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1. Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutic Study On Babesiosis In Different Breeds Of Cattle In Balochistan

by Muhammad Essa Kakar (2005-va-229) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Babesiosis which is also called as piroplasmosisis, Texas fever, redwater or tick fever, is an emerging, tick-transmitted (by a vector ixodidea) disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia having considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. Keeping in view the importance of babesiosis under local conditions, the present study was designed to evaluate the status babesiosis in Balochistan. For this purpose field and experimental studies were carried in two districts Quetta and Sibi of Balochistan Province to find out the status of babesiosis in Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Crossbred cattle. During field study epidemiological status of babesiosis was highlighted by selecting 600 cattle randomly from each district. The animals were distributed into 2 major groups i.e. Young animals less than 12 months and adult over 12 months of age. These groups were further sub-divided into Young animals (less than 6 months, up to 9 months and up to 12 months) while Adults animals (up to 2 years, 3 years and over 3 years). The vector of babesia was also kept under keen observation for the prevalence/infestation rate, identification and economic losses caused during the course of study. Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for further confirmation of babesia infection. The blood samples were also processed for hematological study to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters. For experimental study 148 animals were selected through clinical signs of babesiosis, blood smear examination and PCR. Out of theses 40 animals were maintained for therapeutic trail to find out the cheapest and easily available drug against bovine babesiosis. For this purpose Neem leaves were used in decoction form while Imidocarb dipopionate was kept as standard control. The Summary 177 results of epidemiological study revealed higher prevalence of babesiosis (20.5%) in district Quetta while 15.16% was recorded in District Sibi. Similarly higher prevalence was recorded in Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle respectively in both districts Quetta and Sibi. Furthermore higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in adult groups of Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle. Similarly season wise higher prevalence of babesia infection was noticed in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter respectively while higher prevalence was noted in female group of animals than male animals. Blood smears examination and PCR confirmed two babesia species i.e. babesia bigemina and babesia bovis. Similarly Boophilus tick species were identified as the vector of babesia parasites. During present study mixed hemoprotozaon infection of babesia mixed with theileria was recorded in both districts. The results of conventional method and modern diagnostic technique (PCR) revealed that PCR identified higher babesia infection during the entire 4 seasons as well as in all age groups whereas blood smears examination was capable to diagnose babesiosis in adult groups during the months of summer and spring season. Breed wise prevalence was also higher in samples treated with PCR than blood smears examination and even samples that were declared negative by blood smears examination were also found positive. The results of complete blood cell count from blood samples of infected experimental animal showed regenerative, macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Blood smear examination showed presence of many babesia with reticulocytes. Abnormalities in erythrocyte structure were seen. The result of blood parameters of total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin showed significant decrease in all three affected Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Cross bred cattle. The values of MCV and MCH were increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal value. No efficacy of neem decoction was noted against bovine babesiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2367-T] (1).

2. Epidemiology And Control Of Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes Of Large Ruminants In Balochistan

by Muhammad Ramzan (2009-VA-653) | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Aneela Khurram.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The main area of research in this study was to assess the prevalence, hematological aspects of Bovine nematodiasis. Three main experiments were conducted to highlight the objectives of the present research study. The first experiment was conducted to find out the prevalence of large ruminants major nematodes for one year. For this purpose buffalo and cattle of either sexes and between < 1 year to > 2 years of age were selected from two sites i.e., Quetta and Qilla Abdullah. Fecal analysis of these cattle and buffalo showed overall higher (33.99%) nematodes prevalence recorded in buffalo in Quetta, (27.99%) in cattle at Qilla Abdullah followed by in cattle at Quetta (26.66%). Five nematode infection was recorded in all two experimental sites with higher prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in buffalo at Quetta and Ostertgia ostertagi in cattle at Quetta and Qilla Abdullah. The buffalo and cattle of < 1 year presented higher nematodes prevalence than 1-2 years and > 2 years. The female buffalo and cattle were infected with nematodes prevalence higher than male animals. These five nematodes were prevalent almost throughout the year, however a peak infection was recorded during August and September in cattle and October in buffalo. The high temperature, rainfall and humidity during these months may be predisposing factor of higher prevalence. Mostly the level of nematodes infection was low(< 800 EPG) and did not seriously impaired the buffalo and cattle productivity. Second experiment on assessing the comparative efficacy of anthelmintics (Levamisole, Oxafendazole and Ivermectin) against cattle and buffalo nematodes were conducted at Govt and private farms. The results showed that Ivermectin than Oxfendazole were found effective against cattle and buffalo nematodes. The higher (89-100%) reduction of EPG were recorded in cattle and 87 buffalo calves treated with Ivermectin followed by Oxfendazole (86-100%), Levmisole (88- 100%). Third experiment was conducted to determine the hematological values in healthy and nematodes infected animals. Different hematological parameters i.e., TEC, TLC, Hb estimation, were determined. The results showed that overall low Hemoglobin estimation and RBC were recorded in nematodes infected animals than healthy, while higher WBC were recorded in nematodes infected animals than healthy. The Lymphocytes and Neutrophil and Monocytes were higher in some nematodes and lower in other, while higher mean Eosinophil counts was recorded in all nematodes infected animals than healthy animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2730-T] (1).

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