Chemical Characteristics Of Trans Free Margarine Enriched With Omega Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia Hispanica L.) Oil
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Omega fatty acids has been related with low cholesterol level in blood, reduce the blood pressure, decreases the risk of heart attacks. Omega-3 PUFA is anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-lipogenic, prevent the hypertension. Margarine was prepared by blending milk fat 70%, palm oil different concentration 30%, 27.5%, 25%, 22.5% and 20% T0 to T4 respectively .Chia seed oil in various proportions 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% T0 to T4 respectively. Milk fat, Palm oil and chia Seed oil was characterized for free fatty acids, moisture content, saponification value, iodine value, refractive index. Solid fat index was determined at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40˚C by the dilatometric method, melting point was determined by open capillary tube technique.Color, peroxide value, anisidine value, conjugated dienes and trienes was determined. Fatty acids composition of margarines were determined by the transformation into fatty acid methyl esters. Margarine was stored at -6±1oC, for 60-days, iodine value, peroxide anisidine values, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes was determined. Induction period of margarine was determined by oxidizing the samples under a steady stream of oxygen (20L/hour) at 120oC, on a Rancimat. Sensory evaluation was performed by a panel of ten trained panel of judges, samples was evaluated for color, smell, taste and overall acceptability on a 9-point Hedonic scale.All treatments were replicated three times, every sample was analyzed three times and data were expressed as Mean ± SD. The data was analyze by one way and two way analysis of variance technique, the difference among the treatments was made by Duncan Multiple Range Test
Free fatty acids increased in all the treatments during the entire storage period from 0 day to 60 days, the content of fatty acid during storage period depend upon the degree of unsaturation. . Peroxide value increased in trans free margarine enriched with omega fatty acids through chia oil the during the storage of margarine. The rise in peroxide value at all the
determination frequencies was in the order of T4> T3> T2> T1> control. Iodine value increases in trans free margarine enriched with omega fatty acids through chia oil during the storage time. The decline in iodine value of all the treatments and control was in the order of T4> T3 > T2 > T1 > control. The treatment having more unsaturated fatty acids, underwent more oxidation and yielded the higher extents of oxidation products. Anisidine value of all the treatments and control increased throughout the storage period, all the determination frequencies revealed an increasing trend, however, the rise in magnitude of oxidation products was different in all the treatments and control.Values of conjugated dienes and trienes numerically increased during the storage period, all the measurement intervals revealed an increasing trend, however, the rise in extent of oxidation products was mainly dependent upon the fatty acid composition and treatments having higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids suffered more oxidation.Addition of chia oil in margarine did not have any impact on moisture content of margarine, moisture content of all the treatments and control was not different from each other (P>0.05). Non-significant changes melting point during storage time in margarine. Color of all the experimental margarines and control were not different from each other (P>0.05). Saponification value non-significant in treatments during storage time from 0 day to 60 days. Analysis of variance indicated that treatments had significant effect on SFI, whereas, the effect of storage and the interaction between treatments and storage was non-significant. The content of C18:3 (omega fatty acid) in margarine is significantly increased from T1 to T4 due to chia oil because it contain 68 % alpha linolenic acid.
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