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1. Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Pregnant And Aborted Women Of Rural And Urban Areas In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab Pakistan

by Shakeela Anjum (2006-VA-172) | Dr. Iahtasham khan | Prof. Dr. Abdul shakoor | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of animals and human. According to OIE (Office International des Epizooties), it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the world after rabies Brucellosis is more common in countries with Poorly standardized animal and public health programme. Human Brucellosis caused by B. abortus, B. abortus are small, non-motile, aerobic, facultative intracellular, Gram-negative cocobacilli. The symptoms of human brucellosis are undulant fever, headache, weakness, body pain, and sometimes endocarditis, orchitis, or arthritis may develop. Prolonged use of combination of antibiotics and human vaccine is main control measure strategies for human brucellosis. This disease is under investigated and hence people are ignorant of this insidious problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheap tool to diagnose this problem. There is also need to know that which diagnostic antigen (Pakistani or French) is more sensitive and specific from disease eradication and control point of view. Unfortunately annual incidence of brucellosis in whole Pakistan is unknown but they are expected above 2 per 100,000 people. The hypothesis of present study was that brucellosis is considered to be endemic in Pakistan but there is no data available about seroprevalence of brucellosis in pregnant, aborted, rural and urban women with different risk factors in Pakistan. In present study sero-screening of total 199 serum samples of pregnant and women presenting with abortions from district Jhang, district Chinoit and district Faisalabad. Test was performed on 199 samples which showed 40 (20%) positives by RBPT (Pakistan) and 42 (21%) positives by RBPT (France) (Table 4.4). While the indirect modified ELISA showing 5 (2.5%) positive samples. All sera tested positives (5) with modified i-ELIA were also tested positives with another specific and highly expensive ELISA (Verion Serion) at OIE reference Summary 41 Laboratory for brucellosis, Germany. Prevalence data was analyzed by chi square test using SPSS version 20 Software (Apache License, USA) to find out correlation between risk factors and brucellosis prevalence. Risk factors such as consumption of raw milk, contact with animals, and symptoms were significant. In our opinion, indirect modified ELISA is more sensitive than RBPT (Pakistan) and RBPT (French). RBPT, (Pakistan) can be used for primary screening of brucellosis cases because of cross reactivity present in RBPT antigen and confirmation must be made with a more specific and sensitive serological test, such as B. abortus-specific indirect modified ELISA. The results of present study showed that RBPT, Pakistan antigen showed almost same sensitivity and specificity as that of RBPT (Pourquier, France) antigen. Indirect modified ELISA is more specific as compared to RBPT (Pakistan) and RBPT (French). It is highly suggestive to combine serodiagnostics test with molecular detection including PCR and Real time PCR to increase the detection rate of brucellosis. Human ELISA kit is extremely expensive that cannot be afforded in developing countries like Pakistan to screen the human. PCR technique is highly reliable and less time consuming. It is highly suggestive to conduct the study on human brucellosis on other districts of south Punjab as it is believed that brucellosis is endemic due to lack of awareness and vaccination in these areas. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2359-T] (1).

2. Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Ruminants At Sale And Purchase Markets And Abattoirs In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab, Pakistan

by Muhammad Tahir (2008-VA-301) | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Syed Ehtisham-ul-Haque.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: This is a representative study from Pakistan accompanied in three districts of Punjab i.e. Jhang, Layyah and Toba Tek Singh which are rich in livestock population. There is a lot of research work on livestock farms but the sale and purchase markets and abattoirs are neglected. Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock contribute a major share to agriculture in Pakistan GDP and its economy. Sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes contribute in the economy of Pakistani people by milk and meat production on majority basis. Livestock contribution to the agriculture value added is 56.3%, while it contributes 11.9% to the national GDP during 2014-15. More than 8.0 million rural families of the country are involved in raising livestock. But productivity of livestock is questioned by a lot of factors. Infectious zoonotic diseases are among these. Brucellosis is one of the major and unreported problem amongst livestock markets and abattoirs of our country. It results in losses to the economics of the farmers or owners in terms of poor health, abortions, long calving interval, production of weak offsprings and deprived quality of milk and meat. This disease is under investigated and hence people are unaware of this deceptive problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheaper tool to diagnose this problem. Determination of the seroprevalence is important to know the load of disease and pockets of infections in the area of Punjab, Pakistan. There is also a need to know which diagnostic antigen is more sensitive and specific from disease eradication and control point of view. A total of 300 animals serum samples were collected from three districts of the Punjab province and tested by conventional screening test i.e. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT) by using two antigens of different countries origin i.e. VRI (Lahore, Pakistan), IDEXX (Pourquier, France) and, France and then tested with indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA). The data thus obtained regarding seroprevalence was analyzed using Chi-square SPSS version -19 (Nahar et al. 2009). Of the total 300 animals (77 male and 223 female), 1.3% male and 35.66% female were seropositive for anti-Brucella antibodies. Different risk factors were also included in study like sex, area, age, gender, abortion, reproductive problems and also history of orchitis in male. All of these risk factors were statistically analyzed to reveal the truth about ruminants brucellosis. Among the various risk factors studied, the risk factors including history of abortion (16.44%), orchitis (1.3%), retained placenta (26.47%), species cattle (35.55%) and in Toba Tek Singh (47.36%) were statistically significant which could be potential source of threat for humans and other animals. The testing was performed using conventional methods as well as using iELISA. It is concluded that iELISA is more sensitive and specific than conventional screening tests but molecular diagnosis is highly recommended for future studies. The current study will help to minimize and eradicate the low prevalence of ruminants brucellosis by creating awareness between the farmers and through vaccination and herd immunization. By implementing the policy of testing and culling of positive reactors will be pivotal to achieve the objectives. For confirmatory diagnosis all the sera were further tested with iELISA. For this purpose an exclusive commercially available iELISA Kit (, France) was used which would be able to differentiate anti-Brucella antibodies of B. abortus and B. melitensis and this iELISA kit would be able to be used for multispecies including cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2556-T] (1).

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