Detection Of Mycoplasma Synoviae By Pcr And Its Histopatholohical Studies In Poutry Breeder In District Abbottabad
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Poultry, an important sub-sector of livestock, has emerged a cheaper source of protein for human consumption. Mycoplasmas are the smallest known bacteria, 300-800 nm in diameter and are capable of replicating outside the cell. Mycoplasma synoviae is a member of the class Mollicutes, order Mycoplasmatales, family Mycoplasmataceae. Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is considered economically to be most important pathogen. Mycoplasma synoviae infections occur in poultry worldwide, affecting poultry and causes diseases like respiratory distress, synovitis and arthritis. Mycoplasma is transmitted from infected to healthy birds both by horizontal and vertical routes. Horizontally disease is transmitted via infected and healthy carrier birds, hatchery, housing, equipments, feeding and during transportation.
To have an insight on pathogenesis and reliable diagnostic techniques, the present project was designed to know comparative sensitivity of rapid agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction for MS diagnosis and to study the gross lesion and histopathological changes in chicken joints produced by MS.
The birds showing clinical signs that included respiratory i.e. tracheal rales, conjunctivitis, coughing, sneezing, ocular and nasal discharge and infectious synovitis were selected for sample collection. Initially the collected sera samples were examined by Rapid Serum Agglutination test. RSA and PCR tests were used in order to confirm the pathogenic agent. RSA and PCR positive samples were further processed for histopathological study in order to identify the lesions in tissues produced by causative organism. In field visits it was observed that the suspected birds were with pale comb, mild to severe lameness, dull, depressed, ruffled feather, conjunctivitis, oculo-nasal discharge, tracheal rales and greenish or sulfur faeces. Birds hock joints, toe joints and paws pad were swelled. The infected birds were occasionally found with generalized infection. The infected birds complicated with other diseases of poultry such as Newcastle and infectious bronchitis causes infection airsacculitis.
Rapid serum agglutination test was conducted at 14 broiler breeder farms. The birds at a farm were showing respiratory and infectious synovitis signs and symptoms, suspected to Mycoplasma synoviae. The tests were performed at the spot. A total of 239 sera samples were examined out of which 63 (26.35%) sera samples were positive for MS. The clinical samples were identified and confirmed as Mycoplasma synoviae infection by PCR. The amplified PCR product was given about 211 bp size while PCR buffer was used as negative control. A total of 213 samples were subjected to PCR and 65 (30.52%) revealed PCR positive results for tracheal swabs, 28.16% (20 samples out 71) showed positive results. For tracheal and lung 33.38 % (24 out of 71) and 29.57% (21 out of 71 samples) were positive, respectively. The PCR test successfully amplified the DNA of MS clinical positive samples. Sixty five out of 213 Mycoplasma synoviae isolates were positive in MS specific PCR while the other 148 samples were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of molecular method Polymerase chain reaction was 100 percent.
For histopathological studies the samples of different organs including trachea, lungs, liver, hock joints (articular cartilage, piece of synovial membrane) and foot pad were further processed. The trachea was examined. There was epithelial degeneration, desquamation. congestion, haemorrhages and inflammatory cell infiltration. The lungs were examined and it was revealed that there was marked congestion, haemorrhages, necrosis and mononuclear cells infiltration. Liver showed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Articular cartilage showing chondrocytes degenration. Synovial membrane was thickened due to infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cell. Foot pad showed hyperkaratosis and thickning of epidermis, acanthosis, degeneration of cartilage, infiltration of both mononuclear and plasma cell.
It is concluded from findings of present study that PCR is more appropriate technique than RSA for timely diagnosis of Mycoplasma synoviae. However combination of findings of both techniques may be utilized for accurate detection of Mycoplasma synoviae from broiler breeder in district Abbottabad.
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Immuno Pathological Effects Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) In Commercial Broiler Chickens
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: These experiments were conducted to study the effects of Azadirachta indica admixed in poultry feed on weight gain performance, haemtological values,immune modulations, and toxic effects in broiler chickens. A total number of 144 commercial broiler 1-day old chicks were reared in the experimental sheds of the Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore, The birds were fed with balanced commercial feed and water ad libitum. The birds were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C having fourty eight chicks each. Birds of all groups were sub divided into four groups of each i.e. A1, A2, A3 and A4; B1, B2, B3 & B4 and C1, C2, C3 and C4, respectively. Each of the sub groups containd 12 birds. Sub groups A4, B4 and C4 were control group with no medication. The birds of groups A, B and C were fed with poultry feed containing dry powder of neem leaves @ 2 gm, 4 gm and 6gm per kg of feed respectively. The birds of groups A1, B1 and C1 were treated with the herb from day 0 to 42 of their life. The birds of groups A2, B2 and C2 were given the neem from day 14 to 42 of their life, whereas the birds of groups A3, B3 and C3 were treated with the herb from day 28 to 42 of their life. Difference between weekly weight gain in the birds of groups A1, B1 and C1 was non significant (P>0.05) however the difference between weight gain in the treated and control groups was significant (P<0.05). The birds treated with the herb from day 0 of their life showed more weight gain. There was no difference in the haematological indices between all of the treated groups and the control groups. The neem treated birds showed increased antibody titers against ND and IBD viruses as compared to control groups. The values of ALP and ASTshowed decreasing trend when the level of neem leaf meal was increased in the ration. Serum creatinine and serum uric acid values posed a slight declining trend in the neem fed birds. There was a decrease in serum cholesterol level in the neem treated bird groups, the higher the concentreation of the herb, the lower the cholesterol value. The organ body weight indices showed that there was no significant difference in liver, spleen and thymus weights among treated groups as well between treated and control groups. There was absence of prominent gross pathological lesions in liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus, however some treated groups showed mild hypertrophied liver and kidneys as did the organs of the birds in control groups. No histopathological changes except a few mild changes were observed in liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus in the birds of experimental groups.
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Pathological Effects Of Natural And Experimental Lead (Pb) Toxicity In Lohi Sheep At Jhang, Pakistan
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Heavy metal toxicity is increasing due to increasing trends of urbanization and
industrialization. Lead poisoning has been recognized as a major public health risk,
particularly in developing countries. It is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, carcinogenic
and mutagenic for animals and human. Sewerage water, fertilizers, leaded-gasoline and lead
based batteries are the sources of lead contamination in soil and forage. The lead particles are
taken up by animals from contaminated forages and excreted in animal products like milk and
The presence of Pb in drinking water, waste water, plant products and animal
products has been studied which is a serious risk for animal and public health. The
legislations for the disposal of household wastes and industrial effluents are very poor in
Pakistan. The calculation of safe Pb levels in different products is still to be needed.
Pathological effects of higher Pb levels have not been studied in Pakistan. The present study
was aimed to unveil the toxic effects at constant dose of Pb over a period of three months in a
local sheep breed of Pakistan. The status of Pb toxicity was also investigated in a polluted
area around sewage drain and mutton slaughter house at District Jhang, Pakistan.
The Pb concentration in soil, forage and irrigating water was found to be below the
permissible limits and was safe for agriculture but long-term ingestion of low Pb
concentration may have cumulative effect. The serum Pb concentration was found to be
above the recommended safe limits for producing Pb toxicity in animals. The different tissues
like kidney, liver and skeletal muscles also contained higher Pb level from the permissible
limits and found to be unsafe for public use. Kidney showed the highest Pb concentration and
the muscle contained the least Pb level in the present study.
The erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume showed
inverse correlation with Pb concentration and mean values were below the normal range in
Pb treated sheep but anemia was not developed. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was also
influenced by given dose of lead acetate during third month of treatment. The white blood
cells also revealed no effect on given dose of lead acetate in Lohi sheep in this study.
The biochemical parameters of field and treatment group showed higher concentration
as compared to control group of Lohi sheep but their means were falling within the normal
range of reference values. The disturbed biochemical parameters in apparently healthy sheep
with higher serum Pb concentration were indicative for liver and kidney damage.
Lohi sheep exhibited less effect on given dose of lead acetate during first two months
but more pronounced changes of chronic Pb toxicity were observed during last month of trial.
The histological changes were not observed on early period in lead acetated treated sheep.
The characteristic histological changes were observed on last slaughtering at day 90 in kidney
and liver including degeneration and focal areas of necrosis, dilatation of blood vessels with
accumulation of red blood cells and fibrosis in some areas. The nuclear changes were more
typical with intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal tubular epithelial cells but less
distinguishable in hepatocytes.
It was concluded that soil, forage and water contained low Pb levels in the study area.
The ingestion of low Pb level for longer period had cumulative effect in animals. The animals
might be resistant to low Pb level but their products are a severe risk for public health. So the
necessary measures should be adopted to minimize the heavy metal contamination in animal
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2820-T] (1).