Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Pregnant And Aborted Women Of Rural And Urban Areas In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of animals and human. According to OIE
(Office International des Epizooties), it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the
world after rabies Brucellosis is more common in countries with Poorly standardized animal
and public health programme. Human Brucellosis caused by B. abortus, B. abortus are small,
non-motile, aerobic, facultative intracellular, Gram-negative cocobacilli.
The symptoms of human brucellosis are undulant fever, headache, weakness, body
pain, and sometimes endocarditis, orchitis, or arthritis may develop. Prolonged use of
combination of antibiotics and human vaccine is main control measure strategies for human
brucellosis. This disease is under investigated and hence people are ignorant of this insidious
problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheap tool to diagnose this problem. There is
also need to know that which diagnostic antigen (Pakistani or French) is more sensitive and
specific from disease eradication and control point of view. Unfortunately annual incidence
of brucellosis in whole Pakistan is unknown but they are expected above 2 per 100,000
people. The hypothesis of present study was that brucellosis is considered to be endemic in
Pakistan but there is no data available about seroprevalence of brucellosis in pregnant,
aborted, rural and urban women with different risk factors in Pakistan.
In present study sero-screening of total 199 serum samples of pregnant and women
presenting with abortions from district Jhang, district Chinoit and district Faisalabad. Test
was performed on 199 samples which showed 40 (20%) positives by RBPT (Pakistan) and 42
(21%) positives by RBPT (France) (Table 4.4). While the indirect modified ELISA showing
5 (2.5%) positive samples. All sera tested positives (5) with modified i-ELIA were also tested
positives with another specific and highly expensive ELISA (Verion Serion) at OIE reference
Laboratory for brucellosis, Germany. Prevalence data was analyzed by chi square test
using SPSS version 20 Software (Apache License, USA) to find out correlation between risk
factors and brucellosis prevalence.
Risk factors such as consumption of raw milk, contact with animals, and symptoms
were significant. In our opinion, indirect modified ELISA is more sensitive than RBPT
(Pakistan) and RBPT (French). RBPT, (Pakistan) can be used for primary screening of
brucellosis cases because of cross reactivity present in RBPT antigen and confirmation must
be made with a more specific and sensitive serological test, such as B. abortus-specific
indirect modified ELISA. The results of present study showed that RBPT, Pakistan antigen
showed almost same sensitivity and specificity as that of RBPT (Pourquier, France) antigen.
Indirect modified ELISA is more specific as compared to RBPT (Pakistan) and RBPT
(French). It is highly suggestive to combine serodiagnostics test with molecular detection
including PCR and Real time PCR to increase the detection rate of brucellosis. Human
ELISA kit is extremely expensive that cannot be afforded in developing countries like
Pakistan to screen the human. PCR technique is highly reliable and less time consuming. It is
highly suggestive to conduct the study on human brucellosis on other districts of south
Punjab as it is believed that brucellosis is endemic due to lack of awareness and vaccination
in these areas.
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Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Ruminants At Sale And Purchase Markets And Abattoirs In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab, Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: This is a representative study from Pakistan accompanied in three districts of
Punjab i.e. Jhang, Layyah and Toba Tek Singh which are rich in livestock population.
There is a lot of research work on livestock farms but the sale and purchase markets and
abattoirs are neglected. Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock contribute a major
share to agriculture in Pakistan GDP and its economy. Sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes
contribute in the economy of Pakistani people by milk and meat production on majority
basis. Livestock contribution to the agriculture value added is 56.3%, while it contributes
11.9% to the national GDP during 2014-15. More than 8.0 million rural families of the
country are involved in raising livestock. But productivity of livestock is questioned by a
lot of factors. Infectious zoonotic diseases are among these.
Brucellosis is one of the major and unreported problem amongst livestock markets
and abattoirs of our country. It results in losses to the economics of the farmers or owners
in terms of poor health, abortions, long calving interval, production of weak offsprings and
deprived quality of milk and meat. This disease is under investigated and hence people are
unaware of this deceptive problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheaper tool to
diagnose this problem. Determination of the seroprevalence is important to know the load
of disease and pockets of infections in the area of Punjab, Pakistan. There is also a need to
know which diagnostic antigen is more sensitive and specific from disease eradication and
control point of view.
A total of 300 animals serum samples were collected from three districts of the
Punjab province and tested by conventional screening test i.e. Rose Bengal Plate
Agglutination Test (RBPT) by using two antigens of different countries origin i.e. VRI
(Lahore, Pakistan), IDEXX (Pourquier, France) and ID.vet, France and then tested with
indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA). The data thus obtained regarding
seroprevalence was analyzed using Chi-square SPSS version -19 (Nahar et al. 2009).
Of the total 300 animals (77 male and 223 female), 1.3% male and 35.66% female
were seropositive for anti-Brucella antibodies. Different risk factors were also included in
study like sex, area, age, gender, abortion, reproductive problems and also history of orchitis
in male. All of these risk factors were statistically analyzed to reveal the truth about ruminants
brucellosis. Among the various risk factors studied, the risk factors including history of
abortion (16.44%), orchitis (1.3%), retained placenta (26.47%), species cattle (35.55%) and in
Toba Tek Singh (47.36%) were statistically significant which could be potential source of
threat for humans and other animals. The testing was performed using conventional methods
as well as using iELISA. It is concluded that iELISA is more sensitive and specific than
conventional screening tests but molecular diagnosis is highly recommended for future
studies. The current study will help to minimize and eradicate the low prevalence of ruminants
brucellosis by creating awareness between the farmers and through vaccination and herd
immunization. By implementing the policy of testing and culling of positive reactors will be
pivotal to achieve the objectives.
For confirmatory diagnosis all the sera were further tested with iELISA. For this
purpose an exclusive commercially available iELISA Kit (ID.vet, France) was used which
would be able to differentiate anti-Brucella antibodies of B. abortus and B. melitensis and this
iELISA kit would be able to be used for multispecies including cattle, buffaloes, sheep and
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Immunomodulatory Effects Of Feeding Allium Sativum Against Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) Vaccinated Broiler Birds On IBD Vaccine.
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: A number of feed additives including antibiotics have been extensively used in
poultry diets for the purpose of weight gain to improve feed efficiency and growth rate.
However, use of antibiotics has restricted due to the bacterial resistance and the issue of
residues which make the chicken meat harmful for human consumption. So the medicinal
plants are gaining interest as alternative feed strategies now a day because of their low cost,
easy availability and presence of no residues. Garlic was used for the medicinal purposes and
as a health supplement by the ancient Egyptians. It is a natural feed additive and is
antimicrobial, immune stimulator, antiviral, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antithrombotic,
antioxidant, anti-cancerous, and vasodilator activities. Previous studies indicate that it has
beneficial effects on the immune system and is a best immune stimulator then the other
herbal plants and medicines.
Therefore, the present study was designed to estimate the immunomodulatory effect
of garlic to commercially available IBD vaccine in enhancing the immune system. Total
N=99 day old broiler chicks were purchased and kept in the experimental shed of CVAS
Jhang. Birds were divided into three groups A, B, C and group B and C were further divided
into three subgroups (B1, B2, B3 and C1, C2, C3). Group A was treated as control group and
was administered with commercially available IBD and ND vaccine and routine diet while
group B was administered with garlic at the rate of 4%, 5%, and 7% along with vaccine to see
the impact of different levels of garlic (Allium sativum) on the immune system and to see the
toxic effect (if any) of high dose of garlic. Group C was only administered with garlic in fee
at the same rate as to group B. At the end of study birds were slaughtered to check the effects
of garlic administration. Positive effect of garlic has been reported by many studies. Garlic is
a medicinal herb used for the prevention and treatment of many diseases, because of having
antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Also act as a good growth promoting agent
and have beneficial effects on the immune system. Results of the study indicate that
administration of garlic powder in different doses alone and combined with commercial IBD
vaccine have good effects on the growth, blood parameters and the immune system of the
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Effects Of Aqueous Extract Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves Against Colibacillosis In Broiler
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: In Pakistan the poultry sector has developed rapidly in the last two decades. The poultry production as practiced today is specialized one and concentrating more on the use of high performance birds. The major factors for successful poultry production are high genetic potential, balanced nutrition and health maintenance (Nayaka et al. 2012). Utilization of immunostimulant is one solution to improve the immunity of animals and to decrease their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Immunostimulation comprises a prophylactic and therapeutic concept aimed at stimulation of the non-specific and specific immune response (Hyde and Patnode, 2001).
Most of the commercial poultry growers use antibiotics as growth promoters and to reduce the chance of occurrence of infectious diseases, which usually result in higher costs of production and ultimately lower net returns. There are great concerns about the use of antibiotics as therapeutic immunomodulators and growth promoters as it has given rise to antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this modern world of science, the researchers are once again intending towards exploring the potential benefits of the conventional medicines. Neem (A. indica) is an herbal plant which is known to exhibit various beneficial pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory effect in broilers.
Poultry sector is facing some problems one of which is bacterial disease which cause economic loss. Farmers use different antibiotics as growth promoter and to reduce the incidence of different diseases on poultry which increases cost of production and lowers the net returns. In addition, use of antibiotics giving rise to other problems like increasing drug resistant against these antibiotics especially Gram –ve bacteria (Salmonella and E. coli). It’s necessary that antibiotic residues in meat would not adversely affect human health. Specifically, it has been recommended that the penicillins, tetracyclines, tylosin, and
sulfonamides as growth promoters should not be use any more. So scientists are giving attention to the use of indigenous medicine instead of antibiotics for better rearing of poultry. Pakistan is blessed with different medicinal plants one of which is Neem (Azadirachta indica). For thousands of years the medicinal properties of Neem have been recognized. Each part of the Neem tree has some medicinal property. Biological Activity of Neem is due presence of different chemicals like nimbolide, nimbin, nimbindin, quercetin among others. Biological activities include Anti-inflammatory; Antiarthritic; Antipyretic; Hypoglycemic; Antigastric ulcer; Spermicidal; Antifungal; Antibacterial; Diuretic; Antimalarial; Antitumour; Immunomodulatory A. indica grow fast and is evergreen tree which has medicinal and nutritive value for broilers. Broilers which are given Neem leaves extract in water have shown improved FCR and weight gain. This medicinal Plants compete with synthetic drugs as it strengthens the immune system by activate Cell mediated immunity and have no residues in meat. Neem extracts also improve performance and hematological parameters
However, I did the research work in short-term basis (only 42 days) and modern equipments were also not available. Therefore, an extensive research and development work should be undertaken on Neem and its products to make the findings more accurate and effective for their better economic and therapeutic utilization.
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