Study On Autologous And Homologous Platelet Rich Plasma As A Surgical Wound Healing Promoter In Rabbits
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Wound healing is a complex process in which tissue repairs itself with the complete or incomplete regeneration. During recent years, new advances have been employed in the monarchy of tissue healing by initiation of use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) as a wound healing promoter in both soft and hard tissue surgeries. Platelet rich plasma is highly potentiated with growth and healing factors that can lead to marked acceleration in the tissue adaptation, repair and healing as compared to PRP non-facilitated healing process. This study was conducted on 16 adult healthy rabbits contributing 2 different groups, each group with 8 rabbits. Rabbits of both groups were surgically operated for skin autogenous grafting. Group A received an application of autologous PRP subcutaneously and in the surroundings of the graft defect, while group B received homologous PRP. Efficacy of both autologous and homologous PRP was evaluated on the basis of selected macroscopic and microscopic (histopathological) parameters of tissue repair and healing. The results, obtained in form of grades, were statistically analyzed by graphical representations. A successful use of autologous and homologous PRP with the desired results did not only boost up the surgical success rate in the specie under study but it opened a new vista on the same lines for other species to bring a better wound healing process. This study uprooted the conventional methods of managing wounds associated with injuries and helped the animals to get confidently satisfactory health status.
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Effects And Remedial Measures Of Aflatoxin B1 On Bovine Calves In Punjab
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Aflatoxins B1 are most toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus fungi in/on foods and feeds, probably best known and most intensively researched aflatoxins globally. AFB1 have been associated with several diseases, e.g. aflatoxicosis in livestock, pets including humans throughout the world. Occurrence of AFB1 is influenced by certain environmental factors like geographic location, agro-economic practices and susceptibility of feed commodities to fungal invasion during pre-harvest, storage, and processing periods. AFB1 has grabbed greater attention than any other mycotoxins due to their demonstrated potent carcinogenic effect in susceptible animals and their acute toxicological effects in humans. As the absolute safety will be never achieved, most of the world struggled to limit aflatoxin exposure by imposing regulations on feed commodities.
So, in this study, we had collected 67 concentrated samples, thirty six samples from Gujranwala and thirty one from Kasur to examine the occurrence of aflatoxin B1. The aims of this study were to investigate the aflatoxin B1 in calf feed, effect of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 on productive performance of calves and determine the comparative efficacy of commercially available mycotoxin binders and liver tonics against AFB1 in bovine calves. Feed samples were obtained from different livestock farms and cattle feed mills, toxin levels in each feed sample were determined by HPLC. AFB1 level was higher at feed mills (40.33±2.21 ppb and 49.0±1.95 ppb) than farms (34.96±2.65 ppb and 44.95±2.41 ppb) both in Gujranwala and Kasur respectively. Fungus was isolated and grown on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar on the basis of microscopic characters and species within genus characterized by colony characters/macroscopic characters, mostly Aspergillus species was present in the feed samples which produce mycotoxins. The second most prevalent species were the Fusarium. Mucor and the Pencillium were respectively third and fourth in number. Our results have shown that Alternaria was not present in Gujranwala and Rhizopus was absent in the feed samples collected from the Kasur. Out of mycotoxin contaminated concentrate feed samples, the highest frequency of Aspergillus (43.3%) was observed, followed by Fusaram (38.8%), Mucor (8.9%), Penicillium(5.9%), Rhizopus (1.5%) and Alternaria species (1.5%).
Our results also indicated that growth of Aspergillus spp. can be minimized by controlling the different factors like pH, temperature, light and humidity, which are essential for the proper growth and development. The antifungal activity of methanolic extract of clove, neem and garlic was also determined in which maximum MIC showed by garlic.
Thirty six bovine calves of 6 to 12 months of age were kept in UVAS, Pattoki campus (Ravi Campus) .in four different replicates having 9 animals each. Different concentrations, i.e. 0.6 mg/kg, 0.8 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg was administered along with concentrated feed and check out productive performance along with physiological profile. The most pathological concentration of aflatoxin B1 in experiment number 3 was given to the two groups of bovine calves along with two different commercially available mycotoxin binders i.e. Yeast based and second one was clay based HSCAS mycotoxin binder at recommended doses. Efficacy of mycotoxin binders on feed samples was analyzed by using HPLC and also evaluates the productive performance of the animals.Efficacy of two liver tonics i.e.silymarin and choline chloride was observed on CBC, LFT and RFT of bovine calves.
Present study has clearly displayed the adverse effect of aflatoxin B1 on feed consumption, hematological and serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney in bovine calf. Results indicated that HSCAS mycotoxin adsorbent was able to fully detoxify aflatoxin B1. Silymarin had great impact on the liver to cope the adverse effects of the AFB1 as compared to the choline chloride, which was proved with the help of CBC, LFT and RFT.
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Comparative Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Levamisole, Piperazine And Pineapple Leaves Extract(Ananascomosus)Against Ascaridiosis In Captive Java Sparrow (Lonchuraoryzivora)
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Ascaradia galli imposes major health problems on pet birds including the java sparrows. It retards growth, decrease body condition, and lowers the clutch size which imparts huge economic losses to breeders and birds owner. Over dosage of frequently used anthelmintic increase the risk of adverse effects and stress on birds. So there arises a need to adapt alternative therapeutic approaches.
The present study was designed to compare the anthelmintic activity of frequently used synthetic drugs levamisole and piperazine and herbal drug pineapple leave extracts against ascariasis in java sparrows.To study the comparative anthelmintic efficacy of levamisole, piperazine and pineapple leave extract against Ascaridia galli in captive java sparrows, fecal sample of (n=200) java sparrows captive for breeding purpose were screened for the Ascaridiagalli by direct fecal smear method. Among the all the infected birds 30 infected and 10 healthy birds were selected to conduct the study and divided into 4 groups and included in therapeutic trial.Birds were treated with levamisole, with piperazine and with pineapple leaves extract according to standard dose rate and route of administration in Group A, B & C respectively, Fourth group D comprising of 10 birds waskept as negative control. To evaluate the comparative efficacy of drugs, EPG will be calculated according to McMaster Technique post treatment at day 0 and after treatment on 7th, 14th and 21s. Results revealed that levimosle was the very effective against Ascaradia galli in java sparrows. Levaimsole decrease the average EPG of treated group to 50 from 600 and show 100 percent efficacy against Ascaradia galli and recovered all the infected birds of the group A. Piperazine was less effective as compare to the levamisole but show more effectiveness as compare to the pineapple leave extract. Piperazine reduced the average EPG of treated group B to 150 from 650 and show 70 percent and recovered 7 infected from 10. Pineapple leave extract showed least effectiveness and reduced the EPG of treated group C to 350. Pineapple showed 40 percent efficacy against Ascaradia galli and recovered only 4 infected birds of group C from Ascariasis.Pineapple leaves extract were effective against ascariasis in captive Java sparrows but least effective as compare to levamisole and piperazine having no adverse effects.
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Molecular Identification And Treatment Of Theileriosis In Small Ruminants Of Northern Balochistan
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Ovine and Caprine Theileriosis in Northern Highlands and Suleiman Mountain Region of Balochistan, Six thickly populated /union councils were included in the study area. Samples were collected from 2870 animals Sheep (n= 2200) and Goats (n= 670) for screening of the disease. The samples were collected and processed in Regional Disease Investigation Laboratories, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development Balochistan, T.B. Sanatorium Hospital Quetta and Center for Vaccinology, Bacteriology, The University of Balochistan, Quetta and Medicine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Data revealed 20.82% disease in sheep and 9.70%. in goats. The regional prevalence of theileriosis revealed 19.19% in Northern Highlands and 17.48% in Suleiman Mountain Region Chi-square analysis showed significant difference in the prevalence of disease in sheep and goats. The regional difference was not significantly different between two regions of Northern Balochistan. The comparison among union councils showed significant difference being highest prevalence (22.71%) in union council Kuchlak district Quetta followed by Aghberg (18.42%) and Hanna Urak (15.53%) in Northern highlands and Union Council Zangiwal Jogezai (19.83%) followed by Kach Amaqzai (16.30%) and Sinjavi (15.92%) in SMR. The disease prevalence when compared among 4 different breeds of sheep showed significant difference being highest in Karakul breed (34.62%) followed by Shinwari (24.54%), Bibrik (19.36%) and Harnai (16.40%). The highest prevalence of theileriosis in sheep and goats were observed in Summer season (30.30%) followed by Autumn 19.07%, Spring 14.52% and Winter
7.61%. Chi-square analysis of the data showed significant difference in the prevalence of the disease in different seasons of the year. The disease was also compared in three age groups of sheep and goats. The data showed 22.17% disease in adult animal group above 2 years of age followed by 15.85% in animals between 1-2 year and 7.99% in age group below one year. Statistically significant difference in all age groups was found in chi-square analysis. The sex wise prevalence of theileriosis revealed non-significant difference between male and female sheep and goats. Two different species of Theileria were reported by many researchers causing disease in sheep and goats. The PCR was carried out for the identification of Theileria species affecting sheep and goats in Balochistan. Two species specific sets of primers were designed using 18SRNA gene sequence to identify these two species of Theileria and the distribution among the two species of animals. The genomic DNA of two species of parasite was successfully amplified in positive samples. The assay was proved successful and we recommend for the prevalence surveys for theileriosis in sheep and goats. The data showed that the prevalence of T. lestoquardi was 73.80% in sheep and 69.23% was in goats in the target regions. It was found the T. lestoquardi was highly prevalent and causing theileriosis in small ruminants. The prevalence of T. ovis was 26.19% in sheep and 30.76% in goats respectively in the investigated animals; it was less than T. lestoquardi. It was concluded that both Theileria species were identified and found circulating in small ruminants in the target region of Balochistan. In the study we determined that PCR method based on 18S RNA gene could detect and differentiate T. ovis and T. lestoquardi.
Effect of theileriosis in sheep and goats on hemeto-biochemical parameters were studied included RBCs, Hb%, PCV, Platelets, WBCs, MCV, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, Bilirubin and Creatinine. Blood samples were collected from Theileria confirmed, diseased animals (sheep and
goats) along with equal number of healthy animals for comparison. In sheep RBCs, Hb%, PCV, WBCs, MCHC, AST, ALT and Creatinine values showed significant difference when compared with values of healthy animals. Significant (p<0.05) reduction was noted in measurement of RBCs, Hb%, PCV and MCHC whereas, AST, ALT and Creatinine showed significant increase in diseased animals. In goats affected with theileriosis showed significant decrease in RBCs count and Hb%. The values for AST, ALT and Creatinine were found significantly increased in diseased animals when compared with healthy control group of equal number of animals. In present study it was noted that Butalex intra muscularly at the rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight is quite effective in eliminating the Theileria parasite from the blood of sheep and goats and treatment at the day 10 post treatment. Imizol was also found an effective treatment of theileriosis but less effective than Butalex.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Xylocaine Hcl And Bupivacaine Hcl For Ophthalmic Anesthesia In Horses
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Ophthalmic procedures can be performed by many clinicians in horses using local nerve blocks by using local anaesthetics for short duration of action for completion of these procedures. These surgical procedures may involve exclusion of third eyelid, suturing of laceration around eye orbit and tumor which can be caused due to any reason with in time period of thirty minutes. Inner chamber centesis can be done easily by using the above mentioned technique in standing horse.
There are numerous benefits of doing standing surgical methods and avoiding general anaesthesia in horses. As hospitalizing horse may get other infectious diseases from surroundings like colitis and laminitis and also injured it when recovering from general anaesthesia. On the other hand standing surgical procedure reduced such complication by using local anaesthetic for short duration.
Bupivacaine Hcl gave an ideal local eye anaesthesia compare to xylocaine Hcl for standing surgical procedures in horses.
The present study was accomplished to assess the effectiveness of two local eye anaesthetics; xylocaine Hcl and bupivacaine Hcl by two different techniques i.e. retrobulbar technique and auriculopalpebral technique in horses. A total of 12 horses from indoor clinic and S.P.C.A were used in this study. These horses were subjected to two groups’ i.e. Group A and B. Each of these groups was further subdivided into two subgroups i.e. Group AI, AII and BI, BII respectively.
Horses in group A were administered xylocaine Hcl through auriculopalpebral technique and retrobulbar technique. While horses of subgroup AI were given xylocaine Hcl by auriculopalpebral technique and horses in subgroup AII were injected xylocaine Hcl by retrobulbar technique.
Likewise horses in subgroup BI were given bupivacaine Hcl by auriculopalpebral technique, while those of subgroup BII were given bupivacaine Hcl through retrobulbar technique. The efficacy of above mentioned local anaesthetics was compared on the basis of Pattern of induction, Duration of anaesthesia and Recovery Pattern. Presence or absence of reflexes was also noted i.e. Pupillary Light Reflex and Blink reflex.
The data were analyzed through one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The difference in group’s means was determined by Least Significant Difference (LSD) post-hoc test. A probability level of (P<0.05) was considered as statistically significantly difference. The statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version16.
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Prevalence, Molecular Diagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Degnala Disease In Large Ruminants Of Punjab.
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: In Pakistan, Livestock is considered as a social security for poor villager as it can be a source of cash at the time of need. Degnala disease reduces the production of these animals directly. Along with other side issues related to Degnala disease, this study was done to diagnose the actual cause of Degnala disease by applying different latest scientific techniques. Prevalence along with risk factors was calculated in the rice growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Fungal isolation (n=40) was performed from the rice straw feedings of the Degnala disease affected animals through the technique of spot culture on SDA. Then these fungal isolates were identified through comparing their microscopic and macroscopic characters. Then toxigenic potential was checked for all these isolates through the application of TLC and HPLC. After that, from those isolates which were positive for mycotoxin production potential, most cytotoxic isolate was checked with the application of MTT assay. Then the most cytotoxic isolate was inoculated on non-contaminated rice straw and fed to the experimental animals to see a similarity of natural cases of Degnala disease. Finally treatment was conducted to see a proper combination of various drugs against this disease.
Toxigenic potential of different candidate fungi, isolated from rice straw feeding of Degnala disease affected bovines was analysed along with Species, age, gender and season wise prevalence. Out of 1536, 104 (6.77%) cases showed positive signs for this disease with a significant association (p<0.05) between rice straw feeding in buffaloes, winter season and bovines having an age of more than one year. Complete Blood Count showed marked increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and all white blood cells numbers, except lymphocytes in positive cases. There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in Alanine amino transferase, Aspartate amino transferase and Alkaline phosphatase noticed in Liver Function Test. At the same time, increased value of Creatinine was noticed in Renal Function Test. For isolation and screening of toxigenic fungi, rice straw samples (n=40) being fed to the positive cases were processed further, out of which there were 85 fungal isolates mainly of Aspergillus (57), Penicillium (10), Fusarium (04), Zygomycetes (03), Curvularia (01) and unidentified (10). All isolated fungi were subjected for mycotoxin production and only 11 showed mycotoxin producing capability (including Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium isolates) analysed by Thin Layer Chromatography and quantified through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. It is concluded that all the fungi, contaminating rice straw feeding of Degnala affected animals are not toxigenic. This work will help in establishing major mycotoxin producing fungi leading to the probable cause of Degnala disease in bovine.
With the help of MTT assay on vero cell line, most cytotoxic fungus was identified. After an incubation with vero cells, OD values of all the candidate fungi were compared through one way ANOVA. Results of this analysis showed that Fusarium was at the highest ranking and then was the A. flavus with a significant value of 0.006 and 0.039.
Finally it was concluded through these systematic steps of converging the diagnosis that, out of all the 85 suspected fungi, Fusarium (isolate number S 8.1) was the most cytotoxic isolate obtained from the rice straw feedings of Degnala affected animals in our study.
For molecular diagnosis of the most cytotoxic isolate of Fusarium, PCR was conducted and the results showed that ultimately the final PCR product was successfully amplified against the mentioned primer of ITS conserved region for Fusarium genera and the DNA product was with a length of 570 base pairs.
Experimental feeding trials were conducted by inoculating Fusarium (the most cytotoxic isolate) and A. flavus (second most cytotoxic one after Fusarium) separately and in combination compared with the negative control group, all groups were of eight animals each. It was concluded that alone Fusarium was able to produce Degnala disease, while its combination with A. flavus was more lethal.
Ultimately the treatment trials proceeded with penta-sulphate, oxytetracycline and antiseptic topical application as therapeutic treatment were shown to be very effective against Degnala cases. While in all the affected animals feeding of affected rice straw was ceased. Only withdrawal of affected rice straw from the feedings of Degnala affected animals was not effective unless proper treatment as mentioned here was not conducted.
analysed The expected results of the study shall be helpful to make exact diagnosis and treatment of infected buffaloes and cattle that is further helpful for timely prophylaxis and control of the Degnala disease in the rice growing areas of Pakistan and South Asia.
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