Epidemiology Diagnosis And Chemotherpy Of Strangles In Equines
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Strangles is an infectious malady of equidae characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis and causes high morbidity and low mortality. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan.
The present study comprised of five phases. In phase-I, epidemiology of the disease including prevalence, variations in SeM, SzPSe and Se18.9 proteins and mortality rate were studied in Lahore and Sargodha districts. For epidemiology, nasal swabs and pus samples from the affected lymph nodes of 500 equines (nr=250 horses, rutz250 mules) suspected for strangles were collected and cultured for identification of S. equl. The collected samples were processed at Medicine and Microbiology Laboratories of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lhore, Pakistan and Gluck equine research center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, USA. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules, 113(45.2%) horses and 99 (3 9.6%) mules tested positive for S. equi. on the basis of culture. Number of S. equl isolates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in pus samples taken from sub-mandibular lymph nodes as compared to nasal discharge samples. The difference was significant (P<0.05) among mules of different age groups. The highest prevalence of strangles
was recorded in horses and mules less than 2 year of age as compared to those having age more than 2 years.
In the present study, prevalence of strangles round the year in horses and mules were also calculated and it was found to be the highest during the months of
February, March, April and May while few cases were seen during the months of January, June and July and no cases were observed during others months. The significant difference was observed (p<O.O5) among the prevalence levels of strangles in different months of the year. Similarly when compared the prevalence of strangles in different seasons of Pakistan i.e. summer, winter, spring and autumn. The highest prevalence rate was recorded during the spring season.
The prevalence on the basis of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of S. equi in horses and mules was also recorded. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules tested, 122(48.8%) horses and 113(45.2%) mules were positive for S. equi. When compared
the prevalence rate on the basis of PCR and culture of nasal and pus samples from affected submandibular lymph nodes it revealed that the sensitivity of Polymerase
chain reaction appears to be much greater than culture. The culture along with PCR is the best diagnostic technique for S. equi as PCR test does not differentiate between dead and live bacteria, hence a positive test may not correlate with active infection; therefore, a positive culture may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
In this phase of epidemiological study of disease, effect of selective pressure of allelic diversity in SeM of S. equi on immunoreactive proteins SzPSe and Se 18.9 was also studied. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in SeM are accompanied by variations in the immunoreactive surface of exposed SzPSe and secreted Se18.9. Sequences of genes of 25 S. equi alleles isolated from different countries of the world over a period of 40 years were compared. Twenty different SeM alleles were identified including 6 not included in the data base (http:// pubmlst.org/szooepidemicus). Amino acid variation was also detected distal to the N- terminus of SeM. No variation was observed in SzPSe except for an Australian isolate which showed a deletion of one PEPK repeat. The Se 18.9 protein in all 25 isolates of S. equi did not exhibit any variation. Interestingly, only 2 SNP loci were detected in Se 18.9 compared to 93 and 49 in SeM and SzPSe respectively. The greater frequency of mutation in SzPSe compared to Se18.9 may be related to a high rate of recombination of SzPSe and the inclusion of exogenous DNA sequence based on the atypical GC percentage of its central hyper variable region.
In horses the mortality rate was recorded as 1.64% whereas the mortality rate in mules having less than 5 years of age was found to be 0.88%. No significant difference (P>0.05) in mortality rate among horses and mules of different age groups affected with strangles was observed.
In phase-I! of the present study, carrier status of the horses and mules were
studied. Out of 122 horses found positive to PCR, 20 horses (10<2 years and 10 between 2 and 5 years of age) were selected and monitored for 12 weeks. Their nasal
swab samples were used for identification of bacteria through culture and PCR on weekly basis. Till the end of 3rd week all horses <2 years of age remained positive but at the end of 4th to 7th weeks there remained positive only 5, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture whereas through PCR at the end of the 4th week all horse <2 years of age were found positive, but at the end of 5th to 10th weeks there remained 7, 5, 4, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively. While all the horses aging between 2 to 5 year, were positive up to the 1St week but at the end of 2nd to 8th week out of 10 there were 9, 7, 6, 3, 1, 1 and zero horses respectively positive on the basis of culture but through PCR, all horses were positive till 4th week but at the end of 5th to 9th week number was reduced to 9, 7, 6, 3, 2 and zero. Similarly, out of 113 mules, 20 mules (10<2 year and 10 between 2 and 5 years of old) were also monitored for 12 weeks to study their carrier status. After the end of 2nd week all mules <2 years of age were positive but at the end of 3rd to 6th weeks there remained 7, 3, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR at the end of the 5th week all mules <2 years of age were positive, but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there remained 9, 7, 3, 2 and zero mules out of 10, respectively. While in 2 and 5 year old mules, all were positive up to the 2nd week but at the end of 3rd to 7th weeks there were 6, 4, 2, 1, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR, all mules were positive up to 5th week but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there were 8, 5, 2, 1 and zero. Horses and mules were declared free of infection on the basis of three consecutive negative samples through culture and PCR.
From the result of present study, it may be concluded that sensitivity of Polymerase Chain Reaction appears to be much greater than culture for study of carrier status of equines. Moreover, recovered animals should be kept in quarantine period at least upto 9th week because the recovered horses and mules remain carrier for prolonged period of time and can act as source of infection for susceptible animals through periodic shedding of S equi. (comprising 10 horses and 10 mules) for in-vivo trials. Efficacy of the antibiotics was assessed weekly on the basis of negative nasal swab culture. Results of in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity revealed that in horses and mules, S equi was most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine, erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim + sulfdiazine and gentamycin whereas the result of in-vivo antibiotic trials revealed that horses and mules suffered from strangles without abscess formation were most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine and erythromycin whereas animals which developed abscess showed no response. It is concluded from the result of present study that Procaine penicillin is most effective in-vitro and in-vivo antibiotic followed by ceftiofur Na and cephradine. These antibiotics might be used for the treatment of strangles infection.
Phase-V, comprised over in-vitro trials of disinfectants. Efficacy of disinfectants, like povidone iodine, 0.6% H2S04, dettol and bleach was assessed. Phenol Co-efficient Test was applied, to ascertain efficacy of these disinfectants, used
in, in-vitro trials. Among four disinfectants, povidone iodine was found to be the best one with a phenol coefficient of 1.25 that is greater than phenol i.e. 1.00 while 0.6%
H2S04 showed similar phenol coefficient as that of phenol. The phenol coefficient of dettol and bleach were observed as 0.5 and 0.75 respectively. Therefore it is recommended that S. equi is highly sensitive to povidone iodine and 0.6% H2S04.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1211,T] (1).
Studies On Cyanide Toxicity In Ruminants
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted with the objectives to: (a) determine the cyanogenic potential of various livestock fodder and grasses, (b) determine CN? content in blood of ruminants feeding cyanogenic plants, (c) develop a simple, reliable and inexpensive assay for the determination of CN? in blood, (d) evaluate the efficacy of various antidotes against CN? toxicity in a rabbit model, (e) find out the effect of CN? on hematological and biochemical profile, (f) study the postmortem and histopathological changes associated with CN? toxicity in various organs and (g) study alterations in tissue oxygenation and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity in pigs. For this purpose a total of 500 samples of various plants being used as fodder to livestock were collected from the field and analyzed for CN? content spectrophotometerically. To develop a simple picrate method for CN? estimation in blood, two goats were infused with KCN at 0.6mg/kg for 1 hours. Blood samples were collected at intervals and were subjected to the general method. Standard curve was developed using standard solutions of various concentrations of CN?. Additionally 6 rabbits were also given CN? orally for 40 days and blood samples were collected for CN? estimation. Later on, this method was successfully used to determine CN? levels from 500 blood samples of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats (n=125 each) feeding cyanogenic plants which were collected from the field. For antidotal studies forty two rabbits were randomly divided into seven groups viz. A, B, C, D, E, F and G each comprising of six animals. Rabbits in group A were given feed only and served as negative control, while the rabbits in group B received feed plus oral solution of potassium cyanide (KCN) and were positive control. Animals in group C were given feed, KCN and intraperitoneal (IP) injection of garlic extract. Rabbits in group D were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of sodium thiosulfate (STS). Members in group E received feed, KCN and IP injection of both garlic extract and sodium nitrite (SNT). Animals in group F were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of both STS and SNT whereas the rabbits in group G were given feed, KCN and hydroxocobalamin IP. The treatments were given to respective groups for a period of 40 days. At the end of 40 days, serum and fresh urine samples were drawn from each rabbit to study biochemical panel. Subsequently the rabbits were euthanized for postmortem and histopathological changes in various organs. For hematological and growth rate studies 12 rabbits were divided into two groups of six viz. A and B. Rabbits in group A were given feed only while members in group B were treated with feed and oral KCN at 3mg/kg for 40 days. The animals were weighed after every 10 days. Feed consumption rate, feed efficiency and weight gain for the members of each group were recorded. Blood samples were also collected for hematological studies at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. To study tissue oxygen and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity, 26 piglets were anesthetized. The non-invasive monitors were used to measured oxygen saturation, heart rate and rhythm and cerebral response to sedation. The invasive monitors were placed to measured beat to beat variability of the arterial blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressures. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) and cardiac output were continuously monitored. Regional brain O2 (cerebral cortex) and skeletal muscle O2 saturation (rSO2) were also measured via sensors. After getting baseline metabolic and hemodynamic measurements that included arterial and venous blood gas analysis, lactates and cyanide levels, all pigs were started on an infusion of NaCN (0.55 mg/kg/hr). The infusion continued until the occurrence of sustained apnea (?3 minutes). A non-significant difference was found in the CN? content of Sorghum bicolor and S. sudanese, while a significant difference was observed between the CN? content of Jumbo grass (S. bicolor x S. Sudanese hybrid) and S. halepense. Jumbo grass and S. halepense were found to have significantly higher CN? concentrations than S. bicolor or S. Sudanese. Maize has significantly lower CN? content compared to S. bicolor, S. sudanese, Jumbo grass, or S. halepense. A gradual increase in CN? content with increasing height of plants was also observed. Highest CN? levels were observed at heights of 91-100 cm in sorghum varieties. At greater heights, a gradual decrease in CN? content was seen in all plant species, with the lowest levels at heights of 200 cm or above. No CN? was detected in maize at heights over 131 cm. In picrate method, the calibration curve was linear (R2=0.99) in the range of 0.3-120 mg CN?/L. In standard CN? solutions a color change in picrate paper from yellow to brown was observed at a concentration of 3 mg CN?/L and above. This method was sufficiently sensitive to quantify the low concentrations (0.3mg CN?/L) of CN? found in ruminant blood. In goats infused with KCN, the CN? concentration in blood was time-dependent and continued rising during infusion, gradually declining after infusion ceased after 1 h. Blood CN? levels showed a time-dependent increase in all experimental rabbits with the maximum concentration (1.34 mg/L) at day 40. The highest blood CN? concentrations were found in cattle, followed by goats and buffalo, with the lowest in sheep. When blood CN? levels of these species were compared statistically, a non-significant difference was observed. A non-significant difference was found between males and females. No relationship was observed between blood CN? levels and age of the animal for any species. Buffalo, cattle, sheep, and goats allowed to graze showed significantly higher blood CN? levels than animals kept in a stall feeding system. Animals grazing on jumbo grass were found to have significantly higher blood CN? levels than those fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese with a non-significant difference found between animals fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese. No CN? was detected in blood samples of animals fed maize. Hydroxocobalamine was found to be a significantly more effective CN? antidote than garlic, STS, SNT plus garlic extract, or SNT and STS, either alone or in combination. A combination of SNT and garlic extract was the second most effective CN? antidote. The efficacy of garlic alone was significantly higher than STS or SNT in combination with STS. The efficacy of combined SNT and STS was superior to STS alone in treating rabbits with CN? toxicity. No rabbits in any group demonstrated gross deviation from the normal organ structure. The activities of serum ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH enzymes, as well as serum bilirubin, were significantly increased in CN? treated rabbits compared to controls. Severe hepatocyte vacuolation and degeneration were present in liver of rabbits in the CN? treated group. Liver of rabbits in the control group showed normal morphological patterns. The concentrations of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly higher in CN? treated rabbits than in control group. Urinary thiocyanate levels were also significantly higher in the CN? group than in controls. Kidneys of rabbits in the CN? group demonstrated severe glomerular and tubular necrosis and congestion. Pyknotic nuclei were present in tubular epithelial cells, whereas a normal histological pattern was observed in kidneys of rabbits in control group. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly lower in the CN? group compared to controls. A non-significant difference in blood glucose levels was recorded between rabbits in control and CN? treated groups, and histological examination of pancreas revealed no microscopic lesions. No significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol levels of CN? and control group rabbits. The serum albumin and total protein concentration in CN? treated rabbits were significantly lower than in the control group. Heart of rabbits in both CN? and control group did not show histopathological changes under microscopic examination. The erythrocyte count, the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were all found to be significantly lower in blood of CN? treated rabbits than control group. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher in the CN? group rabbits than control group animals. On the other hand, the difference in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets were non-significant. The difference in total and daily feed consumption between CN? and control group rabbits was non-significant, whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than for rabbits in CN? fed group. The net weight gain of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than in the CN? fed group. Cyanide infusion to pigs resulted in toxic levels of blood CN? accompanied by lactic acidosis. In addition, there was a progressive increase in cardiac output, Venous oxygen saturation, heart rate, elevation of central venous pressure and pulmonary artery blood pressure. Skeletal muscle rSO2 progressively and significantly decreased with increasing lactate and CN? levels. However, there was no significant change in brain rSO2.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1322,T] (1).
Sero Epidemiology Transmission Dynamics And Hematological Studies On Neospora Caninum In Dairy Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The current study was carried out in two districts of the Punjab province (pakistan),
viz. Lahore and Narowallocated;on the eastern part of the province bordering Indian Punjab
and the first study assessing the epidemiology of N caninum in dairy buffalo in Pakistan.
Overall, the true sercprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy buffalo (assessed by using
cELISA validated for buffalo by using IFAT as reference test) of the two districts was 39.4 %
with no significant difference in the prevalence of N caninum antibodies between male
(29.5%) and female (41.5%) dairy buffalo. However, in the Lahore district alone, the
prevalence in the female (46.1 %) buffalo was significantly higher than in their male (23.8%)
counterparts. In contrast, in Narowal district, the prevalence in male (42.4%) buffalo was
higher than females (32.2%) but this difference was not statistically different. The other risk
factors evaluated in regards to the prevalence of N caninum in buffalo were similar overall in
both the districts; these included age-specific, season-specific, pregnancy-specific, parity-
specific, abortion-specific and dog contact-specific prevalence. The difference in sero-
prevalence was not significant amongst all the ages but was significant between the younger
" 3yrs.) and adult (> 3yrs.) age buffalo. The adult buffalo showed a higher prevalence of N
caninum antibodies compared with younger buffalo. Anyhow, the age group of buffalo >3-5
yrs. showed consistently the highest prevalence of N caninum antibodies overall and in both
the districts in the current study. The summer season was the one in which buffalo of the two
districts and overall showed the highest prevalence, followed by high prevalence in autumn; while
the lowest prevalence of N caninum antibodies was observed in buffalo sampled during the
winter. The prevalence in the higher parities buffalo was significantly higher than the lower parity
and pregnant heifers. The prevalence in pregnant dams was significantly higher than in non-
pregnant buffalo in the herds in different areas of the two districts.
Similarly, aborting buffalo in regular contact with dogs- at the dairy properties showed significantly
higher prevalence of N. caninum antibodies than non-aborting buffalo without the contact of dog.
The serological analysis-of dogs (using cELIS A) present at some dairy buffalo
properties generally showed high prevalence of N. caninum; antibodies at the dairy properties
where the buffalo were in regular contact with dogs compared with farm premises and their
buffalo without any contact with dogs at the farm. This signifies the roleof the dogs in the
. transmission of N. caninum oocysts and infection to buffalo (intermediate host) as the isolates
of dog and bovine origin has been reported to be identical (Stenlund et al., 1997).
The analysis of milk samples from the dairy buffalo. also tested for serum antibodies
using iscom (immune stimulating complex) ELISA and showed a good level of agreement
(Kappa ratio=O.567) between the performance of two tests (iscom ELISA versus cELISA).
However, the cELIS A (VMRD, Pullman, W A) showed higher sero-positivity compared to
iscom ELISA (SV ANOV A, Uppsala, Sweden). Therefore, the use of either ELISA used on
milk for evaluating the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in buffalo can give good results
. for lactating buffalo, but cELIS A appeared to have superior sensitivity in our study. The use
of iscom ELISA offers advantages regarding ease of sampling and repeated screening of
lactating herds but with little lower sensitivity than serum antibody cELISA.
The co-existence of N. caninum with Br. abortus, another important abortifacient
pathogen in buffalo, is quite significant as the probability of such infectious abortions is
increased in the susceptible herds resulting in more economic losses compared to those
caused by single pathogen. The co-existence of Br. abortus in N. caninum seropositive
buffalo in the current study was 13.2%, while the overall prevalence of Br. abortus antibodies
in buffalo of two districts was 12.2%. The prevalence trend of Bt: abortus was related to age,
though not exclusively; as prevalence continued to increase with age except in the age groups
of 6-7 yrs, and> 7 yrs. old buffalo. The higher prevalence in the adult age groups indicates
the association of Br. abortus with development of the reproductive system of the host
(buffalo). It also suggests the increase in the exposure of the buffalo to the pathogen with
increase.in age to some good extent. However, this prevalence was statistically not signific~
in all the age groups of buffalo. The prevalence of co-existence was highest (18.5%) in -,
buffalo >3-5 yrs. old followed by 18.2% in buffalo >7 yrs. age. Howe er, statistically, the
difference in the prevalence of co-existing antibodies against N caninum and Br. abortus in
buffalo was not significant.
Hematological analysis of the N caninum sere-positive and sero-negative dairy
buffalo for different haematological determinants, such as total leukocytic counts (TLC),
differential leukocytic counts (DLC), RBCs, haemoglobin, haematocrit, platelets and blood
plasma glucose level showed no difference in sero-positive and sero-negative two groups
particularly, regarding the effect of sero-positivity in buffalo. Albeit, some interactions such
as season x N caninum seropositivity showed significantly lower monocyte counts and high
blood glucose level in N caninum sere-positive buffalo compared with sero-negative buffalo.
Overall, in both groups no significant changes were observed in the seropositive buffalo
compare to sero-negative ones. Some interaction have independently affected certain
haematological parameters although, the animals were not seropositive. This suggests the
effect of some environmental factors and physiology states of the buffalo on its haematological
dynamics. These effects included the effect of lactation on the lymphocyte count in the lactating
and non-lactating buffalo, where lymphocyte counts were higher in non-lactating compared with
lactating buffalo most possibly due to the recruitment of lymphocytes in the udder for excretion in
milk. Similarly, blood haemoglobin was lower in the hot months and packed cell volume was
higher in the cooler months of the year in the buffalo.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1366,T] (1).
Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Cattle
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great
economic importance in cattle industry. The current project was designed to estimate the
prevalence of anaplasmosis, ticks and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of
Anaplasma marginale among cattle in Sargodha, Khushab and Rawalpindi districts,
Punjab, Pakistan. Moreover, haematological changes in A. marginale infected cattle and
efficacy of chemosterilization regimens were evaluated using locally available drugs for
the elimination of adult naturally infected carrier cattle.
A total of 1050 blood, serum and tick specimens were collected from randomly
selected small holders (n=90) and private livestock farms (n= 12) using multistage cluster
random sampling technique. A total of 30 union councils, 34 cattle farms (30 small
holders and 4 livestock farms) and 350 cattle were selected as primary, secondary and
elementary sampling units from each district. Sampling unit was indigenous and
crossbred cattle of both the sexes.
Microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood mears revealed an overall
prevalence of blood parasites as 21.14%. Anaplasma marginale was the highe t prevalent
(5.81 %) haernoparasite of cattle followed in order by Theileria sp. (5.14%) and Babesia
bigemina (4.76%), respectively. Crossbred cattle were more susceptible to TBDs as
compared to the indigenous cattle. Highest prevalence of TBDs was recorded in summer.
The prevalence of tick-transmitted diseases was higher in small holders (31.3%) than
private livestock farms (17.5%). Chi square analysis indicated a significant association
(P<0.05) among indigenous and crossbred cattle to selected TBDs. Wherea. non-
significant association between different age groups, seasons, sex and farm sizes were
The overall seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle using cELlSA was
31.05%. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred cattle of more than 4 years of age and
there was a significant (P<O.OO I) association between different age groups and breed. The
seroprevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in summer season in Sargodha and
Khushab districts. Moreover, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in small holders
in all study districts.
The epidemiological data and relevant information regarding area, host and farm
management factors were collected on a questionnaire through interview from each dairy
farmer, attendant or manager from September, 2009 to August, 20 10. Multivariate
analysis of risk factors revealed that cattle of more than 4 year of age (OR=5.42), heavy
tick infested (OR =2.10), crossbred (OR = 1.59) cattle were significantly at higher risk for
seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale. Presence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)
microplus (OR=3.70), use of ivermectin (OR=3.97), moderate interval of acaricide
frequency (OR= 16.50), stall feeding (OR=4.90) and use of unhygienic needles
(OR=24.00) were significantly associated with seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale
in cattle (P<0.05). The Sargodha district was at higher risk (OR = 1.81) as compared to
Khushab and Rawalpindi.
The tick species identified from cattle were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum,
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguine us, Rhipicephalus
(Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. The overall prevalence of tick infestation
among cattle was 54.76%. The highest prevalence (57.71%) of cattle tick infestation was tick infested sites in cattle followed by dewlap (92%), inner thighs (90%), neck & back (54%), tail (26%), ears (13%), around eyes (10%), flanks (4%) and legs (2%).
The haematological changes were studied at different levels of parasitaemia " 7%, >7-15% and> 15%) in Anaplasma marginale infected Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. There was a significant difference (P<O.OS) among total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular
haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) at different levels of rickettsemia in both breeds. ignificant difference (P<O.OS) was noticed among RBCs, PCV and MCH blood parameters between Sahiwal and crossbred cattle.
A total of sixty Anaplasma marginale seropositive adult Sahiwal cattle were selected having their ages between 3-4 years ranging in weight from 246-341 kg. The animals were divided in four groups designated as OXY -group-I, E RO-group-II, IMC- group-III and control-group-IV, comprising IS animals each. The seropositive animals received oxytetracycline (22 mglkg IV once in a day for five days), enrofloxacin (S mglkg IV once in a day for five days) or imidocarb (S mglkg 1M twice, 7 days apart). Re ult of chemosterilization study indicated that oxytetracycline 13/1S (86.67%) and irnidocarb
dipropionate II/IS (73.33%) eliminated Anaplasma marginale infection in adult naturally infected carrier cattle on S6th day. The carrier clearance was confirmed by cELISA followed by subinoculation of blood in seronegative splenectomized calves.
It was concluded that TTBDs are widely distributed in Punjab, Pakistan. Host. management and area factors are involved with the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Haemolytic anaemia is the major haematological finding of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Oxytetracycline is more effective and safe In chemosterilization of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. There is a need for country wide epidemiological studies on ticks and TBDs using advanced serological
and molecular techniques. Moreover, the identification of the potential vector of anaplasmosis should be required for the effective prevention and control of anaplasmosis in Pakistan.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1368,T] (1).
Epidemiology And Prophylaxis Of Babesiosis In Felidae
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1425,T] (1).
Epidemiological Intelligence On Distribution & Dynamics Of Main Transboundary Diseases Of Ruminants In The Central Districts Of Punjab
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1844,T] (1).
Clinico-Epidemiological And Experimental Observations On Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease Among Domesticated Cats
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Idiopathic Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (iFLUTD) has been known as a major as well as important problem throughout the world especially the veterinary profession. Nicks of this problem also found in Pakistan, however the veterinarians are usually unable to properly diagnose this disease due to lack of knowledge as well as the ancillary diagnostic equipment availability for this disease. Present study was divided into two phases. Phase – 1 included clinico-epidemiological data. To this end, target of more than 502 domesticated client-owned cats of either sex, age, breed, etc showing signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) as per Buffington (1994) were examined accordingly from 3 different cities (Lahore, Faisalabad, and Islamabad) of Pakistan). All data collected was based on a predesigned proforma by using structured interview of the owners. Diagnosis was solely based on serum-cortisol levels, urinalysis, radiography and ultrasonography. Phase II involved experimental trial. The data obtained from whole of the study was then presented in tabulated form as frequencies and percentages. Treatment and outcome of the disease were also analyzed accordingly.
According to the present study conducted it is proved that iFLUTD is present among the cats in Pakistan. Its proper cognizance among the Pakistani veterinarians is still non-existent and is misdiagnosed as colic or constipation issues in cats. The present study was undertaken to bring iFLUTD into the reportive of small animal practitioners working in Pakistan. The present study debunked various previous notions like iFLUTD is associated with commercial diets and canned foods only if we talk about this region majority of cases were noticed that had home-cooked food given by the owner. Moreover, cases in Siamese breed are larger than Persian breed. It has been strongly associated with Indoor housing management. Additional work is still needed to explore untouched areas of epidemiology including factors other than those being studied in the previous literature. Academicians in veterinary pathology and veterinary medicine of Pakistani universities should embrace this malady in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) curricula.
According to the present study results it is concluded that two factors like stress and pain accelerate the sympathetic nervous system outflow compared to normal felines leading to the inflammatory response. Thus the stress factor must be reduced in the form of making hiding places for cats at home to reduced down the fear factor along with enhancing the feeling of owes for that particular place. Moreover, some more practices should be performed by the owner to reduce down the stress factor like playing with the pet, giving full attention, placing toys and other attractive things like yarn balls at the feline places (where they live/placed). There was no significant difference found between the groups based on the food with health score along with the therapeutic judgment. Hence, it is recommended that more experiments should be performed on larger scale to assess GAG therapy on increased number of felines and need of hour is to conduct more veterinary studies to get information and authenticity for its use against iFLUTD.
From this study conducted, I recommend to the owners that the cats must be provided with the indoor hiding places and play with their pets in order to reduce the stress factor that increases the risk of idiopathic lower urinary tract disease. Moreover, the trend of home-cooked diet should be reduced along with increase in water intake by the cat.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2420-T] (1).