Comparative Efficacy Of Xylocaine Hcl And Bupivacaine Hcl For Ophthalmic Anesthesia In Horses
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Ophthalmic procedures can be performed by many clinicians in horses using local nerve blocks by using local anaesthetics for short duration of action for completion of these procedures. These surgical procedures may involve exclusion of third eyelid, suturing of laceration around eye orbit and tumor which can be caused due to any reason with in time period of thirty minutes. Inner chamber centesis can be done easily by using the above mentioned technique in standing horse.
There are numerous benefits of doing standing surgical methods and avoiding general anaesthesia in horses. As hospitalizing horse may get other infectious diseases from surroundings like colitis and laminitis and also injured it when recovering from general anaesthesia. On the other hand standing surgical procedure reduced such complication by using local anaesthetic for short duration.
Bupivacaine Hcl gave an ideal local eye anaesthesia compare to xylocaine Hcl for standing surgical procedures in horses.
The present study was accomplished to assess the effectiveness of two local eye anaesthetics; xylocaine Hcl and bupivacaine Hcl by two different techniques i.e. retrobulbar technique and auriculopalpebral technique in horses. A total of 12 horses from indoor clinic and S.P.C.A were used in this study. These horses were subjected to two groups’ i.e. Group A and B. Each of these groups was further subdivided into two subgroups i.e. Group AI, AII and BI, BII respectively.
Horses in group A were administered xylocaine Hcl through auriculopalpebral technique and retrobulbar technique. While horses of subgroup AI were given xylocaine Hcl by auriculopalpebral technique and horses in subgroup AII were injected xylocaine Hcl by retrobulbar technique.
Likewise horses in subgroup BI were given bupivacaine Hcl by auriculopalpebral technique, while those of subgroup BII were given bupivacaine Hcl through retrobulbar technique. The efficacy of above mentioned local anaesthetics was compared on the basis of Pattern of induction, Duration of anaesthesia and Recovery Pattern. Presence or absence of reflexes was also noted i.e. Pupillary Light Reflex and Blink reflex.
The data were analyzed through one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The difference in group’s means was determined by Least Significant Difference (LSD) post-hoc test. A probability level of (P<0.05) was considered as statistically significantly difference. The statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version16.
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Molecular Identification And Treatment Of Theileriosis In Small Ruminants Of Northern Balochistan
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Ovine and Caprine Theileriosis in Northern Highlands and Suleiman Mountain Region of Balochistan, Six thickly populated /union councils were included in the study area. Samples were collected from 2870 animals Sheep (n= 2200) and Goats (n= 670) for screening of the disease. The samples were collected and processed in Regional Disease Investigation Laboratories, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development Balochistan, T.B. Sanatorium Hospital Quetta and Center for Vaccinology, Bacteriology, The University of Balochistan, Quetta and Medicine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Data revealed 20.82% disease in sheep and 9.70%. in goats. The regional prevalence of theileriosis revealed 19.19% in Northern Highlands and 17.48% in Suleiman Mountain Region Chi-square analysis showed significant difference in the prevalence of disease in sheep and goats. The regional difference was not significantly different between two regions of Northern Balochistan. The comparison among union councils showed significant difference being highest prevalence (22.71%) in union council Kuchlak district Quetta followed by Aghberg (18.42%) and Hanna Urak (15.53%) in Northern highlands and Union Council Zangiwal Jogezai (19.83%) followed by Kach Amaqzai (16.30%) and Sinjavi (15.92%) in SMR. The disease prevalence when compared among 4 different breeds of sheep showed significant difference being highest in Karakul breed (34.62%) followed by Shinwari (24.54%), Bibrik (19.36%) and Harnai (16.40%). The highest prevalence of theileriosis in sheep and goats were observed in Summer season (30.30%) followed by Autumn 19.07%, Spring 14.52% and Winter
7.61%. Chi-square analysis of the data showed significant difference in the prevalence of the disease in different seasons of the year. The disease was also compared in three age groups of sheep and goats. The data showed 22.17% disease in adult animal group above 2 years of age followed by 15.85% in animals between 1-2 year and 7.99% in age group below one year. Statistically significant difference in all age groups was found in chi-square analysis. The sex wise prevalence of theileriosis revealed non-significant difference between male and female sheep and goats. Two different species of Theileria were reported by many researchers causing disease in sheep and goats. The PCR was carried out for the identification of Theileria species affecting sheep and goats in Balochistan. Two species specific sets of primers were designed using 18SRNA gene sequence to identify these two species of Theileria and the distribution among the two species of animals. The genomic DNA of two species of parasite was successfully amplified in positive samples. The assay was proved successful and we recommend for the prevalence surveys for theileriosis in sheep and goats. The data showed that the prevalence of T. lestoquardi was 73.80% in sheep and 69.23% was in goats in the target regions. It was found the T. lestoquardi was highly prevalent and causing theileriosis in small ruminants. The prevalence of T. ovis was 26.19% in sheep and 30.76% in goats respectively in the investigated animals; it was less than T. lestoquardi. It was concluded that both Theileria species were identified and found circulating in small ruminants in the target region of Balochistan. In the study we determined that PCR method based on 18S RNA gene could detect and differentiate T. ovis and T. lestoquardi.
Effect of theileriosis in sheep and goats on hemeto-biochemical parameters were studied included RBCs, Hb%, PCV, Platelets, WBCs, MCV, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, Bilirubin and Creatinine. Blood samples were collected from Theileria confirmed, diseased animals (sheep and
goats) along with equal number of healthy animals for comparison. In sheep RBCs, Hb%, PCV, WBCs, MCHC, AST, ALT and Creatinine values showed significant difference when compared with values of healthy animals. Significant (p<0.05) reduction was noted in measurement of RBCs, Hb%, PCV and MCHC whereas, AST, ALT and Creatinine showed significant increase in diseased animals. In goats affected with theileriosis showed significant decrease in RBCs count and Hb%. The values for AST, ALT and Creatinine were found significantly increased in diseased animals when compared with healthy control group of equal number of animals. In present study it was noted that Butalex intra muscularly at the rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight is quite effective in eliminating the Theileria parasite from the blood of sheep and goats and treatment at the day 10 post treatment. Imizol was also found an effective treatment of theileriosis but less effective than Butalex.
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Epidemiology Of Major Bacterial And Parasitic Causes Of Foal Diarrhea
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Present study was carried out in District Lahore and District Sargodha, Punjab province of Pakistan, from January, 2016 to December, 2016. The study was conducted to study the prevalence of Diarrhea in foals and to identify the major viral, bacterial and parasitic causes of diarrhea in foals in these districts. The foals that passed lose feces a least 4 to 5 times a day were considered diarrheic. The results showed that the prevalence of diarrhea was 72.8% in the foals. District wise prevalence showed that the prevalence of diarrhea in foals were 73.7% in district Sargodha and were 72% in District Lahore. According to the results the prevalence of diarrhea in male foals was 74% and in female foal were 72%. The diarrhea was more prevalent in donkeys at is 76.6% as compaired to horses which was 74.5%.
The viral (rotavirus), bacterial (Salmonella, Clostridium perfirengens and E. coli) and parasitic causes of diarrhea were identified by appropriate technique. The viral causes were diagnosed using ELISA technique. The bacteria were isolated by culturing and were confirmed by polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The parasitic causes studied using microscopic examination. To identify the cause of diarrhea 400 samples (200 from each district) were collected and processed for viral, bacterial and parasitic detection.
The results showed that 91.1% of the samples were positive for one or more infectious agents. District wise results showed that the prevalence of more or more than infectious agents were higher in district Lahore (95.5%) as compared to district Sargodha which was 87.5%. The isolation of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in males it is 92.7% while were low in females which was 90.5%. The results showed that the prevalence of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in horses (92.4%) in comparision with donkey which was 87.8%.
Experiment No. I: Investigation of Parasitic causes of Foal Diarrhea
Fecal samples were preserved in 10% formalin and transported to the laboratory for diagnosis of parasites. The fecal samples from foals suffering from diarrhea were processed by using following parasitological examination.
4. Direct microscopic examination
The sample negative with direct microscopic examination was examined using simple floatation examination.
5. Simple floatation examination
The sample negative with Simple floatation examination was examined by using sedimentation floatation technique.
6. Sedimentation floatation Technique
The sample negative by using Sedimentation technique was recorded as negative for parasites.
The results show that 340 (85%) out of 400 samples were positive for one or more than one endo-parasites. The prevalence of endo-parasites was higher in district Sargodha it is 87.5% as compared to district Lahore, which was 82.5% (Table No.7). Gastrodiscus Spp were the higher prevalent endo-parasite and 308 (77%) (Table No. 10) of the samples were positive for Gastrodiscus Spp while the lowest prevalent endo-parasite was Anoplocephala spp with (3) 0.75% prevalence (Table No. 12). other helmenth such as Dictyocaulus Spp. (22.5%), Oxyuris Spp. (15.75%), Strongyloides Spp. (15.75%), Ascaris equorum (4.75), Tridontophorus Spp. (2%), Trichomena spp. (1.5%) Strongylus spp. (1.5%), and Paranoplocephala Spp. (5%)
Experiment No. II: Molecular Diagnosis of Bacteria Causes of Foal Diarrhea
The samples were culture for Salmonella, E.coli and Clostridium perfirengins on respective selective media and DNA was extracted from the culture. DNA was amplified by PCR and the bacteria were confirm using PCR. To diagnose Lasonia the DNA was extracted directly from fecal sample and were processed for lawsonia. The result show that 55% of the samples were positive for one or more than one type of bacteria. Maximum prevalence were observe of E. coli 48.75% and none of the sample were positive for lawsonia. The other isolated bacteria were Salmonella 18.24% and Clostridium perfiengens 18%.
Experiment No. III: Investigation of Viral causes of Foal Diarrhea
Foal suffering from diarrhea were screened and analyzed for presence of rotavirus by using commercially available ELISA kit
The result of detection of rotavirus shows that rotavirus was detected in (70) 17.5% of the sample processed for the diagnosis of rotavirus.
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Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis, Economic Losses and Control of Haemonchosis in Sheep and Goats
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: CD not available.
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Prevalence, Molecular Diagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Degnala Disease In Large Ruminants Of Punjab.
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: In Pakistan, Livestock is considered as a social security for poor villager as it can be a source of cash at the time of need. Degnala disease reduces the production of these animals directly. Along with other side issues related to Degnala disease, this study was done to diagnose the actual cause of Degnala disease by applying different latest scientific techniques. Prevalence along with risk factors was calculated in the rice growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Fungal isolation (n=40) was performed from the rice straw feedings of the Degnala disease affected animals through the technique of spot culture on SDA. Then these fungal isolates were identified through comparing their microscopic and macroscopic characters. Then toxigenic potential was checked for all these isolates through the application of TLC and HPLC. After that, from those isolates which were positive for mycotoxin production potential, most cytotoxic isolate was checked with the application of MTT assay. Then the most cytotoxic isolate was inoculated on non-contaminated rice straw and fed to the experimental animals to see a similarity of natural cases of Degnala disease. Finally treatment was conducted to see a proper combination of various drugs against this disease.
Toxigenic potential of different candidate fungi, isolated from rice straw feeding of Degnala disease affected bovines was analysed along with Species, age, gender and season wise prevalence. Out of 1536, 104 (6.77%) cases showed positive signs for this disease with a significant association (p<0.05) between rice straw feeding in buffaloes, winter season and bovines having an age of more than one year. Complete Blood Count showed marked increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and all white blood cells numbers, except lymphocytes in positive cases. There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in Alanine amino transferase, Aspartate amino transferase and Alkaline phosphatase noticed in Liver Function Test. At the same time, increased value of Creatinine was noticed in Renal Function Test. For isolation and screening of toxigenic fungi, rice straw samples (n=40) being fed to the positive cases were processed further, out of which there were 85 fungal isolates mainly of Aspergillus (57), Penicillium (10), Fusarium (04), Zygomycetes (03), Curvularia (01) and unidentified (10). All isolated fungi were subjected for mycotoxin production and only 11 showed mycotoxin producing capability (including Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium isolates) analysed by Thin Layer Chromatography and quantified through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. It is concluded that all the fungi, contaminating rice straw feeding of Degnala affected animals are not toxigenic. This work will help in establishing major mycotoxin producing fungi leading to the probable cause of Degnala disease in bovine.
With the help of MTT assay on vero cell line, most cytotoxic fungus was identified. After an incubation with vero cells, OD values of all the candidate fungi were compared through one way ANOVA. Results of this analysis showed that Fusarium was at the highest ranking and then was the A. flavus with a significant value of 0.006 and 0.039.
Finally it was concluded through these systematic steps of converging the diagnosis that, out of all the 85 suspected fungi, Fusarium (isolate number S 8.1) was the most cytotoxic isolate obtained from the rice straw feedings of Degnala affected animals in our study.
For molecular diagnosis of the most cytotoxic isolate of Fusarium, PCR was conducted and the results showed that ultimately the final PCR product was successfully amplified against the mentioned primer of ITS conserved region for Fusarium genera and the DNA product was with a length of 570 base pairs.
Experimental feeding trials were conducted by inoculating Fusarium (the most cytotoxic isolate) and A. flavus (second most cytotoxic one after Fusarium) separately and in combination compared with the negative control group, all groups were of eight animals each. It was concluded that alone Fusarium was able to produce Degnala disease, while its combination with A. flavus was more lethal.
Ultimately the treatment trials proceeded with penta-sulphate, oxytetracycline and antiseptic topical application as therapeutic treatment were shown to be very effective against Degnala cases. While in all the affected animals feeding of affected rice straw was ceased. Only withdrawal of affected rice straw from the feedings of Degnala affected animals was not effective unless proper treatment as mentioned here was not conducted.
analysed The expected results of the study shall be helpful to make exact diagnosis and treatment of infected buffaloes and cattle that is further helpful for timely prophylaxis and control of the Degnala disease in the rice growing areas of Pakistan and South Asia.
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A Study On Postural Sway In Horses During Different Sedation Protocols Along With Clinico-Biochemical Evaluation In Clinical Cases
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: 6.1. Observational study of postural sway using accelerometer in horses sedated with different sedative combinations
Balance is the ability to maintain center of gravity by a body within the base of support, whereas the phenomenon of continuous movement and improvement of the position of the center of gravity within the base of support is referred to as postural sway. Most of the living creatures including man, horse and other animals need to maintain their postural balance for their daily requirements, as most of them are either bipeds or quadrupeds. To attain this balance, co-ordination between sensory system, skeletal muscle system and the central nervous system is required. These systems are responsible for the pattern of walk in the horses, which is called as gait. Any abnormality in the nervous system results in an altered gait, which if assessed properly is a useful tool in diagnosing many ailments & disorders of the locomotor system. To assess these changes in the gait pattern, many methods have evolved over the years. The gait can be assessed by Kinematic or Kinetic Analysis. An accelerometer is a detecting element that measures acceleration. Accelerometers can measure: vibrations, shocks, tilt, impacts and motion of an object. An accelerometer by itself is only a sensing element, in order for it to be useful the sensor needs to be combined with other elements such as, power, logic, memory and a means to translate the output. An acceleration recorder incorporates all of these elements into one package.
There is a measurable difference in postural sway at stance between different sedation protocols. This study aims to document and quantify the postural sway of horses undergoing various sedation protocols, with the aim of identifying a sedation protocol that will reduce sway and improve the ease with which standing non-painful diagnostic imaging procedures (Radiography, Scintigraphy and MRI) can be carried out. The present study assessed the postural sway during sedation in horses and evaluated a sedation protocol with minimal sway in horses. Equine surgery depends heavily on various imaging procedures. Diagnostic imaging plays important roles-first, in diagnosing and localising a disease process; second, in assessing the surgical intervention to be applied; and third, in the follow-up evaluation of the patient. Many imaging techniques like Radiography, Ultrasonography, Scintigraphy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography are used at veterinary hospitals and clinics, the world over. In order to achieve good results for these diagnostic modalities, various drugs and their combinations have been used by scientists to achieve good standing sedation in horses (e.g., Acepromazine, Butorphanol, Detomidine, Ketamine, Romifidine, Xylazine, etc.). The reason for integrating sedations which use combinations with Ketamine in this study and its different effect on the musculature i.e. increasing the muscle tone, while the alpha2-agonists (Romifidine, Detomidine, Xylazine), all reduced the muscle tone. Potentially, increasing the muscle tone of a horse will reduce the sway, as the constant correction of postural position with reduced muscle tone may be avoided. Horses that are In-Patients and Out-Patients brought to the Large Animal Hospital, Dept. of Vet. Clinical Studies, EBVC, RDSVS, UoE, UK, and have the medical need for diagnostic imaging procedures, and that require sedation so that these procedures can be carried out safely, were included in the study. The measurements were recorded pre-sedation and post-sedation while the horse is being imaged. The horses were observed during Radiography, Ultrasonography, Scintigraphy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or some other minor/major surgical intervention, under the influence of standing sedation. The body sway was measured using a MicroStrain G-link wireless triaxial accelerometer. It was secured on the skin above the midline of the sacrum with adhesive tape. Both sway episodes as well as continuous postural adaptations was assessed from the sum vector of the three acceleration traces.
The results of current study showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean values of postural sway between different drug groups. All drug combinations produced sedation in standing horses. However, pre-sedation mean values were significantly different from post-sedation mean values of postural sway. This shows that the subjects which were administered different combinations of sedatives exhibited variation in the postural control over time that is the readings of accelerometer either increased or decreased after sedation when compared to baseline (pre-sedation) values. The findings of current investigation also revealed a significant combined effect of drug groups and measurement time. Which means that the horses within groups, administered with different sedative combinations showed a change in postural sway values measured by accelerometer over time and these mean values either increased or decreased post-sedation. However, Post hoc Tukey’s test could not establish a significant difference (p<0.05) in the multiple comparision tests. Although post-sedation mean values of postural sway of group 2 (romifidine alone) and group 7 (detomidine alone) were different from pre-sedation values (p<0.1).
The mean values of accelerometer for group 1 (detomidine+butorphenol) and group 4 (xylazine alone) were decreased from pre-sedation values that means the horses in these groups were more stable and had better control over their stance when compared with pre-sedation values. In the current study, the mean values of accelerometer for group 2 (romifidine alone) and group 7 (detomidine alone) were increased from pre-sedation values that means the horses in these groups were less stable and had poor control over their stance. This showed that detomidine alone with a dose range of 3 to 9 μg/kg is insufficient for standing procedures.
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