshwar) ND vaccine through oral and ocular route respectively. At 28th day of experiment all the groups except group F were challenged with velogenic field isolate of NDV at a dose rate of 0.1 ml through ocular route. Serum samples were collected at day 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 of experiment for the determination of antibody titre. Post-infection clinical signs in control positive group were i.e. anorexia, dullness, depression, decreased feed intake, discharge from mouth, greenish diarrhea, nervous manifestations, leg and wing paralysis. Gross lesions on different organs were hemorrhages in trachea, proventriculus, spleenomegaly and greenish intestinal contents. Medivac ND LaSota vaccine produced higher immune response in term of antibody titre as compared to VRI (Mukteshwar) ND vaccine. It was also observed that ocular route irrespective to vaccine type produced significantly (P<0.05) higher immune response than oral route. Vaccine strains used in this study efficiently induced immune response through ocular route, suggesting that implementation of this vaccination programs in future may prevent ND outbreaks in pigeons, especially in racing pigeons, and may prevent NDV spread to other avian species, mainly poultry. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1228,T] (1).

54. Haematologial And Immunological Effects Of Naturally Occurring Probiotic (Yogurt) And Garlic Supplementation On Broiler Chicks Vaccinated Against Newcastle Disease

by Muhammad Ishaq | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present project was undertaken to study the various hematological. immunological and gross/histopathological parameters in ND vaccinated chicks with different supplementation of yogurt and garlic. For this purpose one hundred twenty-six day old broiler chicks were divided into three experimental groups A, B and C. each having 42 chicks per group. The group B and C \\ere Further subdivided into 3 groups yl, y2, y3 and gi, g2. g3 respectively comprising of 14 chicks per group having different supplementation of yogurt and garlic respectively, while group A was kept as a control and fed basal diet having no supplementation. Our result showed that yogurt augmented serological response and help in increasing HI antibody titer in which 200 gm yogurt showed immense potential in increasing HI titer until last day of experiment. All levels of Garlic group augmented serological response in term of antibody titer hut remain statistically insigni flcant in increasing HI titer.The heterophil population and I I/L ratio was also improved in both yogurt and garlic groups however 40 grn garlic fed group showed a better response in increasing hctcrophil population. TLC remains insignificant both at treatment and levels throughout the experiment. Body weight gain and FCR was also improved with yogurt and garlic supplementation however 200 gm yogurt showed a curvilinear response over the range of yogurt bd levels. Yogurt and garlic supplementation also showed improvement in the development of immune organ such as spleen, thymus and liver, their I listological examination revealed that an increase in supplementation of yogurt and garlic have no lethal effect upon morphological structure of these organs. In conclusion, yogurt as a probiotic and garlic as a growth promoter agent displayed a greater efficacy in increasing HI titer, heterophils population and improving productive performqnce of broilers in which 200 gm yougurt/kg diet group and 40gm garlic/kg diet showed an immense potential in improving above traits, so their use in broiler diet should be considered instead of using costly commercial probiotics and antibiotics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1229,T] (1).

55. Feeding Management For Optimum Growth, Reproduction And First Lactation Performance In Sahiwal Heifers

by Muhammad Fiaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdulla | Prof. Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Sahiwal is well known dairy cattle breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of world for its excellent heat and tick resistance. The value of adequate nutrition and management of replacement heifers is mostly overlooked and production losses linked with slow growth rate are not entirely realized. Efficient utilization of nutrients like energy during pre pubertal and gestation periods is needful for melioration. The study included two experiments. The aim in first experiment was to investigate the effect of varying dietary energy levels on pre pubertal growth and age at puberty in Sahiwal heifers. Twenty Sahiwal heifers (Age = 12 ± 2 month and avg. wt = 125 kg) were assigned to four dietary treatments having five animals on each treatment. Isonitrogenous (CP=13.7%) diets having varying energy levels, viz; A=100% (Control), B=88%, C=112% and D=124% of NRC recommended level for small breed non bred heifers were fed to the respective groups until onset of puberty. Dry matter and protein intakes were not influenced by varying dietary energy levels during pre pubertal period. However, metabolizable energy (ME) 124% of NRC recommendation enhanced average daily gain (ADG) up to 571±15 g/d which was higher than all other dietary energy levels, whereas it was similar between ME 100% and ME 112% (442±11 and 450±05 g/d, respectively) but lower in ME 88% (397±07 g/d). The improvement in ADG of heifers fed ME 124% of NRC might be attributed to availability of excess energy nutrient for heifers to fulfill not only maintenance requirements but also to grow and develop body reserves. Provision of extra dietary energy improved efficiency of diets which might be attributed to availability of surplus dietary energy enabling heifers to convert feed into live body mass more efficiently. The 13 to 18 months of age was found optimum time period to have significantly highest ADG in Sahiwal heifers. This might be attributed to propitious physiological conditions under which heifers grow at faster rate. The optimum increase in body structures (Body length, height and heart girth) was achieved in ME 124% of NRC recommendations. The phase from 13 to 18 months of age was found optimum possessing significantly highest values of increase in body length and heart girth, whereas phase from 19 months to age at puberty was optimum to achieve significantly highest body height. The optimum increase in heart girth during first two phases (13 to 19 months of age) might be attributed to relatively faster muscle growth in body than bone growth. The digestibility percentages of nutrients (DM, CP, NDF and ADF) were not influenced by different dietary energy levels. No influence of dietary energy levels on digestibility of nutrients in the present study might be attributed to best adaptability of Sahiwal heifers to utilize diets even with low energy under local environment. Similarly, age at puberty was also not affected by dietary treatments and overall average was 833 ± 10 days. The optimum performance in terms of age at puberty at lower dietary energy level might be attributed to lesser energy requirements of Sahiwal under tropical and subtropical environment condition as elaborated by NRC (2000) that maintenance energy requirements of Bos indicus breeds including Sahiwal are about 10% lower. The similar pattern of influence was observed in serum progesterone concentration. The average of progesterone detected during a month before puberty was 0.44±0.005 ng/mL and during a month after onset of puberty was 1.48 ± 0.03 ng/mL serums. The similar rogesterone concentration among dietary treatments might be attributed to similar age at puberty in Sahiwal heifers. It is concluded from results of first experiment that higher dietary energy level (ME 124% of NRC) enhanced growth parameters and feed efficiency but reproductive performance of Sahiwal heifers in terms of age at puberty was optimum even at lower dietary energy level (ME 88% of NRC recommended level) under local environment conditions of Pakistan. The aim in second experiment was to study the effect of feeding varying dietary energy levels during last trimester of pregnancy on 1st lactation performance in Sahiwal heifers. Five to six months pregnant Sahiwal heifers (n=16) were assigned four dietary treatments having four heifers on each treatment. Iso-nitrogenous (CP=14.1%) diets having varying energy levels, viz; A=100% (Control), B=88%, C=112% and D=124% percent of NRC recommended level for pregnant heifers were fed to the respective groups until calving. After calving, all heifers were fed a similar diet having CP (16.2%) and ME (1.72 Mcal/kg). Dry matter and CP intakes were similar across the dietary treatments. Pre calving ADG was not different among heifers fed ME 112 and ME 124% (486 ± 13 and 497 ± 05 g/d, respectively) but higher than other diets, whereas it was also higher (444 ± 07 g/d) in ME 100% than 397 ± 08 g/day in ME 88% of NRC recommendation. Feed efficiency was similar between ME 124 and ME 112% but higher than other diets, whereas ME 100% was also more efficient than ME 88% of NRC recommendation. The higher feed efficiency in higher dietary energy levels might be attributed to availability of surplus dietary energy enabling heifers to convert feed into live body mass more efficiently. Better body score through higher pre calving dietary energy level might be attributed to availability of energy for animal in surplus to its requirements of maintenance and pregnancy. Higher level of energy at this stage enabled pregnant heifers to develop extra body reserves needed in early lactation period to fulfill high demand of lactogenesis. The similar birth weight of newly born calves might be attributed to the factor that needs of conceptus (growth of fetus, fetal membranes, uterus and mammary glands) are accorded high priority by the homeorhetic controls it transmits to the dam. Extra energy levels beyond NRC recommendation during prepartum period were not advantageous to increase milk yield in 1st calf heifers. The performance of 1st calf heifers in terms of milk yield was only optimum through pre calving feeding according to NRC recommendations. The lesser milk yield in diets having higher energy levels than recommended by NRC might be attributed to more availability of mammary fat pad which may limit further parenchymal tissue development and consequently decrease milk yield during subsequent lactation. However, milk fat percentage increased as pre calving dietary energy level was increased, whereas milk protein, lactose and SNF percent among animals fed different experimental diets did not differ. It is concluded from results of second experiment that the optimal performance of pregnant Sahiwal heifers was achieved through provision of pre calving extra dietary energy (ME 112%) beyond the NRC recommendation but first lactation yield was found optimum in heifers fed diet having energy level as per recommendations of NRC. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1230,T] (1).

56. Use Of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (Bht) As Antioxidant In Buffalo Semen Extender

by Tayyab Munir | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The Buffalo is the major milk producing animal in Pakistan. Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo is the one of the best breeds of the world. Buffalo contributes seventy percent of total milk production in Pakistan. The excellent buffalo bulls are few in number and their semen volume and sperm concentration is also low as compared to cattle. The animal has lower fertility particularly when inseminated with frozen semen. There are many reasons for poor fertility of buffalos and one of the most important reasons may reasons for poor fertility of buffalos and one of the most important reasons may be the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (POS) from the plasma membrane of spermatozoa causing damage to the membrane integrity due to lipid peroxidation. The addition of optimum level of antioxidants like BHT to buffalo semen extender before freezing may be answer to this problem. The main objective of the present study was to determine the level of total of antioxidants in the semen and to optimize the quantity of BHT in the semen extender of the Nili Rave Buffalo bulls. In this study semen from Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls ( n=10) was collected twice per week and diluted with Tris egg yolk citrate extender. Antioxidant BHT was added to the extended semen at the rate of 1.0mM, 1.0 mM and 2 mM while Control was containing no BHT. The semen was visually analyzed under phase contrast microscope for motility, vitality (Eosin/Nigrosin staining), plasma membrane (HOS assay) and acrosomal integrity (NAR), at three stages i.e. after dilution, before freezing and after freezing. For the determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), semen samples were transported under ice to Spectophotometric Laboratary, GC. University Lahore. Data collected was presented as mean= SEM. Treatment groups were compared using one way ANOVA and Results were compared by using Duncan Multiple Range Test using SPSS (version 16.0) ; SPSS Chicago IL. Result of this study show significant (P< 0.05) improvement in semen motility, vitality, plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity at 1.5 mM BHT concentration as compared to Control, however, insignificant difference was noticed with in treated groups and with in bulls. Maximum TEAC value (2.42) was observed in the extended semen containing two mM BHT and minimum TEAC values (0.58mM) in the post thaw semen sample with BHT. It is concluded that addition of antioxidants in the buffalo semen improve the semen quality before and after freezing. Fortification of buffalo semen extender with BHT (@ of 1-1.5 mM) improved post thaw semen quality and hoped to increase the fertility of buffalo. However, field fertility trials need to be carried out for confirmation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1288,T] (1).

57. Effect Of Various Concen Trayious Of Hydrogen Pereoxide On Chemical And Microbiogical Quality Of Raw Buffalo Milk

by Muhammad Ilyas Alam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum | Dr. Imran Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Milk is a complex mixture of fat, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and other miscellaneous constituents dispersed in water. Milk production in flush season is much more than in the normal. Milk production and supply fluctuate through out the year and during winter it is surplus to its demand. Surplus milk is available in winter due to new calving, less consumption of milk by the consumer. In winter season ample amount of green fodder is available to the animals which in turn increase the milk production. Milk and milk products being very delicate and perishable food require special handling prior to the consumption and further treatment. Pakistan due to its harsh climatic conditions people are using different methods, for the preservation of milk. They are using different chemicals, additives and antibiotics to enhance the keeping quality of milk. Present study was planned to investigate the various concentration of hydrogen peroxide or raw buffalo milk and its effect on chemical and microbiological quality of raw buffalo milk. Raw buffalo milk samples were collected from Dairy Animal Training and Research Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus Pattoki Fifty samples of raw buffalo milk (100ml each) were collected to studied the nutritional composition and microbiological quality of the milk after adding the hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide of different concentration i.e. 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.075%and 0.1% were used in this study. There was no significant change in the result regarding various nutritional composition of raw buffalo milk after adding the various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. There is a slight change in the lactose % during study of 48 h storage of milk at different temperature. Statistically the change which occurred in lactose during storage is significant whereas over all decrease in Solid Not Fat is non significant Mean value of TPC of raw buffalo milk treated with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide storage at the three different temperatures indicated that at 10° C TPC was very less as compared to control. TPC at 30° C after 48 h was 9.83x106.Which was very less as compared to TPC of control i.e. 1.195 x107. The effect of H2O2 on the quality of the milk is negligible as compared to the losses suffered without it. The hydrogen peroxide definitely have its effect as a preservative.. The use of preservative in milk and dairy products are not new in the countries where ambient temperature remains quite high. Our study suggests that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide to be used for the preservation of raw milk is 0.05 % to 0.1 % Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1291,T] (1).

58. Survival Of Probiotic Bacteria In Commercial Infant Foods And Their Antimcrobial Activity Against Food Borne

by Rana Faheem Sakhawat Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Novel bio-therapeutic agents (Probiotics) are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate number provide health benefits to the consumer. Functional foods contain viable probiotic bacteria in sufficient population. Some manufacturing companies of multi national fame claim the presence of probiotics in their dairy and cereal products especially for the consumption of infants and growing children of different age groups. But neither a legal definition nor specific regulations governing probiotic food exist. There is no approved list of human foods and any bacterial strain of a known species that is traditionally used can be added. Pakistani parents spent huge amount to purchase the different infant formulas for the better nourishment of their children. Any information basing on scientific grounds which confirms the presence or absence of gut friendly bacteria will be of great value for the general consumers. It is important to ensure a high survival rate of these bacteria during the product shelf life to maintain consumer confidence in probiotic products. This study is presented to assess the viability, label correctness and diversity of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in powder milk and cereals recommended for infants. The viability of the probiotic microorganisms was evaluated throughout the shelf life. Antibacterial activity of the recovered strains was also measured against the common food borne pathogens. Isolation, identification and count of micro-organisms was carried out by serial ten fold dilutions prepared in PBS solution using the pour plate technique. Strains were propagated by inoculating the Lactobacillus in de Man Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) and Bifidobacterium species in Reinforced Clostridium Agar under anaerobic conditions at 42°C.Typical cell morphology, colony characteristics and biochemical tests are used for the identification of isolates. Survival rate of the microorganisms was calculated by the viable cell count which represents the original concentration of probiotics in the infant formulation. Out of the total 45 analyses it is concluded that cereal food contains Bifidobacterium species only and the number of Bifidobacterium species in all three products is more than the Lactobacillus species. Moreover, survival rate of both organisms showed a decline pattern in the terminal stage of shelf life. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species were identified and differentiated by the application of various biochemical tests including Catalase test, Carbohydrate fermentation profile and growth response at different temperature and NaCl concentration. Gram positive and catalase negative isolates fermented the glucose without the production of CO2. Isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity using the Stab overlay, Cross streak and Agar well diffusion method against the common food borne pathogenic bacteria i.e. E.coli, Staphylococcs aureus, Salmonella species and Bacillus subtilus. After the completion of experiments it is concluded that Bifidobacterium species have more inhibition effect against the pathogens as compare to Lactobacillus species. Overall effect of isolates was mild to strong inhibition. Bacillus subtilus was resistant to probiotics as compare to the rest of three pathogenic bacteria. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1292,T] (1).

59. Effectof Mentofin (Herbal Product)On Antibody Response Of Broilers To Newcastle Disease Vaccine

by Saif- Ur- Rehman | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Immunostimulants such as Mentofin® are commonly used to enhance the immune response of birds to vaccines. In the present study immunomodulatory effect of Mentofin® on antibody response of broilers to Newcastle Disease virus vaccine was evaluated. For this purpose one hundred one day old broilers were divided in to four groups (A, B, C and D) each containing 25 birds. Each bird of group A and B was vaccinated against ND and each bird of group A and C was treated with Mentofin. Anti-ND-HI antibody titer of each bird of each group was monitored on 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of age. Mentofin® treated broilers showed higher consistent antibody (anti-NDV HI antibody titer) response as compared to untreated broilers. These birds when given challenge infection of velogenic ND virus on 35 days of age showed same protection as that of untreated vaccinated birds. However non vaccinated broilers treated with Mentofin showed higher protection as compared to that of in non treated unvaccinated birds. Weight gain in Mentofin® treated broilers was same as that of non-treated birds. Similarly, there was no effect of the Mentofin on FCR. Droppings from Mentofin treated birds showed no urease producing bacteria while 100% droppings of the herbal untreated birds showed urease producing bacteria. Mentofin at 1% concentration in nutrient broth inactivated the proteus species while its 0.0001 % concentration inactivated the bacteria in urea broth. In in vitro studies, 0.5 % concentration of Mentofin inactivated the lentogenic strain of ND Virus within 15 minutes at interaction temperature of 37 0C. The results can be used to formulate the vaccination policy along with herbal based immunostimulatant such as Mentofin®. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1294,T] (1).

60. Development And Sensory Evaluation Of Flavored Probiotic Acidophilus Milk

by Muhammad Junaid | Dr. Imran Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Fermented milk products are the foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria includes Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, bifidobacterium etc. These are of great significance as they not only preserve the surplus milk but also provide vast quantities of nutritious and healthy foods in a wide variation of flavors, aromas and textures. Acidophilus milk is one of the fermented milk products in which probiotic starter culture is used for fermentation. This probiotic product not only adds to the taste but also improves the digestibility of milk. This value added product helps in maintaining the normal mocroflora of GIT by boosting the number of friendly intestinal bacteria. Decreasing the incidence of pediatric diarrhea, reducing serum cholesterol concentration, reducing the risk of coronary heart diseases are some of health promoting benefits of this value added product. Presently in Pakistan none of the dairy company is producing value added flavored acidophilus milk product using probiotic culture so the research project was designed in a way to develop flavored probiotic acidophilus milk which has its health benefits along with fulfilling the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics. Consumer acceptability was found to be important for product development and its marketing. The aim of the present study was the development the probiotic acidophilus milk having health promoting benefits of probiotics and to appeal its consumer recognition by flavoring the product. For flavoring purpose different food grade flavors like strawberry, chocolate and vanilla at different levels was used with the purpose of providing our people with good, nutritional, healthy and value added product through research and development. Flavored probiotic acidophilus milk is a product in which the milk a perishable commodity was fermented using the pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a starter culture. The freshly drawn raw milk used in the study was obtained from Dairy Animal Training and Research Center (DAT&RC), UVAS, Ravi campus, Pattoki. The whole milk was pasteurized at 72 °C for 15 minutes to kill the pathogenic microorganism and ensuring the safety of consumer. It was then standardized to 3.5% fat and 8.5% SNF and cooled at 4 ±1°C. This standardized milk was used for preparation of flavored probiotic acidophilus milk. The microbiological identification and confirmation of Lactobacillus acidophilus starter culture procured from starter culture collection center (Danisco) was carried out in the postgraduate laboratory of Department of Dairy Technology UVAS, Ravi campus, Pattoki. The freeze dried culture was activated by inoculating and growing it in sterile whole milk at 40 ±1ºC and then maintained at 4 ± 1ºC. Preliminary studies were performed to optimize and standardize the conditions like culture concentration (to be added in the milk for acidification and fermentation), temperature of incubation and time duration for incubation during the preparation of probiotic acidophilus milk. This task was accomplished by using culture varying in concentration form 1-5%. Similarly temperature variations were studied at 30°C, 35 °C and 40 °C. Time for incubation was given 04hrs and 08hrs for each culture concentration at different temperatures. The results of preliminary studies showed the development of probiotic acidophilus milk by inoculating with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture at 01% concentration incubated at 40 °C for 04hrs as the best choice. The actual product development phase started after finding the best combination of culture concentration with temperature of incubation and time for incubation. During this phase the standardized and pasteurized milk (200ml) equilibrated for one hour at the fermentation temperature (40ºC) in a water bath was inoculated with overnight fresh culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus at the rate of 1%. Thereafter it was flavored using three different flavors e.g., mango, strawberry, and pineapple. Fermentation time was given 4hrs and the temperature of milk was maintained at 40ºC. The flavored probiotic acidophilus milk after its development was cooled and stored at 4±1 °C up to six days. During storage the prepared flavored Probiotic acidophilus milk was evaluated for its sensory attributes. A panel of 10 judges evaluated the product for color, taste, aroma, appearance, acidic flavor and overall acceptability on 9-point hedonic scale (9 = like very much; 1 = dislike very much). The sensory evaluation of the product at day-1 and day-6 of its production was carried out in the Department of Dairy Technology University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi Campus, Pattoki. The sensory evaluation performa was prepared and distributed to the panelist along with the consent form to participate in this sensory evaluation. The flavored probiotic acidophilus milk, prepared, was evaluated regularly for physico-chemical analysis, based on pH and titrateable acidity (expressed as lactic acid %) during its storage up to six days with one day interval. The total viable count of the product was also determined microbiologically at day-1 and day-6 to study the viability of culture in the probiotic product. All the results obtained were analyzed thorough analysis of variance technique (ANOVA). The significant differences were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test with a probability P ? 0.05. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1296,T] (1).

61. Seriepidemiological Investigation, Risk Factors Analysis Of Brucellosis In Ruminants And Their Ownrs In Buner

by Muhammad Idrees | Prof. Dr. Munsur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ather Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: drama Dissertation note: The study was conducted in District Buner of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province. In this study small and large ruminants and their owners were included. A two stage sampling technique was used. In the first stage sampling two villages were selected by systemic way. In the second stage sampling five households having livestock holdings were selected for sampling. Information about risk factors in man and animals were gathered by separate structured questionnaires. And to investigate Brucellosis blood samples were collected and serum was isolated. Serum samples were screened with RBPT. The prevalence of Brucellosis in animals was 5.59%, 6.14%, 6.25%, 5.55% and 3.27% in sheep, goat, cattle, buffalo and livestock owners respectively. Herd level prevalence for Brucellosis in sheep, goat, cattle, buffalo and mix herds was 35%, 7.89%, 15.55%, 10.33% and 19.51% were positive for herds respectively. Individual herd level prevalence was from was 4.76%, 25% and 13.38% minimum, maximum and average respectively. Among the risk factors associated with Brucellosis in ruminants type of farm operation (p-value=0.000), type of flooring system (p-value=0.095 & OR=0.36), ventilation. i.e. (p-value=0.252 & OR=0.55), housing condition (p-value=0.157 & OR=0.692), animal health status (p-value=0.000). But the results showed a significant relationship between natural breeding of the animals and positive cases of Brucellosis. i.e. (p-value=0.033 & OR=9.98). No animal suffered from Brucellosis for whom Artificial Insemination was used for breeding. Artificial Insemination was significantly associated with negative cases of Brucellosis. i.e. (p-value=0.033 * OR=0.10). Among the risk factors in human significant association between the occupation of the person and Test results for Brucellosis among Humans. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1298,T] (1).

62. The Efficacy Of Chemotherapeutic Agents Against Paramphistomum In Sheep

by Muhammad Mashhood Hassan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to diagnose the paramphistomum infection in sheep and to evaluate the efficacy of oxyclozanide and albendazole and to observe the effect of paramphistomum on various blood parameters, haemoglobin estimation, erythrocytes sedimentation rate and packed cell volume. For this purpose twenty four Sheep were selected and divided into 4 groups. Each group comprised of 6 animals. Faecal samples were collected from Out Reach centre Sitar wala and its adjacent areas and out door clinic UVAS Lahore for the diagnosis of paramphistomum. The faecal and blood samples were collected on day zero pre-medication, and day 7 and 10 post-medication. The drug efficacy was checked at those animals which were positive for the paramphistomum. The animals in Group A were treated with Oxyclozanide (Zanil) at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight. The animals in Group B were treated with Albendazole (Albensel) at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight. The animals in Group C were kept as positive control (infected-untreated) and Group D were kept as negative control (uninfected-untreated). Eggs per gram (EPG) of the faeces were noted on day 0 day before medication. The efficacy of these drugs was calculated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces after treatment. Zanil showed a progressive decrease in the faecal egg counts. The efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil) was 58.33% on day 7 and 83.33 % on day 10. The efficacy of Albendazole (Albensel) was 36.36% on day 7 and 56.36 % on day 10. It was observed that Oxyclozanide (Zanil) showed better efficacy than Albendazole. Haematological parameters showed different results. A marked decrease in haemoglobin was observed after the study of infected sheep and the haemoglobin value was in normal range in healthy sheep on day zero. Packed cell volume was reduced on day zero in all infected groups, but was normal in the group of healthy sheep. After the treatment these values increased towards normal range in group A and B. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was increased after 24 hours on day zero in all infected groups A, B, and C but was normal in the group D of healthy sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1303,T] (1).

63. Efficacy Of Antifungal Agents Against Dermatophytosis In Cats

by Muhammad Irfan Saleem | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The cat is commonly kept as pet all over the world. The dermatophyte Microsporum canis is the most common fungal agent of dogs and cats. In the presence study, the prevalence of Microsporum canis was recorded in pet cats in the area of district Lahore. The animals found positive with Microsporum canis were divided into three groups named, group A (griseofulvin), group B (ketoconazole) and group C (terbinafine). All the drugs were given orally and the efficacy of each drug was observed by collecting the samples on 15 days interval after the commencement of treatment until the mycological cure was achieved up till day 90th. Prevalence of M. canis infestation was 31%. The breed wise prevalence was highest in Persian cats as compared to Siamese and local breed and the prevalence were also higher in young ones as compared to old age cats. Later on the calculation of efficacy revealed that griseofulvin was the best drug among the three drugs used. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1305,T] (1).

64. Study Of Incidence Rate And Chemotherapy Of Balantidiasis In Donkeys

by Adnan Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Equines have been serving the mankind for many purposes since as early as the human history. In equines parasitic infection is a major problem. Factors such as continuous exposure to parasites, climatic conditions, and lack of knowledge on the part of livestock farmers regarding parasitic transmission play an important role in sustaining parasitic diseases. Balantidium coli causes a protozoal disease known as Balantidiasis. It is normally found in large intestine of pigs (wild and domestic) and also explained in camels, primates including human, rodents, and equines but distinctly found in dogs. Balantidiasis is manifested by diarrhea, dysentery, severe colic pain, tenesmus, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. Balantidium coli may act as opportunistic pathogen in other infectious diseases. There is considerable information on B. coli in cattle and buffalo raising communities in the world. Investigations on Balantidium coli have not been conducted actively in the study area where equine rearing is one of the major occupations. This study will therefore is expected to serve as base line data for further work on this parasite. The faecal samples of 400 donkeys irrespective of age and sex reared in and around Lahore were examined coprologically out of which 73 were found positive for Balantidium coli yielding the incidence rate of 18.25%. Chemotherapeutic trials of Secnidazole and Nigella sativa were performed on a group of 10 donkeys each (Group A & B) along with keeping 10 donkeys as positive & 10 donkeys as negative control (Group C & D). The animals of group A were treated with secnidazole (Dysen forte) at a dose rate of 10mg/kg orally for one day. The group A Showed the efficacy of 89.51% at day 14th (post treatment). The animals of group B were treated with Nigella sativa (Kalonji) at a dose rate of 200 mg/kg body weight orally for five days. This group showed the efficacy of 40.02% at day 14th after medication. Similarly the effect of B. coli on various blood parameters (Hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) was studied in these animals. At day zero (pre-medication), the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.61 + 0.076, 10.61 + 0.13, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.47 + 0.27, 31.48 + 0.22, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day 14th after medication the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.79 + 0.094, 10.69 + 0.126, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.79 + 0.16, 31.64 + 0.13, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day zero (pre-medication), the hemoglobin and pack cell volume values of groups A, B and C were below the normal (Hb = 11.0 - 11.6 g/dl, PCV (%) = 32 - 33) while of group D were approximately normal. On day 14th (post-medication), there was increase in Hb and PCV values of groups A and B. The Hb and PCV values of group C and D were not changed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1307,T] (1).

65. Bioequivalence Study Of Montelukast Tablets In Healthy Volunteets

by Sadia Amin | Dr. Sualeha Riffat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Objective of this bioequivalence study was to compare pharmacokinetic parameters and to evaluate bioequivalence of two generic drug products. A multinational company brand was compared with locally manufacture brand. It was a randomized, single dose, two-period crossover study in which 12 volunteers were participated with the age limit of 18-30yrs. These volunteers were selected according to different inclusion and exclusion criteria and the study was conducted with one week washout period. Each volunteer was one tablet of montelukast (reference or test) lOmg. 14 blood samples of 4-Sml collected at predefined time intervals i.e, 0, O.S, 1.0, 1.S, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.S, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10, 12 and 24 hours .. Heparinized vacuette were used for collection of blood samples. After sampling, blood samples were centrifuged immediately to separate plasma and stored at -80°C till analyzed. Plasma montelukast concentration was evaluated by using reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate O.OSM at pH 3.5 with orthophosphoric acid in combination to acetonitrile (20:80) was used as mobile phase. The wavelength of detector was set at 34Snm and flow rate was set to 2.0ml per min. Drug from plasma was extracted by de-proteinizing the plasma with acetonitrile. 70 III injection volume was given to HPLC for analysis. For comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters two compartment analysis was used and pair t-test was applied. Non compartmental analysis was used for evaluating pharmacokinetic parameters to evaluate the both drugs were bioequivalent or not. 3 major parameters of bioequivalence Cmax, AVC O-inf and AVC O-t were evaluated and they did not show significant difference in between two formulations. Also the 90% confidence interval values were within the limit. So, it was concluded that both the test and reference drug were bioequivalent and test drug could be used interchangeably with the reference drug. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1311,T] (1).

66. Pharmacoinetic Srudy Of Ketoprofen In Healthy Sheep

by Awais Ali | Dr. Sheryar Afzal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Objective of this bioequivalence study was to compare pharmacokinetic parameters and to evaluate bioequivalence of two generic drug products. A multinational company brand was compared with locally manufacture brand. It was a randomized, single dose, two-period crossover study in which 12 volunteers were participated with the age limit of 18-30yrs. These volunteers were selected according to different inclusion and exclusion criteria and the study was conducted with one week washout period. Each volunteer was one tablet of montelukast (reference or test) 10mg. 14 blood samples of 4-5ml collected at predefined time intervals i.e, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10, 12 and 24 hours. . Heparinized vacuette were used for collection of blood samples. After sampling, blood samples were centrifuged immediately to separate plasma and stored at -80°C till analyzed. Plasma montelukast concentration was evaluated by using reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05M at pH 3.5 with orthophosphoric acid in combination to acetonitrile (20:80) was used as mobile phase. The wavelength of detector was set at 345nm and flow rate was set to 2.0ml per min. Drug from plasma was extracted by de-proteinizing the plasma with acetonitrile. 70 µl injection volume was given to HPLC for analysis. For comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters two compartment analysis was used and pair t-test was applied. Non compartmental analysis was used for evaluating pharmacokinetic parameters to evaluate the both drugs were bioequivalent or not. 3 major parameters of bioequivalence Cmax, AUC 0-inf and AUC 0-t were evaluated and they did not show significant difference in between two formulations. Also the 90% confidence interval values were within the limit. So, it was concluded that both the test and reference drug were bioequivalent and test drug could be used interchangeably with the reference drug. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1312,T] (1).

67. Detection Of Mycoplasma Synoviae By Pcr And Its Histopatholohical Studies In Poutry Breeder In District Abbottabad

by Sajjad Ahmad | Dr. Muti- ur- Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Poultry, an important sub-sector of livestock, has emerged a cheaper source of protein for human consumption. Mycoplasmas are the smallest known bacteria, 300-800 nm in diameter and are capable of replicating outside the cell. Mycoplasma synoviae is a member of the class Mollicutes, order Mycoplasmatales, family Mycoplasmataceae. Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is considered economically to be most important pathogen. Mycoplasma synoviae infections occur in poultry worldwide, affecting poultry and causes diseases like respiratory distress, synovitis and arthritis. Mycoplasma is transmitted from infected to healthy birds both by horizontal and vertical routes. Horizontally disease is transmitted via infected and healthy carrier birds, hatchery, housing, equipments, feeding and during transportation. To have an insight on pathogenesis and reliable diagnostic techniques, the present project was designed to know comparative sensitivity of rapid agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction for MS diagnosis and to study the gross lesion and histopathological changes in chicken joints produced by MS. The birds showing clinical signs that included respiratory i.e. tracheal rales, conjunctivitis, coughing, sneezing, ocular and nasal discharge and infectious synovitis were selected for sample collection. Initially the collected sera samples were examined by Rapid Serum Agglutination test. RSA and PCR tests were used in order to confirm the pathogenic agent. RSA and PCR positive samples were further processed for histopathological study in order to identify the lesions in tissues produced by causative organism. In field visits it was observed that the suspected birds were with pale comb, mild to severe lameness, dull, depressed, ruffled feather, conjunctivitis, oculo-nasal discharge, tracheal rales and greenish or sulfur faeces. Birds hock joints, toe joints and paws pad were swelled. The infected birds were occasionally found with generalized infection. The infected birds complicated with other diseases of poultry such as Newcastle and infectious bronchitis causes infection airsacculitis. Rapid serum agglutination test was conducted at 14 broiler breeder farms. The birds at a farm were showing respiratory and infectious synovitis signs and symptoms, suspected to Mycoplasma synoviae. The tests were performed at the spot. A total of 239 sera samples were examined out of which 63 (26.35%) sera samples were positive for MS. The clinical samples were identified and confirmed as Mycoplasma synoviae infection by PCR. The amplified PCR product was given about 211 bp size while PCR buffer was used as negative control. A total of 213 samples were subjected to PCR and 65 (30.52%) revealed PCR positive results for tracheal swabs, 28.16% (20 samples out 71) showed positive results. For tracheal and lung 33.38 % (24 out of 71) and 29.57% (21 out of 71 samples) were positive, respectively. The PCR test successfully amplified the DNA of MS clinical positive samples. Sixty five out of 213 Mycoplasma synoviae isolates were positive in MS specific PCR while the other 148 samples were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of molecular method Polymerase chain reaction was 100 percent. For histopathological studies the samples of different organs including trachea, lungs, liver, hock joints (articular cartilage, piece of synovial membrane) and foot pad were further processed. The trachea was examined. There was epithelial degeneration, desquamation. congestion, haemorrhages and inflammatory cell infiltration. The lungs were examined and it was revealed that there was marked congestion, haemorrhages, necrosis and mononuclear cells infiltration. Liver showed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Articular cartilage showing chondrocytes degenration. Synovial membrane was thickened due to infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cell. Foot pad showed hyperkaratosis and thickning of epidermis, acanthosis, degeneration of cartilage, infiltration of both mononuclear and plasma cell. It is concluded from findings of present study that PCR is more appropriate technique than RSA for timely diagnosis of Mycoplasma synoviae. However combination of findings of both techniques may be utilized for accurate detection of Mycoplasma synoviae from broiler breeder in district Abbottabad. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1316,T] (1).

68. Study Of Livestock Health Issues And Availability Of Veterinary Services To Pastoral Herds Of Northern Pakistan

by Ahmad Wasim Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Mr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pastoralists contribute great contribution in the economy of the developing world providing food and employment to peoples. In Pakistan pastoralism is also present and the pastoralists having their livestock keeping mobile through all the year upland and lowland. The goal of this research study has been to assess the major health problems in market oriented Livestock development. Although the feed resource and grazing land are quite enough, the research that was carried out in Narran valley reveals of how widespread the diseases are the health problems of livestock. The study indicates Narran valley has a high livestock population, which plays a substantial role in the livelihood of the farmers. In general, livestock is the most important unit of the Agricultural Community in both the market and the households' level. Unfortunately, animal productivity is very low in the area there are many reasons for this, among which is the major obstacle of widespread animal health problems and veterinary services availability. The diseases reported in the herds are the CCPP, FMD, Brucellosis, Small Pox, Liver flukes, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Enterotoxaemia, GID, Tympany, and PPR. These diseases cause heavy economic losses in their herds every year. The veterinary services for the land less pastoralists were not available where their herds were settled. For this research a survey was conducted to get the perceptions of the pastoralists and the veterinary services providers. Questionnaires were made for the pastoralists and veterinary services providers. Results of this study lead to development of a policy for the landless herder's livestock. This was a useful study on the livestock health issues and veterinary services, as no other study has been carried out in Pakistan for the livestock of land less transhumant herders. Additionally this study can become the basis for further research in their livestock. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1318,T] (1).

69. Studies On Cyanide Toxicity In Ruminants

by Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present study was conducted with the objectives to: (a) determine the cyanogenic potential of various livestock fodder and grasses, (b) determine CN? content in blood of ruminants feeding cyanogenic plants, (c) develop a simple, reliable and inexpensive assay for the determination of CN? in blood, (d) evaluate the efficacy of various antidotes against CN? toxicity in a rabbit model, (e) find out the effect of CN? on hematological and biochemical profile, (f) study the postmortem and histopathological changes associated with CN? toxicity in various organs and (g) study alterations in tissue oxygenation and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity in pigs. For this purpose a total of 500 samples of various plants being used as fodder to livestock were collected from the field and analyzed for CN? content spectrophotometerically. To develop a simple picrate method for CN? estimation in blood, two goats were infused with KCN at 0.6mg/kg for 1 hours. Blood samples were collected at intervals and were subjected to the general method. Standard curve was developed using standard solutions of various concentrations of CN?. Additionally 6 rabbits were also given CN? orally for 40 days and blood samples were collected for CN? estimation. Later on, this method was successfully used to determine CN? levels from 500 blood samples of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats (n=125 each) feeding cyanogenic plants which were collected from the field. For antidotal studies forty two rabbits were randomly divided into seven groups viz. A, B, C, D, E, F and G each comprising of six animals. Rabbits in group A were given feed only and served as negative control, while the rabbits in group B received feed plus oral solution of potassium cyanide (KCN) and were positive control. Animals in group C were given feed, KCN and intraperitoneal (IP) injection of garlic extract. Rabbits in group D were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of sodium thiosulfate (STS). Members in group E received feed, KCN and IP injection of both garlic extract and sodium nitrite (SNT). Animals in group F were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of both STS and SNT whereas the rabbits in group G were given feed, KCN and hydroxocobalamin IP. The treatments were given to respective groups for a period of 40 days. At the end of 40 days, serum and fresh urine samples were drawn from each rabbit to study biochemical panel. Subsequently the rabbits were euthanized for postmortem and histopathological changes in various organs. For hematological and growth rate studies 12 rabbits were divided into two groups of six viz. A and B. Rabbits in group A were given feed only while members in group B were treated with feed and oral KCN at 3mg/kg for 40 days. The animals were weighed after every 10 days. Feed consumption rate, feed efficiency and weight gain for the members of each group were recorded. Blood samples were also collected for hematological studies at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. To study tissue oxygen and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity, 26 piglets were anesthetized. The non-invasive monitors were used to measured oxygen saturation, heart rate and rhythm and cerebral response to sedation. The invasive monitors were placed to measured beat to beat variability of the arterial blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressures. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) and cardiac output were continuously monitored. Regional brain O2 (cerebral cortex) and skeletal muscle O2 saturation (rSO2) were also measured via sensors. After getting baseline metabolic and hemodynamic measurements that included arterial and venous blood gas analysis, lactates and cyanide levels, all pigs were started on an infusion of NaCN (0.55 mg/kg/hr). The infusion continued until the occurrence of sustained apnea (?3 minutes). A non-significant difference was found in the CN? content of Sorghum bicolor and S. sudanese, while a significant difference was observed between the CN? content of Jumbo grass (S. bicolor x S. Sudanese hybrid) and S. halepense. Jumbo grass and S. halepense were found to have significantly higher CN? concentrations than S. bicolor or S. Sudanese. Maize has significantly lower CN? content compared to S. bicolor, S. sudanese, Jumbo grass, or S. halepense. A gradual increase in CN? content with increasing height of plants was also observed. Highest CN? levels were observed at heights of 91-100 cm in sorghum varieties. At greater heights, a gradual decrease in CN? content was seen in all plant species, with the lowest levels at heights of 200 cm or above. No CN? was detected in maize at heights over 131 cm. In picrate method, the calibration curve was linear (R2=0.99) in the range of 0.3-120 mg CN?/L. In standard CN? solutions a color change in picrate paper from yellow to brown was observed at a concentration of 3 mg CN?/L and above. This method was sufficiently sensitive to quantify the low concentrations (0.3mg CN?/L) of CN? found in ruminant blood. In goats infused with KCN, the CN? concentration in blood was time-dependent and continued rising during infusion, gradually declining after infusion ceased after 1 h. Blood CN? levels showed a time-dependent increase in all experimental rabbits with the maximum concentration (1.34 mg/L) at day 40. The highest blood CN? concentrations were found in cattle, followed by goats and buffalo, with the lowest in sheep. When blood CN? levels of these species were compared statistically, a non-significant difference was observed. A non-significant difference was found between males and females. No relationship was observed between blood CN? levels and age of the animal for any species. Buffalo, cattle, sheep, and goats allowed to graze showed significantly higher blood CN? levels than animals kept in a stall feeding system. Animals grazing on jumbo grass were found to have significantly higher blood CN? levels than those fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese with a non-significant difference found between animals fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese. No CN? was detected in blood samples of animals fed maize. Hydroxocobalamine was found to be a significantly more effective CN? antidote than garlic, STS, SNT plus garlic extract, or SNT and STS, either alone or in combination. A combination of SNT and garlic extract was the second most effective CN? antidote. The efficacy of garlic alone was significantly higher than STS or SNT in combination with STS. The efficacy of combined SNT and STS was superior to STS alone in treating rabbits with CN? toxicity. No rabbits in any group demonstrated gross deviation from the normal organ structure. The activities of serum ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH enzymes, as well as serum bilirubin, were significantly increased in CN? treated rabbits compared to controls. Severe hepatocyte vacuolation and degeneration were present in liver of rabbits in the CN? treated group. Liver of rabbits in the control group showed normal morphological patterns. The concentrations of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly higher in CN? treated rabbits than in control group. Urinary thiocyanate levels were also significantly higher in the CN? group than in controls. Kidneys of rabbits in the CN? group demonstrated severe glomerular and tubular necrosis and congestion. Pyknotic nuclei were present in tubular epithelial cells, whereas a normal histological pattern was observed in kidneys of rabbits in control group. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly lower in the CN? group compared to controls. A non-significant difference in blood glucose levels was recorded between rabbits in control and CN? treated groups, and histological examination of pancreas revealed no microscopic lesions. No significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol levels of CN? and control group rabbits. The serum albumin and total protein concentration in CN? treated rabbits were significantly lower than in the control group. Heart of rabbits in both CN? and control group did not show histopathological changes under microscopic examination. The erythrocyte count, the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were all found to be significantly lower in blood of CN? treated rabbits than control group. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher in the CN? group rabbits than control group animals. On the other hand, the difference in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets were non-significant. The difference in total and daily feed consumption between CN? and control group rabbits was non-significant, whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than for rabbits in CN? fed group. The net weight gain of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than in the CN? fed group. Cyanide infusion to pigs resulted in toxic levels of blood CN? accompanied by lactic acidosis. In addition, there was a progressive increase in cardiac output, Venous oxygen saturation, heart rate, elevation of central venous pressure and pulmonary artery blood pressure. Skeletal muscle rSO2 progressively and significantly decreased with increasing lactate and CN? levels. However, there was no significant change in brain rSO2. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1322,T] (1).

70. Bioequivalence Study Of Deferiprone In Healthy Volunteers

by Naila Waheed | Dr. Sualeha Riffat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating bioequivalence, relative silability and efficacy of deferiprone manufactured locally (Ferinil, Global aceutical, Pakistan) with a reference drug (Ferriprox, ApoPharma, Canada) in healthy volunteers. It was a randomized crossover study enrolling 12 volunteers within age limit g·55yrs and meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, Each volunteer was administered two tablets of deferiprone 500mg of both reference and test drug with a two- washout period. Blood samples of about 5ml was collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 5,4, 6, 8, 12 hour at predetermined time intervals and one sample was taken as control giving first dose to volunteers. Heparinized vacuette was used for collection of blood les. After sampling, blood samples was centrifuged at approximately 3000 rpm for 10 les and then stored at -80°C till analyzed. Plasma deferiprone levels were analyzed using led High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from plasma concentration time curve non-compartmentally and two- artmental. After logarithmic transformation of data statistical comparisons of Cmax, (0-1), AUC(o.oo) was calculated and appropriate statistical method was used for calculation. mean relative bioavailability was 104% and was proved to be bioavailable. The Cmax (mean ±SD) for reference and test drug was 12.68 ± 4.91 and 14.41 ± 5.04 ug/ml, ctively while average ± SD of AUCO-t and AUCO-inf of test and reference drug was 40.49 6,05 and 42.84 ± 18.47 ugh/ml and 38.63 ± 13.65 and 40.75 ± 14.17 ugh/ml. Average (test/reference) of Cmax 90% CI was 0.9876-1.3125. Average ratio (test/reference) of Co.190% CI was 0.9737-1.1150, and of AUCo-inf 90% CI was 0.9542-1.1343. Therefore both test and reference drug was fairly tolerated by volunteers and no adverse event was detected. Hence, the average ratio of 90% confidence interval of AUCo-t and AUCO-inf was 0.9737-1.1150 and 0.9542-1.1343 that lie within the acceptable limit of (0.80 - 1.25) for bioequivalence acceptance. Effectiveness of deferiprone depends on AUC instead of Cmax therefore the average ratio of 90% confidence interval of Cmax was 0.9876-1.3125 that lie with the acceptable limit of WHO bioequivalence acceptance (0.75 - 1.33). ANOVA show no significant variations among drug, period and sequence effect. Therefore, it was concluded that Ferriprox was proved to be bioequivalent in healthy male Pakistani volunleers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1327,T] (1).

71. Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics In Four Different Varieties Of Native Aseel

by Muhmmad Iqbal | Dr. Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: In Pakistan rural poultry has been playing an important role in the production of eggs and poultry meat. During the year, 2010, the contribution of rural poultry in overall production of eggs and poultry meat in the country has been about 32.15 and 15.38 percent, respectively. However, conservation and genetic improvement of native poultry breeds has been the major problem hindering the development of rural poultry. Aseel is a native rural poultry breed which possesses very good meat production character, however very little research work has been conducted to study its growth and carcass traits. Keeping this in view, the present study was planned to evaluate comparative growth and carcass traits of different varieties of native Aseel. For this purpose 96, day-old Aseel chicks, 24 each of 4 different varieties viz Peshawari, Mianwali, Mushki and Lakha were maintained under standard managemental conditions for a period of 15 weeks according to Completely Randomized Design. The data on weekly body weight gain and feed intake were collected and feed conversion efficiency was worked out. At 12 and 15 weeks of age, carcass characteristics such as dressing percentage, shank length and width, breast length and width, intestinal length and weight and giblet weight were studied The average feed intake (g) of four varieties of Aseel varied significantly (p>0.05) from 1 to 15 weeks of age. The average body weight (g) of four varieties of Aseel was significantly differed at 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 14th and 15 weeks of age. However, non-significant effect was observed at day-old chick and also at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 8th, 9th, 11th and 12th weeks of age. The average of weekly body weight gain (g) of four varieties of Aseel significantly differed at 4th, 5th, 8th, 9th and 10th weeks of age. However, non-significant effect was observed at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th weeks of age. The average of FCR of four varieties of Aseel was varied significantly (p<0.05) at 1st, 4th, 5th, 8th, 9th and 11th weeks of age, however, non-significant effect was observed in 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th, 10th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th weeks of age. The average mean of times weekly body weight gain of four varieties of Aseel significantly varied (p<0.05) at 3rd, 4th, 8th, 9th and 10th weeks of age. Non-significant effects was however observed at 1st, 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th weeks of age. The weekly average mean intake of protein, calories, calcium, phosphorus and fiber in four varieties of Aseel significantly differed (p<0.05) throughout the experimental period from 1-15 weeks of age. The results of this study in respect of carcass characteristics indicate that Aseel males had higher live body weight, weight with viscera, dressed weight, shank length, shank width, than Aseel females at 12 and 15 weeks of age. However non-significant differences were observed among the four varieties of Aseel at both 12 and 15 weeks of age in these parameters. The results indicated that males had higher, gizzard weight (with contents), gizzard weight (without contents), breast width, and breast length, than Aseel females at 12 weeks of age. However, non-significant differences were observed between sexes at 15 weeks of age and also among the four varieties of Aseel at both 12 and 15 weeks of age in the above mentioned parameters. Aseel males also exhibited higher intestinal and proventriculus weights than those of Aseel females at 12 weeks of age, however, non-significant differences were observed between sexes at 15 weeks of age in both these parameters. Significant difference in proventriculus and blood weight was observed among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 weeks of age, whereas, non-significant difference was recorded in proventriculus and blood weight at 15 weeks of age. The results indicated non-significant differences between the sexes at both 12 and 15 weeks of age. Aseel males had higher intestinal length and lungs weight, than that of Aseel females at 15 weeks of age, however, non-significant difference in these parameters was observed between the sexes at 12 weeks of age and also among the four varieties of Aseel at both 12 and 15 weeks of age. Non-significant differences were noted in liver, heart, abdominal fat and spleen weight among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 and 15 weeks of age. Similarly, non-significant difference was observed between the sexes in respect of liver weight and also non-significant difference was recorded in intestinal weight between the four varieties at 12 weeks of age. Whereas, significant differences were observed in these parameters among four varieties of Aseel at 15 weeks of age. Significant difference was observed in abdominal fat percentage among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 weeks of age, however, non-significant differences was found among the four varieties at 15 weeks of age. The sexes differed non-significantly in abdominal fat percentage and also non-significant difference was observed in testes and ovary weight among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 and 15 weeks of age. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1332,T] (1).

72. Determinaton Of Multiple Drug Resistance Against Pasteurella - Multocida Isolates From Cattle And Buffalo In District Naseerabad, Balochistan

by Abdul Salam Baloch | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic Septicemia is one of the major problems from livestock point of view with high morbidity, mortality, loss of production and cost of treatment. The predisposing factors such as high temperature, high humidity and uncontrolled transportation of cattle and buffalo round the clock favor outbreak from time to time in the District Naseerabad, Balochistan. Forty samples were collected aseptically from Cattle and Buffalo and transported for further processing placing temperature 4 0C in to the Laboratory Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Samples were cultured on blood agar for isolation and purification .These isolate were identified macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical profile characteristics test. The antibiotic sensitivity test of Ceftriaxone, Cephaloridine, Trimethoprim, Streptomycin, Cinoxacin, Colistin, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Chloramphenical and Amoxycillin were determined for P. multocida isolates and also observed noticeable resistance against these antibiotics. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed statistically. The aim and objective of present study was to determine multiple drug resistance against Pasteurella multocida so that proper antibiotic for the above said ailment with recommended dosage may be accomplished according to standard dosage. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1333,T] (1).

73. Genetic And Phenotypig Trends In Some Performance Traits Of Kajlli Sheep

by Farman Ullah | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Kajli sheep is one of the native breeds and is found in the irrigated areas of central Punjab (Districts of Sargodha, Khushab, Gujrat, Mandi Baha-ud-Din, and Mianwali). Kajli sheep is mostly raised for mutton, wool and occasionally for milk production. Wide variation exists in various production and reproduction traits of Kajli sheep which indicates a great scope of improvement in these traits of economic importance. Any program of breed improvement is based on maximum exploitation of genetic variation. The potential of genetic improvement largely depends on genetic variation of the trait and its relationship with the other traits. Knowledge of heritability, repeatability and correlations among various traits is essential for formulating efficient breeding plan and selection strategies. Objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of a purebred flock of Kajli sheep maintained at Livestock Experimental Station Khushab and Livestock Experimental Station Khizrabad (Sargodha). Data on performance traits as Birth weight, Weaning weight, Yearling weight and Greasy fleece weight from 1994 to 2009 were collected, An effort was made to determine the effect of all environmental and non genetic factors on the performance of animals. For this purpose LSMLMW computer program was used. The genetic parameters i.e., heritability, and phenotypic and genetic correlations among various traits will be estimated. The breeding values for different traits were estimated for comparative ranking of animals. Phenotypic and genetic trend lines were drawn to assess the selection success in previous generations of Kajli sheep. These analyses were done using DFREML computer soft ware which is s pecially designed for the estimation of variance components. The information so generated will ultimately be helpful in developing future breeding plans for genetic improvement of Kajli sheep in Pakistan. The birth and weaning weight in this flock averaged 4.16±0.0Ikg and 18.70±0.08 kg whereas yearling weight was 37.52±0.06 kg. The pre weaning average daily gain was 142.34±0.83 gms. Birth weight varied significantly due to years, season, sex, type of birth and flock. Data showed non- significant interaction between sex and type of birth. Analysis of variance revealed significant effect of year of birth and season of birth on weaning weight. However, the difference due to sex is non-significant. Type of birth and age of the dam were significant. Effect of weaning age of the lambs on weaning weight was also significant, whereas, birth weight had a non significant effect (P<0.05) on weaning weight. The variation in body weight due to year, sex, and season of birth were significant (P<0.05).Whereas, effect of flock and type of birth were non- significant. Weaning age of the lambs and birth weight had a non significant (P<0.05) effect on yearling weight whereas weaning weights of the lambs had significant effects on the trait under consideration. The analysis of variance revealed that year and season of birth and birth type showed significant effect on pre weaning average daily gain while sex had non-significant effect on the trait. The regressions of weaning weight and birth weight on pre weaning average daily gain were significant (P<O.OI). The estimates of heritability for birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, pre-weaning average daily weight gain, and greasy fleece weight were 0.054±0.019, 0.069±0.016, 0.015±0.020, 0.056±0.016, and 0.170±0.060 respectively. The low heritability estimates indicated the presence of less additive genetic variance and large environmental variance. Hence, improvement in the traits through selection may be limited. The estimated breeding values for Khizerabad farm were, for birth weight from -0.205 to 0.164 kgs in males. The corresponding values were from -0.149 to 0.180 kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.822 kgs in males and corresponding values were from -1.205 to 1.555 kgs in females. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.152 to 0.285kg in males and -0.159 to 0.224kg in females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.194 to 0.212 gms in males and -0.174 to 2.00 gms in females, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.247 to 0.708 kgs and -0.429 to 0.575 kgs in males and females respectively. The estimated breeding values for Khushab farm were, for birth weight from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs in males. The corresponding values were from -0.148 to 0.145 kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.478 to 0.284 kgs in males and corresponding values were from -0.976 to 1.923 kgs in females. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.198 to 0.176 in males and -0.166 to 0.170 in females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.281 to 0.195 gms in males and -0.205 to 0.148 gms in females, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.380 to 0.706 kgs and -0.267 to 0.590 kgs in males and females respectively. The estimated breeding values for sire in Khizerabad farm were, for birth weight ranged from -0.169 to 0.164 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.694 kgs. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.151 to 0.285 kgs. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.190 to 0.212 gms, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.146 to 0.520 kgs. The estimated breeding values for sire in Khushab farm were, for birth weight ranged from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.478 to 2.846 kgs. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was - 0.198 to 0.176 kgs. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.281 to 0.195 gms, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.335 to 0.706 kgs. The genetic trends for birth weight in Kajli sheep showed decreasing trend and phenotypic trend was fluctuating, whereas, the genetic and phenotypic trend for weaning weight showed fluctuating trend. For yearling weight genetic and phenotypic trend was also observed which show fluctuation, pre weaning growth rate also not statistic. The phenotypic trend for greasy fleece yield showed little increasing trend. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1345,T] (1).

74. Comparative Study Of Patent Versus Locally Manufactured Chemotherapeutic Agents Used In Breast Cancer Patients.

by Marriam Sharif | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The pharmaceutical companies produce anticancer drugs after extensive research and development. Number of generics of doxorubicin, fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide has recently been introduced but their clinical efficacy and toxicity has not been documented in comparison to the brand leader product in Pakistan. Objective of this study was to compare the toxicity and efficacy of patent FAC (fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy combination versus local FAC manufactured by Pharmedic laborteries Pakistan. Study was conducted on two groups of patients having 15 patients in each group with breast cancer. Median age was 48 years in group "A" and 47 years in group "B". Patients in group "A" received patent FAC while group "B" received locally manufactured FAC. An inclusion and exclusion criterion was used for patient selection or rejection. Pre-treatment evaluation was done before the start of the chemotherapy. The dosage regimen and route of drug administration was same for both groups. A median number of two cycles of FAC chemotherapy was given in each group. Toxicity was evaluated with special reference to hepatic function, renal function, hematological profile and S-T changes in ECG on day 14 after the execution of FAC combination of chemotherapy and on day 21 before the start of second dose of chemotherapy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE). Partial response was seen in 83% patients of group "A" and 60% in group "B". Two patients had stable disease in group "A" while three patients had stable disease and one patient had progressive disease in group "B". In this small series of patients group "A" patients treated with patent or branded FAC appeared to have better response rate at higher cost than group "B" patients treated with locally manufactured FAC combination of chemotherapy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1357,T] (1).

75. Correlatin Response Of Udder And Body Measurements As Affected By Age And Parity On Milk Contents And Yield In Nili- Ravi Buffaloesin Peri- Urban Areas of Lahore

by Muhammad Salman Khalid | Mr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is diverse specie of domestic livestock and the utmost need of modern dairy farms in developing countries especially where it is indigenous animal as in Pakistan and India. To achieve and enhance the full genetic potential of the animal, first of all, one must be able to select the animal which will seems to have good genetic for the dairy production on the basis of phenotypic characters. As far as. selection of this animal. on the basis of its milk producing unit i.e. udder conformation is concerned has not yet been conducted precisely. Only animals are judged by traditional ways without scientific approach. The core purpose of this study was to select Nili-Ravi dairy buffaloes on the basis of their phenotypic features for commercial purpose. A total of 200 lactating ili-Ravi animals were measured in and around peri-urban areas of Lahore. Out of 200 animals 4, 32, 63, 53, 34 and 14 were belonging to first, second, third, fourth, fifth and Sixth lactations, respectively. The animals found in different lactation stages. 47 (23.5%) were in first. 76 i.e. 38% were in second and 77(38.5%) were present in their third lactation stage. The mean and standard deviation of udder length in first to sixth lactation were 57.0 3.05cm, 62.4 1.08cm, 63.6±0.98cm, 65.9±0.95 em, 66.1±1.17 ern and 62.7±2.41 em, respectively. Whereas, measurements of udder depth in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes ranged in six lactations from 13.3±3.05 cm,10.7±0.37 ern. IO.8±0.20 em, 14.7±2.64cm. 11.11:0.22 ern andl0.5±0.40clll respectively .. Udder width of lactating buffaloes in first six parities was 23.9±0.6 cm, 28.0:1..3.2 em, 28.3 4.2 ern, 29.2±4.6 cm, 31.6± 3.2 ern and 30.7±1.3cm respectively. The size of milk vein in from parity one to six was 5.6±0.7 ern, 6.6±1.1 ern, 7.3±1.2 ern, 7.4±1.6 ern, 8.1±0.8 cm and 7.9±O.77 em respectively. The average udder length, udder depth. udder width and milk vein in all lactations were found to be 64.2±0.52cm, I 0.9±0.14 ern, 29.1 0.29cm and 7.4±0.1 ern respectively. Bowl shaped udder was found in 156 animals (78%), whereas only 39 out of 200 (19.5%) had round and only five animals got goaty shaped udders i.e.2.5%. The average teat length and teat diameter in all parities under study were 9.6±0.86 ern and 4.08±0.046 ern, respectively. Whereas, average distance between both fore teats was found 14.4±0.23cm. between rear teats 6.3±0.13cm and between fore and rear teats of right and left side were 6.4±0.13cm and 6.4±0.13cmrespectively. 89% (178/200) Nili- Ravi animals in the peri-urban areas of Lahore were found to have cylindrical shaped teats. Whereas only eight animals (4%) have bottle and fourteen animals (7%), was having funnel shaped teats. Average Heart Girth. Body Length and Body Height of lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were found to be 203.2'10.77 em, 147.3 0.71 em and 140.2± I.06cm. The mean distance between the two pin bones and hook bones of the body were 30.2±0.26 em and 56.9±0.32 em, whereas, mean body depth found in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes was 83.2±1.23 ern. The average scoring given to the different parts and overall body in the study were: Tail Head: 22.5±0.02; Ribs and Sacral region: 3.1±0.018; Angularity of Bones: 3.1±0.01; and Overall BCS: 2.9±0.0 17. The average fat%, protein%, SNF%, lactose% and solids (ash) % were 5.98±l.S, 3.3±O.2, 8.67±O.5, 4.58±O.3 and O.83±0.04 respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1358,T] (1).

76. Antiviral And Cytotoxiv Oroperties Of Solybum Marianum Chenopodium Album And Nigella Sativa Against Peste Des

by Abid Ali | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1361,T] (1).

77. Comparative Performance Of Lohi Lambs Supplemented With Lucerne (Medicago Sativa) Hay And Pelleted Diets In Addition

by Abdul Raziq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Mr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Animal feed resources are still deficient in total digestible nutrients (28.62 million tons) and digestible protein (1.76 million tons). To meet the requirement of animal, there is need to properly conserve the flush season growth of Rabi fodder like berseem and alfalfa in their . different physical forms. Lucerne pallets are economical feed supplement to fulfill protein and energy requirements of grazing lambs. Feeding management study was conducted to evaluate the different physical forms of lucerne in eighteen extensive grazing male Lohi lambs having approximately same body weight. Lambs were fed on individual basis on three experimental diets designated as A, Band C having extensive grazing, chopped lucerne hay, Lucerne hay pellets respectively. Each lamb was also given concentrate ration @ 0.5% of body weight on dry matter basis. The data on daily feed intake, weekly gain, feed digestibility, feed efficiency and economics was recorded. Samples of feed were analyzed by official method of analysis. Mean daily dry matter intake of Lohi lambs kept on treatments A, B and C was 820.88 ± 13.22,905.19 ± 13.83 and1010.24 ± 15.34 g, respectively. The dry matter intake difference was highly significant (P< 0.001) between treatments and weight gain on daily bases in lambs was 82.89 ± 0.27, 91.74 ± 0.40 and 119.49 ± 0.44g in treatment A, B and C, respectively. Group C is highly efficient consuming 8.49 kg dry matter for 1 kg of weight gain following group B consuming 9.86 kg dry matter for 1kg weight gain. Group A showed lower efficiency as it consumes 9.90kg dry matter for one kg of weight gain. It was highly economical to feed Lucerne pellets with grazing with a gross margin of Rs.13.75/animal/day followed by extensive grazing with a gross margin of Rs.11.15/animal/day. Lowest gross margin of Rs.11.12/animal/day was shown by the lambs kept on extensive grazing. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1364,T] (1).

78. Sero Epidemiology Transmission Dynamics And Hematological Studies On Neospora Caninum In Dairy Buffaloes

by Amir Nasir | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The current study was carried out in two districts of the Punjab province (pakistan), viz. Lahore and Narowallocated;on the eastern part of the province bordering Indian Punjab ::. and the first study assessing the epidemiology of N caninum in dairy buffalo in Pakistan. Overall, the true sercprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy buffalo (assessed by using cELISA validated for buffalo by using IFAT as reference test) of the two districts was 39.4 % - with no significant difference in the prevalence of N caninum antibodies between male (29.5%) and female (41.5%) dairy buffalo. However, in the Lahore district alone, the prevalence in the female (46.1 %) buffalo was significantly higher than in their male (23.8%) counterparts. In contrast, in Narowal district, the prevalence in male (42.4%) buffalo was higher than females (32.2%) but this difference was not statistically different. The other risk factors evaluated in regards to the prevalence of N caninum in buffalo were similar overall in both the districts; these included age-specific, season-specific, pregnancy-specific, parity- specific, abortion-specific and dog contact-specific prevalence. The difference in sero- prevalence was not significant amongst all the ages but was significant between the younger " 3yrs.) and adult (> 3yrs.) age buffalo. The adult buffalo showed a higher prevalence of N caninum antibodies compared with younger buffalo. Anyhow, the age group of buffalo >3-5 yrs. showed consistently the highest prevalence of N caninum antibodies overall and in both the districts in the current study. The summer season was the one in which buffalo of the two districts and overall showed the highest prevalence, followed by high prevalence in autumn; while the lowest prevalence of N caninum antibodies was observed in buffalo sampled during the winter. The prevalence in the higher parities buffalo was significantly higher than the lower parity and pregnant heifers. The prevalence in pregnant dams was significantly higher than in non- pregnant buffalo in the herds in different areas of the two districts. Similarly, aborting buffalo in regular contact with dogs- at the dairy properties showed significantly higher prevalence of N. caninum antibodies than non-aborting buffalo without the contact of dog. The serological analysis-of dogs (using cELIS A) present at some dairy buffalo '" properties generally showed high prevalence of N. caninum; antibodies at the dairy properties where the buffalo were in regular contact with dogs compared with farm premises and their buffalo without any contact with dogs at the farm. This signifies the roleof the dogs in the - . transmission of N. caninum oocysts and infection to buffalo (intermediate host) as the isolates of dog and bovine origin has been reported to be identical (Stenlund et al., 1997). The analysis of milk samples from the dairy buffalo. also tested for serum antibodies using iscom (immune stimulating complex) ELISA and showed a good level of agreement (Kappa ratio=O.567) between the performance of two tests (iscom ELISA versus cELISA). However, the cELIS A (VMRD, Pullman, W A) showed higher sero-positivity compared to iscom ELISA (SV ANOV A, Uppsala, Sweden). Therefore, the use of either ELISA used on milk for evaluating the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in buffalo can give good results . for lactating buffalo, but cELIS A appeared to have superior sensitivity in our study. The use of iscom ELISA offers advantages regarding ease of sampling and repeated screening of lactating herds but with little lower sensitivity than serum antibody cELISA. The co-existence of N. caninum with Br. abortus, another important abortifacient pathogen in buffalo, is quite significant as the probability of such infectious abortions is increased in the susceptible herds resulting in more economic losses compared to those caused by single pathogen. The co-existence of Br. abortus in N. caninum seropositive buffalo in the current study was 13.2%, while the overall prevalence of Br. abortus antibodies in buffalo of two districts was 12.2%. The prevalence trend of Bt: abortus was related to age, ~ though not exclusively; as prevalence continued to increase with age except in the age groups of 6-7 yrs, and> 7 yrs. old buffalo. The higher prevalence in the adult age groups indicates the association of Br. abortus with development of the reproductive system of the host (buffalo). It also suggests the increase in the exposure of the buffalo to the pathogen with increase.in age to some good extent. However, this prevalence was statistically not signific~ "0. in all the age groups of buffalo. The prevalence of co-existence was highest (18.5%) in -, buffalo >3-5 yrs. old followed by 18.2% in buffalo >7 yrs. age. Howe er, statistically, the difference in the prevalence of co-existing antibodies against N caninum and Br. abortus in buffalo was not significant. Hematological analysis of the N caninum sere-positive and sero-negative dairy buffalo for different haematological determinants, such as total leukocytic counts (TLC), differential leukocytic counts (DLC), RBCs, haemoglobin, haematocrit, platelets and blood plasma glucose level showed no difference in sero-positive and sero-negative two groups particularly, regarding the effect of sero-positivity in buffalo. Albeit, some interactions such as season x N caninum seropositivity showed significantly lower monocyte counts and high blood glucose level in N caninum sere-positive buffalo compared with sero-negative buffalo. Overall, in both groups no significant changes were observed in the seropositive buffalo compare to sero-negative ones. Some interaction have independently affected certain haematological parameters although, the animals were not seropositive. This suggests the effect of some environmental factors and physiology states of the buffalo on its haematological dynamics. These effects included the effect of lactation on the lymphocyte count in the lactating and non-lactating buffalo, where lymphocyte counts were higher in non-lactating compared with lactating buffalo most possibly due to the recruitment of lymphocytes in the udder for excretion in milk. Similarly, blood haemoglobin was lower in the hot months and packed cell volume was higher in the cooler months of the year in the buffalo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1366,T] (1).

79. Sheep Breeding Options And Role Of Support Services For Landless Mobile Herders In Norther Pakistan

by Muhammad Mudussir | Dr. Jalees Ahmad Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Northern areas of Pakistan are blessed with countless natural resources. One of these resources is small ruminants including sheep and goat. This study was done on sheep population of up and low land areas. This study was designed to investigate the breeding practices followed, perceptions about different breeding strategies by the low and upland pastoralists and support services provided by the livestock promoting authorities (JABA research & experimental station and Local veterinarians). By the help of this study productive, economical and ecological adaptation characteristics of native (Kaghani), exotic (Rambouillet, Afghani) and crossed sheep breeds were also be examined. For this purpose three questionnaires were developed. First questionnaire were carry questions on current number, number in last year and relative proportion of different sheep breeds on breeding strategies, productive characteristics, ecological adaptation and economical characteristics of different pure and cross breeds of sheep. While the investigations on support services provided by the livestock promoting authorities (JABA research & experimental station and Local veterinarians) were covered in second questionnaire. Interviews were be conducted from the low and up land pastoralists for the data recording of first questionnaire, while data recording of third questionnaire was done by interviewing the livestock promoting authorities. Statistical analysis of all the data recorded was done by epi - info software. The studied parameters presented by various breeds in this experiment elucidated the fact that Afghani breed could be regarded as most economical and successfully adapted breed of the Northern areas of Pakistan in respect of its market value, disease resistance, twining rate, age at puberty and meat quality. The Kaghani breed on the other hand was having an advantage of being native breed of the respective area as it presented one of the best disease resistant characters among the studied breeds; for the same reason, it was the most prevalent breed of the area. Ramboullite is an exotic breed introduced in the area from USA and was kept mostly for having a trait of better and high wool production though its poor disease resistance and low twinning rate renders it less economical. The crossbred animals were produced mostly as a result of deliberate cross between Kaghani and Ramboulette and the maximum heterosis results in many of the better characters, increased wool quantity and quality, increased disease resistance and accelerated twinning rates, to name some of them. The present study can be concluded to rate Afghani sheep breed as most economical breed of the Northern areas of Pakistan. This study was lead to explore the breeding practices in sheep in northern areas and future breeding policies making in sheep. The investigators of this trial opine that the Afghani breed being most economical breed of the area be bred and reared on a priority basis with selective breeding and proper management of the parent herds. In context of the wool production and disease resistance, crossbred animals should be investigated in a number of future trials to determine the most productive combination of blood percentage of the two parent breeds, i.e. Kaghani and Ramboullette. In spite of all the measures to improve economical scenario of the mobile herders with reference to sheep production, the gene pool of each pure breed population, i.e. Afghani, Kaghani and Ramboulette, should be maintained via selective breeding to ensure the availability of the parent nucleus. All these healthy and economical practices can be propagated only by the effective and efficient provision of the extension and support services of the local area, implementation authorities and livestock business related institutions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1367,T] (1).

80. Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Cattle

by Farhan Ahmad Atif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr..Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. The current project was designed to estimate the prevalence of anaplasmosis, ticks and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale among cattle in Sargodha, Khushab and Rawalpindi districts, Punjab, Pakistan. Moreover, haematological changes in A. marginale infected cattle and efficacy of chemosterilization regimens were evaluated using locally available drugs for the elimination of adult naturally infected carrier cattle. A total of 1050 blood, serum and tick specimens were collected from randomly selected small holders (n=90) and private livestock farms (n= 12) using multistage cluster random sampling technique. A total of 30 union councils, 34 cattle farms (30 small holders and 4 livestock farms) and 350 cattle were selected as primary, secondary and elementary sampling units from each district. Sampling unit was indigenous and crossbred cattle of both the sexes. Microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood mears revealed an overall prevalence of blood parasites as 21.14%. Anaplasma marginale was the highe t prevalent (5.81 %) haernoparasite of cattle followed in order by Theileria sp. (5.14%) and Babesia bigemina (4.76%), respectively. Crossbred cattle were more susceptible to TBDs as compared to the indigenous cattle. Highest prevalence of TBDs was recorded in summer. The prevalence of tick-transmitted diseases was higher in small holders (31.3%) than private livestock farms (17.5%). Chi square analysis indicated a significant association (P<0.05) among indigenous and crossbred cattle to selected TBDs. Wherea. non- significant association between different age groups, seasons, sex and farm sizes were revealed. The overall seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle using cELlSA was 31.05%. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred cattle of more than 4 years of age and there was a significant (P<O.OO I) association between different age groups and breed. The seroprevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in summer season in Sargodha and Khushab districts. Moreover, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in small holders in all study districts. The epidemiological data and relevant information regarding area, host and farm management factors were collected on a questionnaire through interview from each dairy farmer, attendant or manager from September, 2009 to August, 20 10. Multivariate analysis of risk factors revealed that cattle of more than 4 year of age (OR=5.42), heavy tick infested (OR =2.10), crossbred (OR = 1.59) cattle were significantly at higher risk for seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale. Presence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (OR=3.70), use of ivermectin (OR=3.97), moderate interval of acaricide frequency (OR= 16.50), stall feeding (OR=4.90) and use of unhygienic needles (OR=24.00) were significantly associated with seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale in cattle (P<0.05). The Sargodha district was at higher risk (OR = 1.81) as compared to Khushab and Rawalpindi. The tick species identified from cattle were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguine us, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. The overall prevalence of tick infestation among cattle was 54.76%. The highest prevalence (57.71%) of cattle tick infestation was tick infested sites in cattle followed by dewlap (92%), inner thighs (90%), neck & back (54%), tail (26%), ears (13%), around eyes (10%), flanks (4%) and legs (2%). The haematological changes were studied at different levels of parasitaemia " 7%, >7-15% and> 15%) in Anaplasma marginale infected Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. There was a significant difference (P<O.OS) among total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) at different levels of rickettsemia in both breeds. ignificant difference (P<O.OS) was noticed among RBCs, PCV and MCH blood parameters between Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. A total of sixty Anaplasma marginale seropositive adult Sahiwal cattle were selected having their ages between 3-4 years ranging in weight from 246-341 kg. The animals were divided in four groups designated as OXY -group-I, E RO-group-II, IMC- group-III and control-group-IV, comprising IS animals each. The seropositive animals received oxytetracycline (22 mglkg IV once in a day for five days), enrofloxacin (S mglkg IV once in a day for five days) or imidocarb (S mglkg 1M twice, 7 days apart). Re ult of chemosterilization study indicated that oxytetracycline 13/1S (86.67%) and irnidocarb dipropionate II/IS (73.33%) eliminated Anaplasma marginale infection in adult naturally infected carrier cattle on S6th day. The carrier clearance was confirmed by cELISA followed by subinoculation of blood in seronegative splenectomized calves. It was concluded that TTBDs are widely distributed in Punjab, Pakistan. Host. management and area factors are involved with the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Haemolytic anaemia is the major haematological finding of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Oxytetracycline is more effective and safe In chemosterilization of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. There is a need for country wide epidemiological studies on ticks and TBDs using advanced serological and molecular techniques. Moreover, the identification of the potential vector of anaplasmosis should be required for the effective prevention and control of anaplasmosis in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1368,T] (1).

81. Incidence And Therapeutic Trails Of Sub Clinical Ketosis In Cows In And Around Lahore

by Muhammad Ramzan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr.. Muhammad sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Subclinical ketosis is preclinical stage of ketosis. The peak incidence of subclinical ketosis occurs during the fourth week of lactation. There are indications that cows with the highest milk yield directly after calving are at greatest risk for developing ketosis. Subclinical ketosis causes delayed reproductive functions, increased intervals from calving to first and last service, and an increased frequency of ovarian cysts. The study was designed to diagnose the Subclinical ketosis on the basis of Ross Rothra's method. This method was easy to conduct and can be able to perform at the farm. The purple color indicated the presence of ketone bodies in the sample. After diagnosis the treatment trails was done on three different treatment methods comprises of Dextrose, Dexamethasone and by increasing the diet. Total 200 cow were studied for the diagnosis of subclinical Ketosis. Total positive samples of subclinical ketosis were 62 and the overall Incidence of Subclinical Ketosis in was 31 % and in sheikhupura and Raiwind areas it was 35% & 27 respectively. The results indicates that the use of dexamethasone was very effective and it cured 84%,dextrose cured 64% ,and by the diet it was 25%.Although, dexamethasone was very effective but it also reduced the milk production in very next day after the administration of drug while, the dextrose shows no any reduction in milk production. The animals who received only green fodder as ration showed very positive results for subclinical ketosis while, the animals who received a concentrated diet with green fodder they showed very little presence of subclinical ketosis. Prevention of subclinical ketosis can be done by providing extra ration to pregnant animals and during pregnancy give them pregnancy allowance and by effective managemental practices the effects of subclinical ketosis can be minimized. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1369,T] (1).

82. Descriptive Epidemiological Study Of Cancer Patients Registered At Mayo Hospital, Lahore

by Tamseela Naseem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The objective of this study were to report the distribution and pattern of various cancers in Mayo hospital of Lahore over a period of last 5 years and to determine the age and gender distribution of the various reported Cancer cases in the above mentioned teaching hospital of Lahore. This research project was planned to study the epidemiology of various types of cancer among population of Pakistan. For the design of study a descriptive study based on passive surveillance system was planned. The data of cancer patients were collected from the Mayo Hospital a Teaching Hospital of Lahore. To meet the objective of this study we took data from Mayo Hospital, based on previous five years (from 2006-2010). Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 16 by researcher herself. Quantitative variable like age was presented in form of mean ± SD with respect to type of cancer and year. The qualitative variable like gender, type of cancer etc were presented in form of frequency tables and appropriate charts. Chi square analysis was used to see the association between qualitative attributes. Analysis of variance was used to see the mean age of different types of carcinomas. Independent sample t-test was used to see the mean age in different gender. In this study there were total 12096 cancer patients registered at Mayo hospital Lahore in period of last five years from 2006 to 2010. Out of which, 2305(19.1%), 2182(18.0%), 2293(19.0%), 2315(19.1%) and 3001(24.8%) patients were registered in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Out of total 12096 cancer patients, there were 5766(47.87%) males and 6330(52.13%) females. Of the 12096 patients diagnosed with malignant cancers, nearly 11827 (98.5%) belonged to the province of Punjab and approximately 45 (0.4%) to the NWFP, 111 (0.9%) belonged to Azad Jammu Kashmir, 27 (0.2%) belonged to Karachi and 13 (0.1%) belonged to Quetta. There were 2988 patients of breast and female genital carcinomas registered, out of which 592 patients were registered in 2006, 487 patients were registered in 2007, 583 were in 2008, 611 in 2009 and 715 were registered in 2010. Registered patients with carcinoma of digestive organs were 2071 in which there were 374 were in 2006, 385 were in 2007, 374 in 2008,418 in 2009 and 520 in 2010. Lymphoid heamatopietic were 1589 in which 293 were from 2006,322 were from 2007,302 were from 2008, 284 were from 2009 and 388 were from 2010. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1370,T] (1).

83. Descriptive And Therapeutic Trial Of Iron Supplements (Standard Drug And Herbal) In Anemic Pregnant Women

by Maria Ikram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: This study was carried out in two phases; in first phase descriptive epidemiologic study was done in pregnant females living around district Okara. List of a total 101154 pregnant females was obtained from Health office OKARA. Hemoglobin level of each subject was assessed and prevalence of anemia in pregnant women was observed 42.15%. From village 1141., 88 44%) pregnant women were enrolled, from 25 GD village 74(37%) pregnant women were enrolled and from 36/2L village 38 (19%) pregnant women were enrolled. in phase II, experimental epidemiological study was conducted to compare the efficacy Sharbat- e-Iolad (Treatment groups) with Ascifer (standard group). Sample Size of 200 patients was enrolled with 100 subjects in each group. SPSS 16.0.2 was used for data entry and analysis. Mean ± S.D was used to present the data. Two way repeated measures ANOVA was used to see the effects of treatments in the significance of Hemoglobin levels at different follow ups. Mean age of the mothers in group A was 27.16 ± 4.97 years and in group B it was 26.07 ± 4.78 years. The age range of the patients was 17 to 38 years. Mean Hb level in Group-A was 6.89 & 6.87 in Group-B at base line. Mean Hb level after first follow up (after 3 weeks from base line) in Group-A mean Hb level was 7.34 and in Group-B it was 7.26. After second follow up (after 6 weeks) mean Hb level in Group-A was 8.81 and in Group-B it was 8.50. In both Groups Hb level was significantly improved (p-value = 0.000). I-Ib level was significantly improved in both study groups with equal effects. In future any of the treatment may be used for the treatment of anemia but Sharbt-e-Folad is recommended due to its cheap cost and accessible availability in rural areas. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1371,T] (1).

84. Epidemiological Trends, Clinical Profile And Risk Factors Associated With Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever In Quetta, Balochistan

by Khushal Khan Kasi | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Crimean congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an important disease in suburbs of Quetta in particular, and other cities of Balochistan in general. The cases of this disease are brought to the public hospital for treatment purposes. The study was carried out to understand the descriptive nature of the disease with respect to geographic, temporal and personal distribution. The second part of study comprised of cross sectional as well as case-control study for the identification of different risk factors in patients as compared to their control admitted in the same hospitals. The highest numbers of CCHF cases were from Quetta i.e. 35, 82 cases were male and 19 cases of female, small scale sheep and goat farmer has highest number of cases i.e, 59. Mean age for male patients was 30.82±15.47 years, while for female patients mean age was 29.17±16.40 years with a p-value= 0.685. Mean platelet count for male and female patients was 450n.29±35934.14 and 35388.89±18081.96 respectively with a p-value= 0.270. Mean Hemogobin level for male and female patients was 11.52±2.78 and 9.80±3.23 respectively, and with a p-value=O.023. Among the patients, 5 patients were positive for IgG and IgM antibodies, 9 patients were having A+ blood group, 44 with B+, 16 with 0+, 1 with AB+ and 29 was not reported, 21 patients died and the remaining patients discharged, and the highest number of cases were between April and September. A significant association exist between platelet count with respect to cases who suffered from CCHF (p-value= 0.000), male were 1.157 times more prone to CCHF as compared to female (OR=1.157), (p-value=0.629) and (CI=0.641-2.089), and animals at home have has more susceptibility to CCHF cases (OR=3.538), (p-value=O.OOO) and (CI=2.219-5.642). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1377,T] (1).

85. Chemotheraph Of Ancylostomiasis In Cats In Lahore.

by Awais Bokhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Nisar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: It has been a long time since the affection of cats is with human beings. Cats have recorded as most adoptable pet of the modern world. Cats can be found anywhere in the world. Many diseases of cats are zoonotically important and they may cause zoonotic problem in human and mainly these pathogen are involved in enteric problems. The relationship of feline with human does provide many benefits to them but also act as a cause of zoonotic diseases. A total of 300 fecal samples were collected from cats and were examined in the Clinical Medicine Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The positive samples for Ancylostoma were 65 out of 300, indicating prevalence of Ancylostomiasis was 21.66%. For the chemotherapeutical trails 18 positive cats and 6 healthy cats were divided into four groups viz. A, B, C and D with 6 animals in each group. The cats of group A were treated with Pyrantel Pamoate @ 20mg/kg orally. The cats of Group B were treated with the Albendazole @ 50mg/kg orally. The cats of Group C were kept as positive control while the cats of Group D were kept as negative control. The fecal samples were collected on day 0 pre-treatment and then on day 7th, 14th and 21st of post-treatment. The efficacy of the drugs was calculated on the basis of reduction of the eggs count from the fecal samples on the respective days. The efficacy of Pyrantel Pamoate on these days was 43.47%, 67.39% and 94.20% respectively, against Ancylostoma. The efficacy of Albendazole on these days was 30.77%, 60.44% and 86.81% respectively, against Ancylostoma. Thus it was recorded that Pyrantel Pamoate was more effective against Ancylostoma than Albendazole as it caused more reduction of the egg count than albendazole. Hematological study showed that the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count were lower in groups A, B and C as compared to non-infected control group. The values of total leukocyte count were higher in group A, B and C as compared to non-infected group. As a result of treatment in group A and B, the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte gradually increased while that of total leukocyte count gradually decrease on day 7th, 14th and 21st post-medication. It has been observed during the present study that Pyrantel Pamoate and Albendazole showed their positive effect on blood parameters as a result of Ancylostomiasis with more efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate as compared to that of Albendazole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1391,T] (1).

86. Effect Of Different Growth Promoters On Feed Intake And Growth Performance Of Male Buffalo Calves

by Ahtasham Atta | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pakistan is second largest buffalo holding country in the world having 29 million buffalo. Traditional system of buffalo meat production is inefficient; animals destined for slaughter are mostly culled and old stock. Male calves are not reared specifically for producing meat but they are kept only for milk let down in villages and are slaughtered even at 6-7 days of age in peri- urban areas. So far very little work has been done to evaluate the tremendous meat production potential of buffalo calves with a particular plan of nutrition. Present study related to the use of a growth promoters treatment trial of about three months in duration to further accelerate the meat production. Twenty Nili-Ravi calves of approximately the same age and weight were selected for the research purpose. The animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D), which were given four different treatment, such as, Ralgro, Boostin-250, M2 Hormone and control (non implanted) for group A, B, C and D respectively. The basal diet consisted of concentrate ration @ 1% of body weight along with chaffed green fodder ad lib. In each group, feed offered and refusal was recorded on individual basis. The results of study revealed that animals given M2 Hormone performed better as compared to other treatment groups. Among four treatment groups, highest (43.4 ± 12.00 kg) weight gain was observed in M2 Hormone group while, lowest (35.4 ± 12.5 kg) weight gain was found in control group. As far as feed intake is concerned, highest (429.79 ± 28.22 kg) feed intake was observed in Ralgro group while, lowest (412.83 ± 50.56 kg) feed intake was found in M2 Hormone group. Out of four experimental groups, calves of M2 Hormone group showed best feed conversion ratio (12.40 ± 3.01) while, the feed conversion ratio in calves of Ralgro, Boostin-250 and Control group was 12.79 ± 1.99, 14.14 ± 5.87 and 14.43 ± 2.54 respectively. Economic analysis per kg weight gain revealed that M2 Hormone group had the lowest cost of production in rupees (110.23 ± 3.79) per kg weight gain, where as highest cost of production (136.63 ± 4.72) was found in control group. On the basis of the results of this study it is concluded that M2 Hormone can be utilized as an alternate for our conventional fattening practices as it can increase body weight gain. The additional benefit of this compound is that it can be given in feed and does not have to be injected or implanted in the body. It is suggested that further trials with M2 Hormone be carried out on different age and sex groups of buffalo and cattle in order to evaluate its effects on the performance of the animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1401,T] (1).

87. Socio-Demographical And Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated With The Diseases Of Senior Citizens of Jhelum City

by Muhammad Shahzad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Research on geriatric diseases is scarce in Pakistan. This endeavor was planned to establish a baseline data for common geriatric diseases found in lhelum, Pakistan. This study reveals the prevalence of geriatric diseases in elderly people in lhelum, Pakistan. Our first objective was to collect and interpret the baseline data about prevalent diseases among the old aged people. Our second objective was to describe the socio- demographic and epidemiological risk factors associated with the diseases of elderly population of lhelum city. In order to study the risk factors associated with geriatric diseases, a geographical cluster of lhelum was selected. The study area was Tehsil lhelum which comprises of 400,000 individuals. Tehsil lhelum is further divided into 16 union councils. In this epidemiological study, multistage sampling was performed. At first step by purposively sampling, union council number 14 of Tehsil lhelum was selected which was comprising of all socioeconomic classes of our community. At second step, by using random sampling technique, home-to-home visits were done. The data was collected on pre-tested questionnaire. The data was collected by face-to-face interviews. The pre- tested questionnaire contained variable factors and questions regarding age, gender, socio economic status, education level, exercising, smoking, marital status, walk before the age of 60 years, walk after the age of 60 years, present and past employments, financial status, use of edible oils in the past, number of children and social life. Futhermore, Information was collected regarding working of different body systems like Central Nervous system, Cardio-vascular system, Digestive system, Urogenital system, Respiratory system, ENT system, Musculo-skeleton system etc. Along with system-information, name of disease of the impaired system was also asked. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS-version 16. This present interview based study reflects the prevalence of geriatric morbidities in geriatric population of Jhelum city. In the current study, impairment of digestive system (28%), cardio-vascular system (23%) and musculo-skeletal system (21 %) was on the top of the list. Impairment of digestive system was found in a good proportion among senior citizens followed by Cardio-vascular system, musculoskeletal system, centra nervous system, respiratory system, uro-genital system and E.N.T. system. Diabetes mellitus, blood pressure related problems and arthritis are the most frequent diseases. So, vwe should try to educate the people about these diseases. As compared to other studies around the globe, our geriatric population is possessing comparatively better health. Walk before the age of 60 years and walk after the age of 60 years is helpful for health. The people who used to walk more than five kilometers usually remained healthier in theelderly. Economic status, use of edible oils and social life is also associated with health of elderly people. So, there is need to promote the habit of walk in the elderly population and in young population. Disease prevention is the most cost-effective method for the maintenance of optimal level of health in elderly population. We should understand that many of the geriatric diseases are preventable. Preventive measures can be applied during the various stages of disease progression in order to either slow or stop the process of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1404,T] (1).

88. Epidemiology Of Major Transbuondary Diseases Of Livestock In Nomads Herds Of District Buner

by Farman Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The research project was carried out in the livestock of nomads in District Bunere to study the epidemiology of major trans-boundary livestock diseases including foot and mouth diseases 9FMD) in buffaloes and cattle and Peste des Petite Ruminants (PPR) and Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in sheep and goats. A questionnaire was designed for collecting data regarding morbidity, mortality & case fatality rate in different seasons in the animals of nomads migrate from Afghanistan to Pakistan. Serosurveillance was also conducted by collecting 600 blood samples from the apparently healthy sheep and goats, cattle and buffaloes in the summer season. A total number of 100 nomads were interviewed by systematic random sampling method and sera were collected to test the antibodies against FMDV and PPRV. The serum samples in labeled eppendorph tubes were stored in deep freezer till the sent to lab in ice container. These samples were transported to National Veterinary Laboratory Islamabad, where cattle and buffalo's sera were examined by using 3ABC-ELISA & sheep and goat's sera were analyzed by C-ELISA to detect antibody ofPPRV, respectively. Similarly 60 nasal swabs of sheep and goats collected and examined in Veterinary Research Institute Lahore, by culturing method. The data were collected and analyzed statistically by using SPSS (16.00). Means, Chi square values, P-Vlues and percentages were calculated. The overall prevalence of CCPP was 18.3% while individually 3.3% in sheep and 15 % in goats. The prevalence in goat (15%) was higher than that of sheep (3.3%) with insignificant difference and no significant association between CCPP disease and species of sheep/goat of nomads. Similarly age wise prevalence of CCPP in young (sheep and goats) was 10% which was higher than that of adult (8.3%) with significant association between CCPP disease and age of sheep and goat. Similarly gender wise prevalence was 6.66% in male and 11.6% in female (sheep and goats) with no significant association between CCPP disease results and gender of sheep and goats. The peculiar signs of CCPP were recorded retrospectively, including pneumonic coughing, mucopurulent nasal discharges, fever and abortion in sheep and goats in autumn season in Pakistan and in winter season in Afghanistan respectively. The 10.5% mortality rate, 82% morbidity rate and 12.8% case fatality rate of CCPP in autumn season were recorded in sheep respectively. While 92% morbidity, 12.5% mortality and 13.5% case fatality rate were recorded in goats in autumn, respectively. The mortality, morbidity and case fatality rate were 6.5%, 66%, and 9.8% in sheep in winter season. Similarly mortality, morbidity and case fatality rate in goats due to CCPP in winter season were8%, 89.5% and 8.97%, respectively. The prevalence in both the species were higher in autumn season than that of winter season and zero prevalence were recorded in rest of the seasonsretrospectively. The night stay with crowding of livestock near streams and springs, night fog, morning dew, cold seasons and common travelling and grazing premises were recorded as risk factors for CCPP. The serosurveillance for FMD was conducted and overall seroprevalence of FMD was 32% and individually 12% in buffaloes and 20% in cattle respectively with no significant association and both the species were equally susceptible to FMDV. Gender wise seroprevalence in male and female cattle and buffaloes were 12% and 34 % respectively with no significant association between FMDV antibodies and gender of the animals. Age wise seroprevalence of FMD in adult cattle and buffaloes was higher (24%) than that of young (8%) cattle and buffaloes with a significant association between the age of cattle, and buffaloes and FMDV antibodies. The survey results indicated that all the cattle and buffaloes were in mixed herds and the peculiar signs including stomatitis, lameness, abortion, fever and dysphonia were recorded retrospectively. The mortality rate was 0% in cattle herds of all ages and in both the genders while the morbidity rate was 52.5%. The death rate of l.1%, 75.5% attack rate and 1.41% case fatality rate in buffaloes were recorded retrospectively in the humid rainy season of late summer in Shangla, Besham & Chitral districts. The serosurveillance for PPR in sheep and goats was conducted by using competitive ELISA, dand 42% overall seroprevalence while individually 27% in goats and 14.8% in sheep were recorded with a significant association. Gender wise seroprevalence of 38.8% in females and .3.2% in males of sheep and goats with significant difference and with a significant association to PPRVantibodies were recorded. The age wise seroprevalence of37.8% and 4.2% in adult and in young of both the species with a significant association to PPRV antibodies were recorded. No clinieal signs of PPR were observed by nomads because the infection was subclinical and survived previously because they had not practiced vaccines for last many years. Zero % morbidity and mortality rates were therefore recorded retrospectively in sheep and goat flocks. The four routes at the border areas of Khyber Pakhton Khwa were recorded for the seasonal and cyclieal entrance of livestock of nomads, which act as abridge for diseases transmission between Afghanistan & Pakistan. The outbreaks of CCPP occurred in winter season in Afghanistan and in autumn season in Pakistan (Gilgith, Chitral, Kohistan, Besham, Shanglapar and Buner). Also the FMD outbreaks occurred in Buner and Shangla in late summer while the PPR was subclinical and animals survived. Cross borders as well as district wise trade and movement restrictions are of utmost importance for control the diseases. Similarly serosurveillance of the disease in the local and as well as in nomad's livestock's population necessean appropriate scheduled vaccination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1408,T] (1).

89. Assessment Of Knowledge And Practice Of Food Handlers About Food Safety In University Hostel Kitchen Employees

by Qurra-Tul- Ain | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cigarette butts are found at crime scenes as potential evidence. Saliva is present on the cigarette butts that can be detected and DNA can be isolated from nucleated cells present in saliva for quantification and typing. In past, research has declared that cigarette butts are useful source for saliva detection, DNA extraction and profile generation. Difference of saliva accumulation on cigarette butt paper and filter was compared in the present study. On smoked cigarette butts, gender based comparison of saliva detection and DNA quantification was performed. Agarose gel assay was used for amylase enzyme detection. All samples showed positive results for saliva detection. Cigarette butt filter and filter paper were processed separately and analyzed. Results showed more saliva detected at cigarette butt paper. Then gender based comparison on cigarette butt samples smoked by males and females was done for salivary amylase. By using student t-test, no significant difference was found on basis of gender. For extraction of DNA, phenol chloroform extraction method was used. Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification kit was used through RT-PCR for quantification of DNA isolated from cigarette butt papers. SDS software analyzed the data and gave results of quantified DNA in ng/µL. Gender based comparison in DNA quantity was done by using statistical method. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation value was calculated between detected saliva and quantified DNA of samples. Weak positive results of correlation were obtained between saliva and DNA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1424,T] (1).

90. Epidemiology And Prophylaxis Of Babesiosis In Felidae

by Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1425,T] (1).

91. Clinico-Epidemiological Study Of Toxocariasis In Pet Cats In Lahore

by Shakera Sadiq Gill | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The study was conducted at the pet clinic UVAS to check the prevalence of Toxocara Cati in pet cats and awareness of the pet owners about the zoonosis. Prevalence of Toxocara was checked by conventional laboratory techniques. A survey was conducted to check the awareness of zoonotic diseases among the pet owners using a questionnaire. A total of 40% were found to be infected with Toxocara cati. Overall high prevalence was recorded in cats less than one year of age which was significant. There was also significant difference of prevalence among cats in which deworming was not done as compared to the dewormed cats. Prevalence was also high in cats in which the fecal consistency was not normal. There was no significant difference in prevalence of Toxocara between male and female cats. There was also no significant difference of prevalence among the different breeds of cats. The results of the survey revealed that out of the total of 100 pet owners only 39% had idea of pet zoonosis, while the majority of the owners had awareness about rabies. Only 18 % of the owners were informed by the veterinarians. The total of 98% suggested that the vet should inform the owners about pet zoonosis. Among the total 56% replied that they will leave their pet if a zoonotic problem was diagnosed the remaining were not willing to leave their pets even if a zoonotic problem diagnosed. Most cases of human toxocariasis and zoonotic hookworm infections are preventable by simple measure such as careful personal hygiene, eliminating intestinal parasites from pets through regular deworming and not allowing the children to play in potentially contaminated environments. Despite the fact that some of the pet owners dispose of their pet feaces however,, owners should be educated on proper disposal methods of pet feaces. Disposal methods like using pet feaces as garden manure, can predispose children playing in the lawn to infective eggs and larvae. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1428,T] (1).

92. Epidemiological, Haematological And Biochemical Risk Factors Of Parturient Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes

by Altaf Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Parturient haemoglobinuria is disease of economic importance which affects a considerable number of buffaloes every year in India, Pakistan and Egypt. It is a non infectious hemolytic syndrome characterized by intravascular haemolysis, hypophosphataemia, haemoglobinaemia, haemoglobinuria and anaemia. The exact pathogenesis is not known and diversified etiological factors have been associated with this disease in different parts of the continent. Information on multidimensional etiological aspects of this buffalo syndrome is quite scanty. The present study was therefore carried out in district Chakwal for assessment of disease burden (parturient haemoglobinuria), its distribution and quantification of associated epidemiological, haematological and biochemical risk factors in order to suggest control measures and future research priorities. Active surveillance was conducted in eight randomly selected villages of district Chakwal from April 2010 . March 2011. All breeding age buffaloes (1938) of these selected villages were taken as sampling frame whereas one breeding age buffalo was taken as sampling unit. Parturient haemoglobinuria appeared as number one disease among all problems of breeding age buffaloes with respect to mortality rate (1.03%) and proportional mortality rate (20%) whereas it appeared as 8th and 7th disease respectively with respect to incidence (3.97%) and case fatality (25.97%) rates. Case-Control study was conducted for quantification of epidemiological risk factors associated with disease by analyzing the data of 180 case-control pairs for various 162 hypothesized risk factors. . 7 months pregnancy, . 3 lactation number, . 60 days postpartum period, . 7 years age, previous history of haemoglobinuria and ingestion of cruciferous plants were recorded as significant (P . 0.05) risk factors with odds ratios of 15.80, 6.39, 6.23, 5.56, 3.41 and 2.51 respectively. Clinical trial was conducted on 30 haemoglobinuric buffaloes randomly divided into three groups with 10 animals in each group to compare and assess the recovery rates of three different treatment packages against parturient haemoglobinuria. The highest recovery rate (100%) was recorded for combined therapy of sodium acid phosphate and blood transfusion followed by sodium acid phosphate with antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (70%) and tranexamic acid with Novacoc injection (50%). Cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted on haemoglobinuric (n = 30) and healthy (n = 60) buffaloes for quantification of haematological and biochemical risk factors associated with parturient haemoglobinuria. Red cell count (. 5 ~ 106 /ƒÊl), haemoglobin (. 8g / dl), haematocrit . 25%, mean corpuscular volume (. 50fL), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (. 20pg) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate( . 80mm / 1st hour) were recorded as significant (P . 0.05) haematological risk factors with odds ratios of 26, 17.81, 28.95, 21, 12.25 and 26 respectively whereas billirubin unconjugated (. 0.2mg /dl), billirubin total ( . 0.3mg /dl), phosphorous (. 2.5mg /dl), molybdenum (. 70ƒÊg /dl) and selenium (. 15 ƒÊg /dl) were recorded as significant (P.0.05) biochemical risk factors with odds ratios of 26.55, 26.55, , 7.50, 11 respectively. Experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of orally administered gossypol on haematological and biochemical parameters of eight female rabbits of six 163 months age purchased from local market and maintained at university of veterinary and animal sciences from February 2011 . April 2011 under optimum conditions. The cotton seed cake containing free gossypol contents of 0.25% was fed to rabbits @ 4 grams per kg per day in addition to their routine diet including good quality fresh vegetables (cucumbers, spinach, cabbage & carrots) and clean water ad-libitum. Blood samples of each rabbit were collected after every 15 days interval and analyzed for haematological and serum biochemical parameters. Significant (P.0.05) decrease was recorded in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and serum inorganic phosphorous whereas significant increase was recorded in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width, total leukocyte count, lymphocytes and monocytes from 0 . 60th day with the passage of time whereas non significant (P.0.05) difference was recorded with respect to granulocytes and serum calcium concentration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1429,T] (1).

93. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Schistosomiasis In Cattle

by Mudassar Nazar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1433,T] (1).

94. Molecular Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials On Fasciolosis In Sheep And Goats

by Khalid Mehmood | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The fasciolosis in sheep and goat is an important and infectious disease of ruminants characterized by dullness, weakness, lack of appetite, pallor and edema of mucosa and death of animal. The accurate diagnosis of Fasciolosis remained a difficult task for the field practitioners and the right choice of medicine. For this purpose 600 sheep and goats was examined for fasciolosis. The fecal samples were collected directly from rectum while bile samples were collected from various private and public slaughter houses of districts Okara, Sahiwal and Lahore. Fasciola egg was identified by standard text while molecular conformation of Fasciola spp. was done by using PCR. For therapeutic trials, sixty animals (n=30 sheep; n=30 goats) positive for Fasciolosis was equally divided into A, B and C groups and each group comprising of 20 animals (n=10 sheep; n=10 goats). The animals of group A was given Zanil (Oxyclozanide) orally @ 1ml per 3kg body weight; the animals of group B was given Albendazole orally @ 1ml per 3kg body weight and the animals of group C was given the grounded powder of Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) @ 5-6 teaspoon (25-30gm) orally. Efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of Fasciola eggs at 3, 7 and 14 day of post-medication. Data on the prevalence of fasciolosis was analyzed by Pearson's chi-square test while therapeutic trials data was analyzed with one way ANOVA using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS); P < 0.05 was considered significant. To study fasciolosis in sheep and goats, samples were collected from Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal. The collected samples were processed at the Medicine laboratory at UVAS, Lahore and LPRI laboratories of Bahadurnagar, Okara. In this study first of all the fecal and bile samples were examined through microscope then these samples were processed by PCR test. No study was conducted previously on the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in Pakistan, this is the first report for the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis. In all F. hepatica positive samples approximate 300-bp fragment was generated on gel tested with DSJF/DSJ3 primers for sheep and goats. All positive samples by microscope were also positive by PCR, but out of the 92 samples positive (43 in sheep; 49 in goats) by PCR test, out of these 14 (7 in sheep; 7 in goats) were negative by microscopy. This study provides the base line data for the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in Pakistan. Overall prevalence of fasciolosis in sheep in both fecal and bile samples in various districts of Punjab was calculated. Out of 300 samples (150 fecal; 150 bile) of sheep, F. hepatica prevalence rate was 12% (36 samples) by microscopic examination while 14.33% (43 samples) by PCR test. On the basis of microscopic examinations districts wise prevalence rate was 11, 12 and 13% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal respectively and by PCR test prevalence rate was 13, 14 and 16% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal respectively. Prevalence of F. hepatica was more in Sahiwal than Okara and Lahore in sheep in both fecal and bile samples on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR. Overall prevalence of fasciolosis was also calculated in goats on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR in both fecal and bile samples. Among 300 samples (150 fecal; 150 bile) of goats F. hepatica prevalence was 14% (42 samples) by microscopic examination while 16.33% (49 samples) by PCR. On the basis of microscopic examinations the prevalence was 13, 15 and 14% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts respectively while on basis of PCR test prevalence was 15, 18 and 16% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts respectively. Prevalence of F. hepatica was more in Okara than Sahiwal and Lahore in goats in both fecal and bile samples on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR. The eggs per gram (EPG) values and efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil), Albendazole and Neem leaves against fasciolosis in 30 positives sheep was recorded at 3, 7 and 14 days after the treatment. As group A was treated with oxyclozanide (Zanil), its efficacy was 50, 75 and 90% at 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively after treatment. The efficacy of albendazole was 46, 65 and 81% at 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively while the efficacy of Neem leaves was lowest that was 15, 30 and 42% at day 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively. The efficacy of oxyclozanide and albendazole was significantly higher (p= 0.000) than Neem leaves. In sheep against the fasciolosis Oxyclozanide significant effect on EPG followed by albendazole and Neem leaves. The EPG and efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil), Albendazole and Neem leaves were determined in 30 goats against fasciolosis at 3, 7 and 14th day of post treatment. The efficacy of oxyclozanide was 57, 76 and 90% at 3, 7 and 14th day of post treatment, respectively. The efficacy of oxyclozanide was higher than Albendazole against the fasciolosis. The efficacy of albendazole was 55, 68 and 79% at day 3, 7 and 14th, respectively. Efficacy of Neem leaves against fasciolosis was lower as compared to other two drugs, it was 15, 23 and 40% at day 3, 7 and 14th, respectively. When the efficacy was compared at different days, Oxyclozanide reduced the EPG significantly, followed by Albendazole and Neem leaves. From this study it was concluded that PCR is more reliable technique than microscopic examination for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats. Microscopic technique provides the base line data for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats but PCR provides help to conduct further molecular diagnosis on fasciolosis as well as others parasitic diseases. Secondly fasciolosis which is an important parasitic problem of ruminants is significantly prevalent in sheep and goats in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts of Punjab. Oxyclozanide is the most effective drug while albendazole and neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) are relatively less effective against fasciolosis in sheep and goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1434,T] (1).

95. Clinico-Chemotherapeutic Study On The Occurrence Of Navel Ill In Cow Calves

by Safdar Abbas | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Navel ill occurs commonly in young calves. Calves less than 1 week of age are most commonly affected by infections of navel because the umbilical stump usually takes 7-10 days to dry up. Infection of navel develops when pathogenic bacteria contaminated the wet umbilicus under the unhygienic environmental conditions. It may also cause the death of newborns calves due to bacterimia and septicemic shock. The unhygienic environmental conditions like parturition of cow in dirty pen, poor navel hygiene practices, inadequate colostrum feedings within 6 hours after parturition or when umbilical cord is cut too close to abdominal wall of calf, may predispose a calf to navel ill. The present study was conducted in and around Kahna region of Lahore to find out the disease percentage of navel ill in newborn calves, and chemotherapeutical trials were conducted to see the comparative effect of topical, parenteral and topical with parenteral therapy. For this purpose, 400 newborn calves of 15 days or less than 15 days age were randomly selected from small dairy farms and small holder farmers of study area. Among 400 calves, 197 calves were randomly selected from different small holder farmers of study area and 203 were selected from small dairy farms. Among 197 calves from different local areas of Kahna, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 46.19% and among 203 calves from small dairy farms of study area, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 12.80%. The overall occurrence of diseased percentage of navel ill from dairy farms and small holder farmers of study area was 29.25 %. The overall percentage of infection at dairy farms and local small holder farmers of study areas was 21.73%, 37.50%, and 14.28%, 22.22% and 14.10% among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred female calves respectively. The overall percentage of infection at dairy farms and local small holder farmers of study area was 22.22%, 88.23%, 16.66%, 33.33% and 40.98% among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred male calves respectively. For chemotherapeutical trials, calves were divided into five groups. Calves of group A (n=10) were treated with topical application of Pyodine solution and Cicatrin powder, applied to navel cord topically twice a day for five days. The average percentage recovery of group A among males was 41% and among females was 46.5 %, but the overall recovery in group A was 43.75%. Similarly, when calves of group B (n=10) were treated with parenteral therapy of Moxin and Meloxicam for five days, then the average percentage recovery of group B among males was 41.47 % and among females was 48.08 %, but the average recovery among male and female calves of group B was 43.60 %. Calves of group C (n=10) were treated with topical application of Pyodine solution and Cicatrin powder plus parenteral therapy of Moxin and Melacam for five days. The average percentage recovery of group C among males was 76 % and among females was 90 %, but the average recovery among male and female calves of group C was 83 %. Calves of group D (n=10) were kept as positive control to observe complications. They were of diseased conditions. Among these calves, three calves got maggot wounds; one died due to septicemia, two calves got small hernia and remaining calves showed no further complications except existing signs. Calves of group E (n=10, healthy calves) were kept as negative control. Among these healthy calves, three calves became thin and emaciated but all others remained healthy and showed no clinical signs of any disease. Finally, the obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Chi Square method (software stata). In conclusion, the statistical analysis showed that occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was more in male as compared to female calves. Similarly, the occurrence of diseased percentage of navel ill was high in local areas i.e. small holder farmers as compared to dairy farms of study area. The chemotherapeutic trials conducted among different groups of calves showed variable results. Topical treatment showed some better results than parenteral treatment, but when topical treatment was given with parenteral therapy, the calves showed maximum recovery. On the behalf of this study, it was concluded that the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill is high in calves reared under unhygienic conditions. At dairy farms, hygienic conditions were better due to some good calf rearing practices as compared to local small holder farmers, that's why the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was high at local small holder farmers than that of dairy farms. Similarly, the results of chemotherapeutic trials showed that simple topical or parenteral therapy alone was not effective much as compared to when both topical and parenteral therapy was given at the same time. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1436,T] (1).

96. Comparative Study Of Different Suturing Techniques For Cystotomy Closure In Canines

by Imdadullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Ayesha Hassan | Pror. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The cystotomy is an incision in to the wall of urinary bladder which is commonly indicated for the removal of urinary stones and for the excision of invading tumors. Cystotomy wound is closed by varieties of suturing patterns which commonly include simple appositional and inversion types of suturing patterns. Appositional patterns are used in single-layer while double-layer appositional pattern is also used. Inversion types of suturing patterns are commonly used in double layers. Single-layer appositional patterns are commonly used in small and young animals while double-layer inverting pattern is preferred to apply in large animals. Double-layer inversion pattern has been found to decrease the size of bladder lumen when the bladder wall is thick. Bladder mucosa in all cases is not penetrated because of the danger of the formation of bladder stones. In three-layer closure mucosa is sutured as a separate layer and is indicated commonly when there is bleeding. The present project is aimed to conduct a comparative study of appositional versus inversion type of suturing patterns and two-layer versus three-layer of bladder wall repair. The study was conducted on 24 dogs divided into four groups comprising 6 dogs each. In 18 dogs experimental cystotomies were performed which were closed in following manners. Group-A: the cystotomy wound was closed in two-layer simple interrupted suturing pattern, group-B: cystotomy wound was closed in two layers by simple continuous and continuous lembert suturing pattern, group-C: the cystotomy wound was closed in three layers and group-D was the control group. These suturing techniques were evaluated for leakage with the help of contrast radiography, ultrasonography, renal function tests and physical signs. These techniques were also evaluated for their effect on residual urine volume with the help of ultrasound machine. All the suturing techniques provided water tight closure when evaluated through radiography, ultrasonography, kidney function tests and physical examination. The two-layer inversion patterns and three-layer closure techniques were found to effect residual bladder volume but the effect of three-layer closure technique was more pronounced. No crystals/stones were observed on postmortem examination of the urinary bladder in each operated dog. A well demarcated stricture was noted in dogs whose bladders were sutured in three layers. It was thus concluded form the research that appositional patterns do not affect the residual bladder volume, the catgut can be penetrated through the mucosa without endangering for cystolithiasis and the two-layer appositional suturing pattern is as effective as three-layer closure of cystotomy wound for the control of hemorrhage from the bladder mucosa. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1445,T] (1).

97. Study On Different Closure Techniques Of Nephrotomy In Dogs

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Ayesha Safdar Chaudary.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Kidney is a vital organ of body. It plays an important role in whole-body homeostasis, regulating acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and regulation of blood pressure. Kidney performs these functions in coordination of various endocrine functions; these include renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide. There are different problems of the kidney like calculi lodged in the renal pelvis and neoplasia of the kidney in which nephrotomy is indicated. The project was designed to find out the most suitable technique of closing nephrotomy incision. For this purpose three groups A, B and C of dogs were arranged containing eight animals in each group. In group A after performing nephrotomy, 2/0 absorbable suture was placed through the cortex in horizontal mattress fashion and renal capsule was closed with 4/0 absorbable suture in a simple continuous fashion while in group B nephrotomy incision was apposed by applying gentle digital pressure for five minute and incision in the renal capsule was closed with 3/0 synthetic absorble suture. Whereas, in group C cut edges was apposed through tissue adhesive glue (cyanoacrylate). Physical evaluation, Urine examination i.e urine colour, Complete blood count, blood urea Nitrogen, serum creatinine and excretory urography at different intervals was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these three techniques. The present project clearly indicated that suturless nephrotomy closure technique was found to be more suitable and compatible technique with excellent clinical superiority in terms of good weight gain, better hemostais, minimal post operative complication and maintaining kidney function. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1447,T] (1).

98. A Study On Different Placements (Onlay, Inlay & Sublay) Of Prolene Mesh For The Repair Of Incisional Hernia

by Aftab Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Ayesha Safdar Chaudary.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1448,T] (1).

99. A Comparative Study Of Antiviral And Cytotoxic Activity Of Acacia Nilotica Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants

by Rizwana Raheel | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1449,T] (1).

100. Clinico-Biochemical Study After Partial And Complete Blockage Of Ureters In Dogs.

by Naveed Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwae Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Ureteral obstruction is one of the most common problems associated with urinary system. It imparts serious consequences on the system, if not treated sharply. The present study was performed in twenty dogs after producing experimental obstruction through ureteral ligations of variable nature. The aim of the experiment was to identify the effects of variable ligations on obstructed and contralateral kidney with the help of blood parameters including hematology and serum analysis along with diagnostic imaging i.e. radiography and ultrasonography. It was noted that hematology was of least significance as diagnostic aid while serum analysis i.e. BUN and S/Cr were of some worth in early stages. As far as diagnostic imaging was concerned IV urography is considered as first line diagnosis in advanced cases revealing kidney size, parenchyma and hydronephrosis, while Ultrasonography is more sophisticated and advanced which is helpful in initial diagnosis and can study deep structures of the kidney. Results revealed that in partial obstructions, in obstructed kidneys severity of hydronephrosis and kidney damage was less than complete obstructions. In complete ureteral obstruction, deterioration of total internal structures including medulla , cortex and renal pelvis was observed. Role of contralateral kidney was also evident during the experiment, which compensated the physiological changes due to obstruction and helped the patient in returning to normal life but structural damage of variable nature was also noted depending upon the severity of obstruction in the ureter. It was observed during experiment that the revival of renal function is time dependent which is inversely related to duration of obstruction. If obstruction, mild or severe, is released earlier, recovery is quick and complete renal function restoration is possible in 24 to 48 hours of obstruction, depending upon its severity. But if delay occurs, it results in irreversible damage to the obstructed kidney and after three to six weeks no functional parenchyma is detectable in severe and mild obstructions respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1450,T] (1).



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