Prevalence, Identification And Pathogenesis Of Clostridium Chauvoei In Cattle And Buffaloes In Punjab
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: In the first phase of the project, the sampling of diseased animals presumably affected by Black quarter was carried out from six districts of Punjab belonging to three different zones. Around two hundred and fifty samples from each zone were collected and were subjected to bacterial culturing and isolation procedures followed by biochemical identification mechanism. The prevalence of Black quarter in Cattle and buffaloes were thus calculated for each district and zone. Highest prevalence of BQ in Zone II was observed (27.2%) for cattle while in case of Buffaloes highest prevalence (3.2%) was noted in Zone I. similarly higher Prevalence of BQ was noted in 1st quarter of year for Zone I followed by zone II and III while 2nd quarter of season was showing higher prevalence of BQ in zone II and III.
During 2nd phase of experiment tissue samples were inoculated in RCM and blood agar for the re-isolation of C. chauvoei, identified on the basis of colony characteristics and later on subjected to biochemical tests for the confirmation of the isolated organism. Then it was further confirmed through Polymerase chain Reaction for the identification of the causative agent i.e. C. Chauvoei on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Another set of primers corresponding to alpha toxin gene sequence of C. chauvoeui was also used which strengthened the belief that this strain of C. chauvoei possessed alpha toxin producing ability.
During third phase of project blood samples collected were subjected to hematological estimation for buffaloes and cattle having confirmed as BQ This study revealed significant effect on RBC's count and white blood cells count (P<0.05), while Differential leukocyte count were also showing significant different as compared to Non-infected (P< 0.05). Serum samples were tested for the change in levels of different enzymes. It was found that blood-glucose level and ALT levels were not significantly higher (P>0.05) when compared with control values, Values of AST, CPK and LDH were found significantly higher (P< 0.05) in all infected animals.
Histopathology of affected muscle tissues of both cattle and buffaloes was done to study microscopic changes in the muscle fibers and surrounding tissues. Lesions were somehow disappointing as compared to the magnitude of gross lesions. There were segmental degeneration, Zenker necrosis, discrete edema, occasional neutrophils and emphysema in affected muscle.
Finally, alpha toxin (hemolysin) in culture supernatant of RCM broth was titrated against 2% washed RBC's of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, chicken, rabbit and mice to study the hemolytic activity of the toxin. It was found that highest percentage of hemolysis was observed in mice followed by cattle, sheep, buffalo, chicken and rabbit respectively at 25°C. Higher the dilution of toxin, lower the extent of hemolysis. At 37°C variable results were obtained. It showed the biological activity of alpha toxin is also temperature dependant.
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Immuno Pathological Effects Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) In Commercial Broiler Chickens
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: These experiments were conducted to study the effects of Azadirachta indica admixed in poultry feed on weight gain performance, haemtological values,immune modulations, and toxic effects in broiler chickens. A total number of 144 commercial broiler 1-day old chicks were reared in the experimental sheds of the Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore, The birds were fed with balanced commercial feed and water ad libitum. The birds were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C having fourty eight chicks each. Birds of all groups were sub divided into four groups of each i.e. A1, A2, A3 and A4; B1, B2, B3 & B4 and C1, C2, C3 and C4, respectively. Each of the sub groups containd 12 birds. Sub groups A4, B4 and C4 were control group with no medication. The birds of groups A, B and C were fed with poultry feed containing dry powder of neem leaves @ 2 gm, 4 gm and 6gm per kg of feed respectively. The birds of groups A1, B1 and C1 were treated with the herb from day 0 to 42 of their life. The birds of groups A2, B2 and C2 were given the neem from day 14 to 42 of their life, whereas the birds of groups A3, B3 and C3 were treated with the herb from day 28 to 42 of their life. Difference between weekly weight gain in the birds of groups A1, B1 and C1 was non significant (P>0.05) however the difference between weight gain in the treated and control groups was significant (P<0.05). The birds treated with the herb from day 0 of their life showed more weight gain. There was no difference in the haematological indices between all of the treated groups and the control groups. The neem treated birds showed increased antibody titers against ND and IBD viruses as compared to control groups. The values of ALP and ASTshowed decreasing trend when the level of neem leaf meal was increased in the ration. Serum creatinine and serum uric acid values posed a slight declining trend in the neem fed birds. There was a decrease in serum cholesterol level in the neem treated bird groups, the higher the concentreation of the herb, the lower the cholesterol value. The organ body weight indices showed that there was no significant difference in liver, spleen and thymus weights among treated groups as well between treated and control groups. There was absence of prominent gross pathological lesions in liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus, however some treated groups showed mild hypertrophied liver and kidneys as did the organs of the birds in control groups. No histopathological changes except a few mild changes were observed in liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus in the birds of experimental groups.
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Pathological Effects Of Natural And Experimental Lead (Pb) Toxicity In Lohi Sheep At Jhang, Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Heavy metal toxicity is increasing due to increasing trends of urbanization and
industrialization. Lead poisoning has been recognized as a major public health risk,
particularly in developing countries. It is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, carcinogenic
and mutagenic for animals and human. Sewerage water, fertilizers, leaded-gasoline and lead
based batteries are the sources of lead contamination in soil and forage. The lead particles are
taken up by animals from contaminated forages and excreted in animal products like milk and
The presence of Pb in drinking water, waste water, plant products and animal
products has been studied which is a serious risk for animal and public health. The
legislations for the disposal of household wastes and industrial effluents are very poor in
Pakistan. The calculation of safe Pb levels in different products is still to be needed.
Pathological effects of higher Pb levels have not been studied in Pakistan. The present study
was aimed to unveil the toxic effects at constant dose of Pb over a period of three months in a
local sheep breed of Pakistan. The status of Pb toxicity was also investigated in a polluted
area around sewage drain and mutton slaughter house at District Jhang, Pakistan.
The Pb concentration in soil, forage and irrigating water was found to be below the
permissible limits and was safe for agriculture but long-term ingestion of low Pb
concentration may have cumulative effect. The serum Pb concentration was found to be
above the recommended safe limits for producing Pb toxicity in animals. The different tissues
like kidney, liver and skeletal muscles also contained higher Pb level from the permissible
limits and found to be unsafe for public use. Kidney showed the highest Pb concentration and
the muscle contained the least Pb level in the present study.
The erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume showed
inverse correlation with Pb concentration and mean values were below the normal range in
Pb treated sheep but anemia was not developed. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was also
influenced by given dose of lead acetate during third month of treatment. The white blood
cells also revealed no effect on given dose of lead acetate in Lohi sheep in this study.
The biochemical parameters of field and treatment group showed higher concentration
as compared to control group of Lohi sheep but their means were falling within the normal
range of reference values. The disturbed biochemical parameters in apparently healthy sheep
with higher serum Pb concentration were indicative for liver and kidney damage.
Lohi sheep exhibited less effect on given dose of lead acetate during first two months
but more pronounced changes of chronic Pb toxicity were observed during last month of trial.
The histological changes were not observed on early period in lead acetated treated sheep.
The characteristic histological changes were observed on last slaughtering at day 90 in kidney
and liver including degeneration and focal areas of necrosis, dilatation of blood vessels with
accumulation of red blood cells and fibrosis in some areas. The nuclear changes were more
typical with intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal tubular epithelial cells but less
distinguishable in hepatocytes.
It was concluded that soil, forage and water contained low Pb levels in the study area.
The ingestion of low Pb level for longer period had cumulative effect in animals. The animals
might be resistant to low Pb level but their products are a severe risk for public health. So the
necessary measures should be adopted to minimize the heavy metal contamination in animal
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2820-T] (1).