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1. Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Pregnant And Aborted Women Of Rural And Urban Areas In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab Pakistan

by Shakeela Anjum (2006-VA-172) | Dr. Iahtasham khan | Prof. Dr. Abdul shakoor | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of animals and human. According to OIE (Office International des Epizooties), it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the world after rabies Brucellosis is more common in countries with Poorly standardized animal and public health programme. Human Brucellosis caused by B. abortus, B. abortus are small, non-motile, aerobic, facultative intracellular, Gram-negative cocobacilli. The symptoms of human brucellosis are undulant fever, headache, weakness, body pain, and sometimes endocarditis, orchitis, or arthritis may develop. Prolonged use of combination of antibiotics and human vaccine is main control measure strategies for human brucellosis. This disease is under investigated and hence people are ignorant of this insidious problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheap tool to diagnose this problem. There is also need to know that which diagnostic antigen (Pakistani or French) is more sensitive and specific from disease eradication and control point of view. Unfortunately annual incidence of brucellosis in whole Pakistan is unknown but they are expected above 2 per 100,000 people. The hypothesis of present study was that brucellosis is considered to be endemic in Pakistan but there is no data available about seroprevalence of brucellosis in pregnant, aborted, rural and urban women with different risk factors in Pakistan. In present study sero-screening of total 199 serum samples of pregnant and women presenting with abortions from district Jhang, district Chinoit and district Faisalabad. Test was performed on 199 samples which showed 40 (20%) positives by RBPT (Pakistan) and 42 (21%) positives by RBPT (France) (Table 4.4). While the indirect modified ELISA showing 5 (2.5%) positive samples. All sera tested positives (5) with modified i-ELIA were also tested positives with another specific and highly expensive ELISA (Verion Serion) at OIE reference Summary 41 Laboratory for brucellosis, Germany. Prevalence data was analyzed by chi square test using SPSS version 20 Software (Apache License, USA) to find out correlation between risk factors and brucellosis prevalence. Risk factors such as consumption of raw milk, contact with animals, and symptoms were significant. In our opinion, indirect modified ELISA is more sensitive than RBPT (Pakistan) and RBPT (French). RBPT, (Pakistan) can be used for primary screening of brucellosis cases because of cross reactivity present in RBPT antigen and confirmation must be made with a more specific and sensitive serological test, such as B. abortus-specific indirect modified ELISA. The results of present study showed that RBPT, Pakistan antigen showed almost same sensitivity and specificity as that of RBPT (Pourquier, France) antigen. Indirect modified ELISA is more specific as compared to RBPT (Pakistan) and RBPT (French). It is highly suggestive to combine serodiagnostics test with molecular detection including PCR and Real time PCR to increase the detection rate of brucellosis. Human ELISA kit is extremely expensive that cannot be afforded in developing countries like Pakistan to screen the human. PCR technique is highly reliable and less time consuming. It is highly suggestive to conduct the study on human brucellosis on other districts of south Punjab as it is believed that brucellosis is endemic due to lack of awareness and vaccination in these areas. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2359-T] (1).

2. Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Ruminants At Sale And Purchase Markets And Abattoirs In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab, Pakistan

by Muhammad Tahir (2008-VA-301) | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Syed Ehtisham-ul-Haque.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: This is a representative study from Pakistan accompanied in three districts of Punjab i.e. Jhang, Layyah and Toba Tek Singh which are rich in livestock population. There is a lot of research work on livestock farms but the sale and purchase markets and abattoirs are neglected. Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock contribute a major share to agriculture in Pakistan GDP and its economy. Sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes contribute in the economy of Pakistani people by milk and meat production on majority basis. Livestock contribution to the agriculture value added is 56.3%, while it contributes 11.9% to the national GDP during 2014-15. More than 8.0 million rural families of the country are involved in raising livestock. But productivity of livestock is questioned by a lot of factors. Infectious zoonotic diseases are among these. Brucellosis is one of the major and unreported problem amongst livestock markets and abattoirs of our country. It results in losses to the economics of the farmers or owners in terms of poor health, abortions, long calving interval, production of weak offsprings and deprived quality of milk and meat. This disease is under investigated and hence people are unaware of this deceptive problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheaper tool to diagnose this problem. Determination of the seroprevalence is important to know the load of disease and pockets of infections in the area of Punjab, Pakistan. There is also a need to know which diagnostic antigen is more sensitive and specific from disease eradication and control point of view. A total of 300 animals serum samples were collected from three districts of the Punjab province and tested by conventional screening test i.e. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT) by using two antigens of different countries origin i.e. VRI (Lahore, Pakistan), IDEXX (Pourquier, France) and, France and then tested with indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA). The data thus obtained regarding seroprevalence was analyzed using Chi-square SPSS version -19 (Nahar et al. 2009). Of the total 300 animals (77 male and 223 female), 1.3% male and 35.66% female were seropositive for anti-Brucella antibodies. Different risk factors were also included in study like sex, area, age, gender, abortion, reproductive problems and also history of orchitis in male. All of these risk factors were statistically analyzed to reveal the truth about ruminants brucellosis. Among the various risk factors studied, the risk factors including history of abortion (16.44%), orchitis (1.3%), retained placenta (26.47%), species cattle (35.55%) and in Toba Tek Singh (47.36%) were statistically significant which could be potential source of threat for humans and other animals. The testing was performed using conventional methods as well as using iELISA. It is concluded that iELISA is more sensitive and specific than conventional screening tests but molecular diagnosis is highly recommended for future studies. The current study will help to minimize and eradicate the low prevalence of ruminants brucellosis by creating awareness between the farmers and through vaccination and herd immunization. By implementing the policy of testing and culling of positive reactors will be pivotal to achieve the objectives. For confirmatory diagnosis all the sera were further tested with iELISA. For this purpose an exclusive commercially available iELISA Kit (, France) was used which would be able to differentiate anti-Brucella antibodies of B. abortus and B. melitensis and this iELISA kit would be able to be used for multispecies including cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2556-T] (1).

3. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Feeding Allium Sativum Against Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) Vaccinated Broiler Birds On IBD Vaccine.

by Uzma Riaz (2008-VA-286) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Muhammad Asif Idrees | Dr. Iahtasham Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: A number of feed additives including antibiotics have been extensively used in poultry diets for the purpose of weight gain to improve feed efficiency and growth rate. However, use of antibiotics has restricted due to the bacterial resistance and the issue of residues which make the chicken meat harmful for human consumption. So the medicinal plants are gaining interest as alternative feed strategies now a day because of their low cost, easy availability and presence of no residues. Garlic was used for the medicinal purposes and as a health supplement by the ancient Egyptians. It is a natural feed additive and is antimicrobial, immune stimulator, antiviral, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, anti-cancerous, and vasodilator activities. Previous studies indicate that it has beneficial effects on the immune system and is a best immune stimulator then the other herbal plants and medicines. Therefore, the present study was designed to estimate the immunomodulatory effect of garlic to commercially available IBD vaccine in enhancing the immune system. Total N=99 day old broiler chicks were purchased and kept in the experimental shed of CVAS Jhang. Birds were divided into three groups A, B, C and group B and C were further divided into three subgroups (B1, B2, B3 and C1, C2, C3). Group A was treated as control group and was administered with commercially available IBD and ND vaccine and routine diet while group B was administered with garlic at the rate of 4%, 5%, and 7% along with vaccine to see the impact of different levels of garlic (Allium sativum) on the immune system and to see the toxic effect (if any) of high dose of garlic. Group C was only administered with garlic in fee Summary 44 at the same rate as to group B. At the end of study birds were slaughtered to check the effects of garlic administration. Positive effect of garlic has been reported by many studies. Garlic is a medicinal herb used for the prevention and treatment of many diseases, because of having antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Also act as a good growth promoting agent and have beneficial effects on the immune system. Results of the study indicate that administration of garlic powder in different doses alone and combined with commercial IBD vaccine have good effects on the growth, blood parameters and the immune system of the broiler birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2561-T] (1).

4. Effects Of Aqueous Extract Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves Against Colibacillosis In Broiler

by Muhammad Azfar (2014-VA-1111) | Dr. Asif Idrees | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Iahtasham Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In Pakistan the poultry sector has developed rapidly in the last two decades. The poultry production as practiced today is specialized one and concentrating more on the use of high performance birds. The major factors for successful poultry production are high genetic potential, balanced nutrition and health maintenance (Nayaka et al. 2012). Utilization of immunostimulant is one solution to improve the immunity of animals and to decrease their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Immunostimulation comprises a prophylactic and therapeutic concept aimed at stimulation of the non-specific and specific immune response (Hyde and Patnode, 2001). Most of the commercial poultry growers use antibiotics as growth promoters and to reduce the chance of occurrence of infectious diseases, which usually result in higher costs of production and ultimately lower net returns. There are great concerns about the use of antibiotics as therapeutic immunomodulators and growth promoters as it has given rise to antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this modern world of science, the researchers are once again intending towards exploring the potential benefits of the conventional medicines. Neem (A. indica) is an herbal plant which is known to exhibit various beneficial pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory effect in broilers. Poultry sector is facing some problems one of which is bacterial disease which cause economic loss. Farmers use different antibiotics as growth promoter and to reduce the incidence of different diseases on poultry which increases cost of production and lowers the net returns. In addition, use of antibiotics giving rise to other problems like increasing drug resistant against these antibiotics especially Gram –ve bacteria (Salmonella and E. coli). It’s necessary that antibiotic residues in meat would not adversely affect human health. Specifically, it has been recommended that the penicillins, tetracyclines, tylosin, and Summary 54 sulfonamides as growth promoters should not be use any more. So scientists are giving attention to the use of indigenous medicine instead of antibiotics for better rearing of poultry. Pakistan is blessed with different medicinal plants one of which is Neem (Azadirachta indica). For thousands of years the medicinal properties of Neem have been recognized. Each part of the Neem tree has some medicinal property. Biological Activity of Neem is due presence of different chemicals like nimbolide, nimbin, nimbindin, quercetin among others. Biological activities include Anti-inflammatory; Antiarthritic; Antipyretic; Hypoglycemic; Antigastric ulcer; Spermicidal; Antifungal; Antibacterial; Diuretic; Antimalarial; Antitumour; Immunomodulatory A. indica grow fast and is evergreen tree which has medicinal and nutritive value for broilers. Broilers which are given Neem leaves extract in water have shown improved FCR and weight gain. This medicinal Plants compete with synthetic drugs as it strengthens the immune system by activate Cell mediated immunity and have no residues in meat. Neem extracts also improve performance and hematological parameters However, I did the research work in short-term basis (only 42 days) and modern equipments were also not available. Therefore, an extensive research and development work should be undertaken on Neem and its products to make the findings more accurate and effective for their better economic and therapeutic utilization. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2613-T] (1).

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