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1. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Feeding Allium Sativum Against Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) Vaccinated Broiler Birds On IBD Vaccine.

by Uzma Riaz (2008-VA-286) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Muhammad Asif Idrees | Dr. Iahtasham Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: A number of feed additives including antibiotics have been extensively used in poultry diets for the purpose of weight gain to improve feed efficiency and growth rate. However, use of antibiotics has restricted due to the bacterial resistance and the issue of residues which make the chicken meat harmful for human consumption. So the medicinal plants are gaining interest as alternative feed strategies now a day because of their low cost, easy availability and presence of no residues. Garlic was used for the medicinal purposes and as a health supplement by the ancient Egyptians. It is a natural feed additive and is antimicrobial, immune stimulator, antiviral, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, anti-cancerous, and vasodilator activities. Previous studies indicate that it has beneficial effects on the immune system and is a best immune stimulator then the other herbal plants and medicines. Therefore, the present study was designed to estimate the immunomodulatory effect of garlic to commercially available IBD vaccine in enhancing the immune system. Total N=99 day old broiler chicks were purchased and kept in the experimental shed of CVAS Jhang. Birds were divided into three groups A, B, C and group B and C were further divided into three subgroups (B1, B2, B3 and C1, C2, C3). Group A was treated as control group and was administered with commercially available IBD and ND vaccine and routine diet while group B was administered with garlic at the rate of 4%, 5%, and 7% along with vaccine to see the impact of different levels of garlic (Allium sativum) on the immune system and to see the toxic effect (if any) of high dose of garlic. Group C was only administered with garlic in fee Summary 44 at the same rate as to group B. At the end of study birds were slaughtered to check the effects of garlic administration. Positive effect of garlic has been reported by many studies. Garlic is a medicinal herb used for the prevention and treatment of many diseases, because of having antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Also act as a good growth promoting agent and have beneficial effects on the immune system. Results of the study indicate that administration of garlic powder in different doses alone and combined with commercial IBD vaccine have good effects on the growth, blood parameters and the immune system of the broiler birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2561-T] (1).

2. Effects Of Aqueous Extract Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves Against Colibacillosis In Broiler

by Muhammad Azfar (2014-VA-1111) | Dr. Asif Idrees | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Iahtasham Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In Pakistan the poultry sector has developed rapidly in the last two decades. The poultry production as practiced today is specialized one and concentrating more on the use of high performance birds. The major factors for successful poultry production are high genetic potential, balanced nutrition and health maintenance (Nayaka et al. 2012). Utilization of immunostimulant is one solution to improve the immunity of animals and to decrease their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Immunostimulation comprises a prophylactic and therapeutic concept aimed at stimulation of the non-specific and specific immune response (Hyde and Patnode, 2001). Most of the commercial poultry growers use antibiotics as growth promoters and to reduce the chance of occurrence of infectious diseases, which usually result in higher costs of production and ultimately lower net returns. There are great concerns about the use of antibiotics as therapeutic immunomodulators and growth promoters as it has given rise to antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this modern world of science, the researchers are once again intending towards exploring the potential benefits of the conventional medicines. Neem (A. indica) is an herbal plant which is known to exhibit various beneficial pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory effect in broilers. Poultry sector is facing some problems one of which is bacterial disease which cause economic loss. Farmers use different antibiotics as growth promoter and to reduce the incidence of different diseases on poultry which increases cost of production and lowers the net returns. In addition, use of antibiotics giving rise to other problems like increasing drug resistant against these antibiotics especially Gram –ve bacteria (Salmonella and E. coli). It’s necessary that antibiotic residues in meat would not adversely affect human health. Specifically, it has been recommended that the penicillins, tetracyclines, tylosin, and Summary 54 sulfonamides as growth promoters should not be use any more. So scientists are giving attention to the use of indigenous medicine instead of antibiotics for better rearing of poultry. Pakistan is blessed with different medicinal plants one of which is Neem (Azadirachta indica). For thousands of years the medicinal properties of Neem have been recognized. Each part of the Neem tree has some medicinal property. Biological Activity of Neem is due presence of different chemicals like nimbolide, nimbin, nimbindin, quercetin among others. Biological activities include Anti-inflammatory; Antiarthritic; Antipyretic; Hypoglycemic; Antigastric ulcer; Spermicidal; Antifungal; Antibacterial; Diuretic; Antimalarial; Antitumour; Immunomodulatory A. indica grow fast and is evergreen tree which has medicinal and nutritive value for broilers. Broilers which are given Neem leaves extract in water have shown improved FCR and weight gain. This medicinal Plants compete with synthetic drugs as it strengthens the immune system by activate Cell mediated immunity and have no residues in meat. Neem extracts also improve performance and hematological parameters However, I did the research work in short-term basis (only 42 days) and modern equipments were also not available. Therefore, an extensive research and development work should be undertaken on Neem and its products to make the findings more accurate and effective for their better economic and therapeutic utilization. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2613-T] (1).

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