Clinicopathological Changes Induced By Heat Stress, Their Resolution By Minerals And Vitamin C Supplementation In Quails
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present study was designed to overcome heat stress in Japanese quails through potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and vitamin C solution in calculated amount in water on thermo tolerance, histopathology and hematology of quails exposed to heat stress: This experimental trial was carried out at Avian Research and Training Centre (ARTC), UVAS Lahore and tests were performed at Department of Pathology UVAS, Lahore. There were three replicates in each treatment group and each replicate was of twenty quails, each group was comprised of 60 birds. The body weight of each the bird was. recorded on weekly basis. Blood samples were collected on the 21, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30 and 31 days of treatment from each group to evaluate the serum potassium and bicarbonate level in the blood. For hematological parameters the blood samples were collected on 22, 28 and 31 day of treatment and the vital organs for histopathology were collected after slaughtering 3 birds from each group. The hematological parameters were studied and the data was analyzed by two ways ANOVA. Group A quails revealed significantly higher weight gain than those of group B, but no significant difference was observed, when all groups were compared. Significantly less weight gain was revealed by the quails of group B, when compared to all other groups. Comparison between groups A, C, D, E, F and G was non significant. The highest FCR was exhibited by the birds of group A while the group B showed the poorest FCR. Better FCR was exhibited by group C, D, E, F and G. Serum samples were obtained from each group, for bicarbonate and potassium determination by spectrophotometric method. Group A, C, E, F and G exhibited a significantly higher serum potassium level than those of groups B and D. A significantly higher bicarbonate level was revealed in the serum of group A, D, E, F and G as compared to group B and C, on day 23 and onwards. But no significant difference was observed in serum of groups A, D, E, F and G. Blood hematology revealed no significant difference in red blood cells of groups A, C, D, E, F and G. Group B exhibited a significant lower values of red blood cells, packed cell volume, basophils, monocytes and showed a significant increase H/L ratio and eosinophils when compared to all other groups. Histopathological studied showed infiltration of heterophils, hyperemia, congestion of liver, heart and adrenal gland. It is concluded that, quails of group B (kept in high environmental temperature) revealed a decreased weight gain, poorest FCR, decreased serum potassium and bicarbonate level, decrease in hematocrit, monocytes and basophils and increased in eosinophils and H/L ratio. Supplementation of electrolytes and vitamin C (125 mg/L KC1, 75 mg/L NaHCO3 and vitamin C 62.5 mg/L) in water effect on heat stressed quails exhibited the better results in term of weight gain, serum electrolytes, blood profile and histology than those quails kept in heat stressed condition with no supplementation. From the present results it is concluded that 125 mg/L of KCI, 75 mg/L of NaHCO3 and 62.5 mg/L of vitamin C solution in water, alone or in combination may be used in quails to combat the effect of high ambient temperature and heat stress.
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Immuo-Pathological Response Of Pigeons To Challenge Infection Of Newcastle Disease Virus (Ndv)
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: This study trial was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two locally available live Newcastle disease vaccines (Medivac ND LaSota and VRI, Mukteshwar ND vaccine), also to compare two routes (Oral and Ocular) of vaccine administration in term of antibody titre and assessment of protection against field (chicken) isolated virulent Newcastle virus challenge (NDV) in pigeons. Study of clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesion in different organ of non-vaccinated and challenged birds was also the part of our present study. For this purpose one hundred and twenty pigeons were purchased from the local market and screened for Newcastle disease antibodies using Hemagglutination inhibition test. Healthy pigeons were randomly divided into six groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, comprising 20 birds each. Group E and F were kept as positive and negative Control respectively. Group A and C were vaccinated with Medivac ND LaSota vaccine at day 7th and 21st of experiment through oral and ocular route. Similarly Group B and D were immunized with VRI (Mukteshwar) ND vaccine through oral and ocular route respectively. At 28th day of experiment all the groups except group F were challenged with velogenic field isolate of NDV at a dose rate of 0.1 ml through ocular route. Serum samples were collected at day 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 of experiment for the determination of antibody titre. Post-infection clinical signs in control positive group were i.e. anorexia, dullness, depression, decreased feed intake, discharge from mouth, greenish diarrhea, nervous manifestations, leg and wing paralysis. Gross lesions on different organs were hemorrhages in trachea, proventriculus, spleenomegaly and greenish intestinal contents. Medivac ND LaSota vaccine produced higher immune response in term of antibody titre as compared to VRI (Mukteshwar) ND vaccine. It was also observed that ocular route irrespective to vaccine type produced significantly (P<0.05) higher immune response than oral route. Vaccine strains used in this study efficiently induced immune response through ocular route, suggesting that implementation of this vaccination programs in future may prevent ND outbreaks in pigeons, especially in racing pigeons, and may prevent NDV spread to other avian species, mainly poultry.
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Haematologial And Immunological Effects Of Naturally Occurring Probiotic (Yogurt) And Garlic Supplementation On Broiler Chicks Vaccinated Against Newcastle Disease
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present project was undertaken to study the various hematological. immunological and gross/histopathological parameters in ND vaccinated chicks with different supplementation of yogurt and garlic. For this purpose one hundred twenty-six day old broiler chicks were divided into three experimental groups A, B and C. each having 42 chicks per group. The group B and C \\ere Further subdivided into 3 groups yl, y2, y3 and gi, g2. g3 respectively comprising of 14 chicks per group having different supplementation of yogurt and garlic respectively, while group A was kept as a control and fed basal diet having no supplementation. Our result showed that yogurt augmented serological response and help in increasing HI antibody titer in which 200 gm yogurt showed immense potential in increasing HI titer until last day of experiment. All levels of Garlic group augmented serological response in term of antibody titer hut remain statistically insigni flcant in increasing HI titer.The heterophil population and I I/L ratio was also improved in both yogurt and garlic groups however 40 grn garlic fed group showed a better response in increasing hctcrophil population. TLC remains insignificant both at treatment and levels throughout the experiment. Body weight gain and FCR was also improved with yogurt and garlic supplementation however 200 gm yogurt showed a curvilinear response over the range of yogurt bd levels. Yogurt and garlic supplementation also showed improvement in the development of immune organ such as spleen, thymus and liver, their I listological examination revealed that an increase in supplementation of yogurt and garlic have no lethal effect upon morphological structure of these organs. In conclusion, yogurt as a probiotic and garlic as a growth promoter agent displayed a greater efficacy in increasing HI titer, heterophils population and improving productive performqnce of broilers in which 200 gm yougurt/kg diet group and 40gm garlic/kg diet showed an immense potential in improving above traits, so their use in broiler diet should be considered instead of using costly commercial probiotics and antibiotics.
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Detection Of Mycoplasma Synoviae By Pcr And Its Histopatholohical Studies In Poutry Breeder In District Abbottabad
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Poultry, an important sub-sector of livestock, has emerged a cheaper source of protein for human consumption. Mycoplasmas are the smallest known bacteria, 300-800 nm in diameter and are capable of replicating outside the cell. Mycoplasma synoviae is a member of the class Mollicutes, order Mycoplasmatales, family Mycoplasmataceae. Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is considered economically to be most important pathogen. Mycoplasma synoviae infections occur in poultry worldwide, affecting poultry and causes diseases like respiratory distress, synovitis and arthritis. Mycoplasma is transmitted from infected to healthy birds both by horizontal and vertical routes. Horizontally disease is transmitted via infected and healthy carrier birds, hatchery, housing, equipments, feeding and during transportation.
To have an insight on pathogenesis and reliable diagnostic techniques, the present project was designed to know comparative sensitivity of rapid agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction for MS diagnosis and to study the gross lesion and histopathological changes in chicken joints produced by MS.
The birds showing clinical signs that included respiratory i.e. tracheal rales, conjunctivitis, coughing, sneezing, ocular and nasal discharge and infectious synovitis were selected for sample collection. Initially the collected sera samples were examined by Rapid Serum Agglutination test. RSA and PCR tests were used in order to confirm the pathogenic agent. RSA and PCR positive samples were further processed for histopathological study in order to identify the lesions in tissues produced by causative organism. In field visits it was observed that the suspected birds were with pale comb, mild to severe lameness, dull, depressed, ruffled feather, conjunctivitis, oculo-nasal discharge, tracheal rales and greenish or sulfur faeces. Birds hock joints, toe joints and paws pad were swelled. The infected birds were occasionally found with generalized infection. The infected birds complicated with other diseases of poultry such as Newcastle and infectious bronchitis causes infection airsacculitis.
Rapid serum agglutination test was conducted at 14 broiler breeder farms. The birds at a farm were showing respiratory and infectious synovitis signs and symptoms, suspected to Mycoplasma synoviae. The tests were performed at the spot. A total of 239 sera samples were examined out of which 63 (26.35%) sera samples were positive for MS. The clinical samples were identified and confirmed as Mycoplasma synoviae infection by PCR. The amplified PCR product was given about 211 bp size while PCR buffer was used as negative control. A total of 213 samples were subjected to PCR and 65 (30.52%) revealed PCR positive results for tracheal swabs, 28.16% (20 samples out 71) showed positive results. For tracheal and lung 33.38 % (24 out of 71) and 29.57% (21 out of 71 samples) were positive, respectively. The PCR test successfully amplified the DNA of MS clinical positive samples. Sixty five out of 213 Mycoplasma synoviae isolates were positive in MS specific PCR while the other 148 samples were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of molecular method Polymerase chain reaction was 100 percent.
For histopathological studies the samples of different organs including trachea, lungs, liver, hock joints (articular cartilage, piece of synovial membrane) and foot pad were further processed. The trachea was examined. There was epithelial degeneration, desquamation. congestion, haemorrhages and inflammatory cell infiltration. The lungs were examined and it was revealed that there was marked congestion, haemorrhages, necrosis and mononuclear cells infiltration. Liver showed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Articular cartilage showing chondrocytes degenration. Synovial membrane was thickened due to infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cell. Foot pad showed hyperkaratosis and thickning of epidermis, acanthosis, degeneration of cartilage, infiltration of both mononuclear and plasma cell.
It is concluded from findings of present study that PCR is more appropriate technique than RSA for timely diagnosis of Mycoplasma synoviae. However combination of findings of both techniques may be utilized for accurate detection of Mycoplasma synoviae from broiler breeder in district Abbottabad.
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Pathogenesis Of Aflatoxin B1 In Quails Under Experimental Conditions And Detoxification By Biological And Chemical Means
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Secondary metabolites of certain fungi produce toxins under favorable conditions especially while growing on different food grains. Mycotoxins are among major threats to growing poultry industry and human beings. Aflatoxins are closely related, biologically active fungal metabolites and commonly produced by Aspergillus species.
A research was carried out to evaluate the ability of Aspergillus flavus for Aflatoxin B1 production using rice, wheat and maize as substrates. Lethal effects on growth performance parameters, hematological and histopathological of graded doses of aflatoxin B1 in quails under experimental conditions were observed. Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on humoral immune response to Newcastle Disease virus vaccine in quails were determined. Biological detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Saccharomyces servisiae was evaluated in quails. Comparative evaluations of different commercially available toxin binders were checked. All these experiments were carried out till the six weeks (42 days).
Aspergillus flavus was identified on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Rice, wheat and maize grains was used as substrate to check the level of Aflatoxin B1 produced by inoculating an aqueous suspension of 106 spores/ml. Aflatoxin B1 checked by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
Quails were reared under standard management conditions in five groups (A, B, C, D and E) having sixty each. Each group was further divided in two independent units. Diets offered to groups were control (without toxins), 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2 mg Aflatoxin B1/kg feed. One unit of
each group was vaccinated with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccine while other was not and studied the lethal effects on growth performance, blood parameters, immune response and histopathology of vital organs. At the end of the experiment, it was found that the deleterious effects of Aflatoxin B1 were dose and duration dependent. As the level of the toxin was increased, the lethal effects were prominent. The growth performance parameters including gain in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was adversely affected at high doses. The body weight gain was significantly reduced in Aflatoxin B1 treated groups as compared to control group. Similarly feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly different from the control group. The hematological studies exhibited that aflatoxin B1 significantly reduced the hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total leukocyte count whereas the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly increased as compared to control group. The immune response against NDV vaccine was adversely effected in Aflatoxin B1 treated groups and values of Antibody titer in AFB1 were significantly low as compared to group A( control) In the second experiment, Saccharomyces cervisae (SC) dried powder was mixed in basal quail diet having 0.5mg Aflatoxin B1 for all experimental groups and control was without toxins. SC was added at levels of 0.5 gm, 1.0 gm and 2.0 gm /kg of feed. It was recorded that Saccharomyces cervisae (yeast) have the potential to remove the deleterious effects of Aflatoxin B1. Yeast effectively detoxified the Aflatoxin B1. The results recorded of growth performance and other parameters were non-significantly different from the control group. Chemical detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 was evaluated in quails using commercially available toxin binders. Toxin binders used were activated charcoal, kaoline, Myco AD and selenium plus vitamin E and mixed in basal quail diet having 0.5mg Aflatoxin B1 for all experimental groups and control was without toxins. The Myco AD and selenium plus vitamin E showed the highest detoxification potential as compared
to other chemical toxin binders. Groups E and F showed the results of growth performance, hematological, immune response and histopathological were non-significantly different from the control group (A). Kaolin was moderately detoxifying the toxin.
Presence of aflatoxin B1 in soft tissues was checked by TLC and quantified using HPLC. The liver exhibited the residues of Aflatoxin B1 at high doses of toxin. Group D and E rearing on feeds having 1mg AFB1 /Kg feed and 2mg AFB1 /Kg feed of toxin showed the residues of AFB1 in liver and kidney.
Statistical means for growth performance parameters, hematological, immune response and histopathological scores in each subunit of quails were analyzed by applying one way ANOVA and Duncans‟s Multiple Range (DMR) test at 95% probability. Aflatoxin B1 is lethal and lowers the performance of birds. The lethal effects can be detoxified by biological and chemical means to lower the economic losses to poultry industry. It can be concluded that biological detoxification is preferably better as compared to chemical detoxification.
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