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1. Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutic Study On Babesiosis In Different Breeds Of Cattle In Balochistan

by Muhammad Essa Kakar (2005-va-229) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Babesiosis which is also called as piroplasmosisis, Texas fever, redwater or tick fever, is an emerging, tick-transmitted (by a vector ixodidea) disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia having considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. Keeping in view the importance of babesiosis under local conditions, the present study was designed to evaluate the status babesiosis in Balochistan. For this purpose field and experimental studies were carried in two districts Quetta and Sibi of Balochistan Province to find out the status of babesiosis in Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Crossbred cattle. During field study epidemiological status of babesiosis was highlighted by selecting 600 cattle randomly from each district. The animals were distributed into 2 major groups i.e. Young animals less than 12 months and adult over 12 months of age. These groups were further sub-divided into Young animals (less than 6 months, up to 9 months and up to 12 months) while Adults animals (up to 2 years, 3 years and over 3 years). The vector of babesia was also kept under keen observation for the prevalence/infestation rate, identification and economic losses caused during the course of study. Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for further confirmation of babesia infection. The blood samples were also processed for hematological study to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters. For experimental study 148 animals were selected through clinical signs of babesiosis, blood smear examination and PCR. Out of theses 40 animals were maintained for therapeutic trail to find out the cheapest and easily available drug against bovine babesiosis. For this purpose Neem leaves were used in decoction form while Imidocarb dipopionate was kept as standard control. The Summary 177 results of epidemiological study revealed higher prevalence of babesiosis (20.5%) in district Quetta while 15.16% was recorded in District Sibi. Similarly higher prevalence was recorded in Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle respectively in both districts Quetta and Sibi. Furthermore higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in adult groups of Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle. Similarly season wise higher prevalence of babesia infection was noticed in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter respectively while higher prevalence was noted in female group of animals than male animals. Blood smears examination and PCR confirmed two babesia species i.e. babesia bigemina and babesia bovis. Similarly Boophilus tick species were identified as the vector of babesia parasites. During present study mixed hemoprotozaon infection of babesia mixed with theileria was recorded in both districts. The results of conventional method and modern diagnostic technique (PCR) revealed that PCR identified higher babesia infection during the entire 4 seasons as well as in all age groups whereas blood smears examination was capable to diagnose babesiosis in adult groups during the months of summer and spring season. Breed wise prevalence was also higher in samples treated with PCR than blood smears examination and even samples that were declared negative by blood smears examination were also found positive. The results of complete blood cell count from blood samples of infected experimental animal showed regenerative, macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Blood smear examination showed presence of many babesia with reticulocytes. Abnormalities in erythrocyte structure were seen. The result of blood parameters of total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin showed significant decrease in all three affected Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Cross bred cattle. The values of MCV and MCH were increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal value. No efficacy of neem decoction was noted against bovine babesiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2367-T] (1).

2. Molecular Identification And Treatment Of Theileriosis In Small Ruminants Of Northern Balochistan

by Mir Ahmad Khan (2005-VA-214) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Ovine and Caprine Theileriosis in Northern Highlands and Suleiman Mountain Region of Balochistan, Six thickly populated /union councils were included in the study area. Samples were collected from 2870 animals Sheep (n= 2200) and Goats (n= 670) for screening of the disease. The samples were collected and processed in Regional Disease Investigation Laboratories, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development Balochistan, T.B. Sanatorium Hospital Quetta and Center for Vaccinology, Bacteriology, The University of Balochistan, Quetta and Medicine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Data revealed 20.82% disease in sheep and 9.70%. in goats. The regional prevalence of theileriosis revealed 19.19% in Northern Highlands and 17.48% in Suleiman Mountain Region Chi-square analysis showed significant difference in the prevalence of disease in sheep and goats. The regional difference was not significantly different between two regions of Northern Balochistan. The comparison among union councils showed significant difference being highest prevalence (22.71%) in union council Kuchlak district Quetta followed by Aghberg (18.42%) and Hanna Urak (15.53%) in Northern highlands and Union Council Zangiwal Jogezai (19.83%) followed by Kach Amaqzai (16.30%) and Sinjavi (15.92%) in SMR. The disease prevalence when compared among 4 different breeds of sheep showed significant difference being highest in Karakul breed (34.62%) followed by Shinwari (24.54%), Bibrik (19.36%) and Harnai (16.40%). The highest prevalence of theileriosis in sheep and goats were observed in Summer season (30.30%) followed by Autumn 19.07%, Spring 14.52% and Winter SUMMERY 105 7.61%. Chi-square analysis of the data showed significant difference in the prevalence of the disease in different seasons of the year. The disease was also compared in three age groups of sheep and goats. The data showed 22.17% disease in adult animal group above 2 years of age followed by 15.85% in animals between 1-2 year and 7.99% in age group below one year. Statistically significant difference in all age groups was found in chi-square analysis. The sex wise prevalence of theileriosis revealed non-significant difference between male and female sheep and goats. Two different species of Theileria were reported by many researchers causing disease in sheep and goats. The PCR was carried out for the identification of Theileria species affecting sheep and goats in Balochistan. Two species specific sets of primers were designed using 18SRNA gene sequence to identify these two species of Theileria and the distribution among the two species of animals. The genomic DNA of two species of parasite was successfully amplified in positive samples. The assay was proved successful and we recommend for the prevalence surveys for theileriosis in sheep and goats. The data showed that the prevalence of T. lestoquardi was 73.80% in sheep and 69.23% was in goats in the target regions. It was found the T. lestoquardi was highly prevalent and causing theileriosis in small ruminants. The prevalence of T. ovis was 26.19% in sheep and 30.76% in goats respectively in the investigated animals; it was less than T. lestoquardi. It was concluded that both Theileria species were identified and found circulating in small ruminants in the target region of Balochistan. In the study we determined that PCR method based on 18S RNA gene could detect and differentiate T. ovis and T. lestoquardi. Effect of theileriosis in sheep and goats on hemeto-biochemical parameters were studied included RBCs, Hb%, PCV, Platelets, WBCs, MCV, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, Bilirubin and Creatinine. Blood samples were collected from Theileria confirmed, diseased animals (sheep and SUMMERY 106 goats) along with equal number of healthy animals for comparison. In sheep RBCs, Hb%, PCV, WBCs, MCHC, AST, ALT and Creatinine values showed significant difference when compared with values of healthy animals. Significant (p<0.05) reduction was noted in measurement of RBCs, Hb%, PCV and MCHC whereas, AST, ALT and Creatinine showed significant increase in diseased animals. In goats affected with theileriosis showed significant decrease in RBCs count and Hb%. The values for AST, ALT and Creatinine were found significantly increased in diseased animals when compared with healthy control group of equal number of animals. In present study it was noted that Butalex intra muscularly at the rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight is quite effective in eliminating the Theileria parasite from the blood of sheep and goats and treatment at the day 10 post treatment. Imizol was also found an effective treatment of theileriosis but less effective than Butalex. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2690-T] (1).

3. Epidemiology And Control Of Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes Of Large Ruminants In Balochistan

by Muhammad Ramzan (2009-VA-653) | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Aneela Khurram.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The main area of research in this study was to assess the prevalence, hematological aspects of Bovine nematodiasis. Three main experiments were conducted to highlight the objectives of the present research study. The first experiment was conducted to find out the prevalence of large ruminants major nematodes for one year. For this purpose buffalo and cattle of either sexes and between < 1 year to > 2 years of age were selected from two sites i.e., Quetta and Qilla Abdullah. Fecal analysis of these cattle and buffalo showed overall higher (33.99%) nematodes prevalence recorded in buffalo in Quetta, (27.99%) in cattle at Qilla Abdullah followed by in cattle at Quetta (26.66%). Five nematode infection was recorded in all two experimental sites with higher prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in buffalo at Quetta and Ostertgia ostertagi in cattle at Quetta and Qilla Abdullah. The buffalo and cattle of < 1 year presented higher nematodes prevalence than 1-2 years and > 2 years. The female buffalo and cattle were infected with nematodes prevalence higher than male animals. These five nematodes were prevalent almost throughout the year, however a peak infection was recorded during August and September in cattle and October in buffalo. The high temperature, rainfall and humidity during these months may be predisposing factor of higher prevalence. Mostly the level of nematodes infection was low(< 800 EPG) and did not seriously impaired the buffalo and cattle productivity. Second experiment on assessing the comparative efficacy of anthelmintics (Levamisole, Oxafendazole and Ivermectin) against cattle and buffalo nematodes were conducted at Govt and private farms. The results showed that Ivermectin than Oxfendazole were found effective against cattle and buffalo nematodes. The higher (89-100%) reduction of EPG were recorded in cattle and 87 buffalo calves treated with Ivermectin followed by Oxfendazole (86-100%), Levmisole (88- 100%). Third experiment was conducted to determine the hematological values in healthy and nematodes infected animals. Different hematological parameters i.e., TEC, TLC, Hb estimation, were determined. The results showed that overall low Hemoglobin estimation and RBC were recorded in nematodes infected animals than healthy, while higher WBC were recorded in nematodes infected animals than healthy. The Lymphocytes and Neutrophil and Monocytes were higher in some nematodes and lower in other, while higher mean Eosinophil counts was recorded in all nematodes infected animals than healthy animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2730-T] (1).

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