Effect Of Different Treatments On Tannin Contents Of Two Local Cultivars Of Sorghum Grain
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Over the last few years, use of cereals in the poultry and livestock feed increased greatly. To meet the requirement of the feed industry, the production and proper utilization of the grains is much more important. Some grains due to presence of some anti nutritional factors limit their use in desired quantity. Similarly, their low amino acid profile and fewer digestibilities also hindered the utilization of these nutrient sources. Sorghum cereal is one of them which provide a considerable amount of protein and energy to the animal. Some other grains, sorghum contain a phenolic compound "Tannin" which is an anti nutritional component for both poultry and livestock. Tannin make a complex with protein, starch and some minerals thus reduce there availability for living beings. The present project has been planned with their objective to reduce tannin contents and increase digestibility of nutrients. The purpose of the study is the nutritional evaluation and up gradation of indigenous feed stuffs for Livestock and Poultry, so we can increase the use of sorghum grain in these industries. For this purpose two varieties of sorghum, red and white were used. Red and white sorghum varieties were treated with sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% solution and were kept at ambient temperature for 8, and 16 hrs. At the end of treatment, samples of each variety were tested for tannin contents and proximate analysis. In the last phase of experiment, all the treated samples of NaOH, formaldehyde and distilled water were monitored for in situ digestibility for 12, 18, 24, and 30 hrs. The data thus obtained were statistically analyzed by using completely randomized design through ANOVA Technique. The difference among treatment means were tested through Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results of the present experiments showed that the treatment of high tannin sorghum grain with alkali or simple distilled water is the most effective method for reducing the total tannil contents in sorghum grain. It is further noticed that the alkali treatments also affect the overall nutritive value of grain and enhance the dry matter digestibility of the grain.
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Effect Of Enzymatic Complex On Growth Performance Of Broilers At Defferent Dietary Levels Of Wheat.
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: This study was conducted at environmentally controlled shed of poultry research and training centre, department of poultry production, UVAS-Ravi campus, Pattoki. The objectives of the study were to see the growth performance of broilers by use of enzymatic complex diet replacing different dietary levels of wheat with corn. Enzymatic complex (allzyme SSF) contained xylanase, beta-glucanase, pectinase, cellulase, phytase, protease and amylase was used to counteract indigestion of fibers and improved utilization. There are some evidences that the inclusion of supplemental phytase, xylanase, and the complex of enzymes might have a positive effect on broilers growth and increased the nutrients. The trial was containing 525 birds, 7 treatments and 35 replicates. Treatment 'A' is controlifor all treatments there were different levels of wheat and same quantity of enzymatic complex added to observe its effects on growth performance. Duration of trial was 35 days. 7itypes of feedsuwith unique formulation were prepared. Feed 'A' was control diet having the profile same as that of commercial feed (crude protein =21%, ME=2900 kcal/kg). The parametersiof thisiexperiment were feed intake,ibody weight gain,ifeed conversion efficiency (FCR),irelative organs weight, immune organs weight and visceral organs weight, length, mortality. The parameters were collected during the trial as well as at the end of trial. Finally,idata wasicollected, analyzedistatistically using ANOVA inicompletelyirandomized design withihelpiofia computerbbasedistatistical package (SAS). In first week the birds being offered feed 'D' were observed more feed intake and significant difference was observed among groups. In 2nd week, feed intake was decreased in birds fed enzyme supplemented feed. In first four weeks, significant difference was found between groups while last group was non-significant difference. Groups supplemented with enzyme than non-supplemented groups. In 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week, control group weight gain was the best and 5th week was non-significant for all groups. The average body weight in groups supplemented with enzyme recorded was significant difference than non-supplemented with enzymes.
In case of FCR, group 'A' was observed to be the best in all groups. Analysis of variance among all groups in fifth groups found to be non-significant difference. FCR in groups supplemented with enzymes was recorded better than non-supplemented with enzymes.
Mortalities in groups A, B, C and E was the less than D, F and G. More mortality was recorded in group 'F' supplemented with 25% wheat and without enzymes. Dressing percentage was best in A and followed to B, E, F, C, G and D.
Results obtained from immune organs of bursa showed that bursa weight was found to be better in group 'G' supplemented with 25% wheat and enzyme supplemented than rest of groups in following sequence i.e. D, A, E, B, F and C. Pancreas weight of group 'B' was found to be better than result groups. Results were non-significant because weight of non-supplemented was better than supplemented with enzyme groups. While results obtained from thymus weight recorded showed that group 'G' was best supplemented with enzymes than all of other groups as followed D, A, B, C, E and F.
Results of heart weight showed that results were significant between groups except F and G groups. Best weight was observed in group 'A' control diet group. Results of liver weight showed significant difference among groups except D and E. Liver weight of control diet group was lower than other groups. Results of gizzard weight filled showed that groups supplemented with enzymes were significantly lower than groups of non-supplemented with enzyme except in groups G and F respectively. While results of empty gizzard weight of supplemented groups were found to be significantly difference increased as compared to non-supplemented with enzymes. Results of spleen weight were non-significant for all groups. Results of intestinal weight showed significant difference among the groups. Intestinal length of group 'G' found to be more than other. Intestinal length of groups supplemented with enzymes was more than non-supplemented groups. In case of intestinal weight filled and empty, non-significant difference was found among groups except in D and E.
Based on finding of study, it is stated that effect of dietary supplementation of wheat and enzymatic complex in broilers diets has improved weight gain and decreased feed consumption. Similarly, dietary supplementation of wheat and enzymatic complex performed better in case of survival and less mortality was found. So it is recommended that for fibers' digestion, enzymes showed be used in diets to improve the growth performance in modern day broilers.
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Impact Of Digestible Lysine, Methionine + Cysteine Ratios On Growth Performance, Ileal Digestibility Of Protein And Gut Health In Broilers Fed Different Protein Sources
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Poultry production is a vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan. Genetic selection and nutritional improvements resulted in accelerated growth rate and better FCR in modern broilers. This improved broiler performance requires greater amount of digestible nutrients. Since feeding cost accounts about 70% of total production cost and protein is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Future poultry diets, therefore, will be formulated by using cheaper and poorly digestible protein sources such as CM and SFM due to price volatility of highly digestible but expensive sources like SBM. The undigested protein in hind gut is subjected to microbial fermentation, results in formation of nitrogenous products that are not only harmful to birds, but also excreted into litter bedding and generate ammonia, nitrous acid and nitrous oxide, the latter one is a powerful greenhouse gas with an effect about 300 times compared with carbon dioxide. The potential solution to this problem is supplementation of synthetic amino acids in low nutrient density (CP) diets formulated by using cheaper and poorly digestible protein sources. Therefor a study was designed with the objectives to determine the impact of dLys, M + C ratios on growth performance, apparent Ileal digestibility of protein and gut health in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). An experiment with 432 mixed sex (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that supplementation of Meth may improves growth performance, apparent Ileal digestibility of protein and gut health in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). The interaction effects of the protein source (CM vs. SFM), CP levels (high vs. low) and dM+C/d Lys (recommended vs. supplemented) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2 × 2 × 2) dietary treatments. The supplementation of Meth positively influenced FI (P = 0.042), BWG (P = 0.003) and FCR (P <0.001). The broilers fed Meth supplemented diets had, on an average, 10% greater apparent Ileal digestibility of protein, 34% longer villi, 24.5% shorter crypts and 60% greater VCR compared with those fed diets with recommended levels of Meth. The levels of CP, similarly, influenced (P <0.001) the FI, BWG and FCR. The broilers fed high CP diets had 9% improved apparent Ileal digestibility of protein compared with those fed low CP diets. In conclusion, supplementation of Meth improves the broiler growth performance, apparent Ileal digestibility of protein and gut health fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). The negative effects of poorly digestible protein sources thus may be partially ameliorated by supplementation of Meth.
In conclusion, the negative effects of poorly digestible protein sources thus may be ameliorated by supplementation of Meth. Supplementation of Meth above the recommended levels improves the growth performance, Ileal digestibility of protein and gut health in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM).
SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION
Further research is needed to evaluate the different strategies to improve the digestibility of poorly digestible protein sources including guar meal. Threonine also has an important role in gut health so there is a need to study the effects of supplementation of threonine above the recommended levels in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources. Feed form has pronounced effects on gut development, digestibility of nutrients and subsequent growth performance of birds. There is a dire need to evaluate the other cheaper protein sources, supplemented with synthetic amino acids and to find out a possible interaction between feed form and poorly digestible protein sources that may replace SBM in broilers.
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Effect Of Methionine And Mannan Oligosaccharides Supplementation On Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Immunity And Selected Blood Metabolites In Broiler Chicken Under Conditions Of High Ambient Temperature And Humidity
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Poultry sector is one of the most organized and vibrant segment of agriculture sector in Pakistan and is claimed to be among the largest industries of Pakistan with over more than 200 billion rupees investment and offering employment directly or indirectly to 1.5 million people. Broilers exposed to high environmental temperature and humidity exhibit several physiological and performance related setbacks. Heat stress cause high mortality, poor FCR, reduced feed consumption, body weight gain, and visceral development. Heat stress has been linked to a decrease in intestinal immune activity and to impaired intestinal morphology following pathogenic bacteria invasion of the body through the intestinal epithelium. Nutritional manipulations with its low cost are preferred to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress on performance. Nutritional strategies such as the addition of prebiotics, some amino acids e.g. methionine are reported to be beneficial in alleviating heat stress. As a nutritional intervention, synthetic methionine added to the diet has been explored as method of ameliorating the effects of ROS associated with high environmental temperature. Keeping above in view, the present study has been planned to evaluate the effect of supplementing methionine and MOS on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune status against ND under field conditions. In this experiment a total of n=200 day old chicks were procured from a commercial hatchery and randomly assigned to dietary treatments with n=40 chicks per treatment. Each treatment was further divided into four replicates with n=10 birds/replicate. Dietary treatments were : 1) negative control (NC) without any supplementation, 2) positive control (PC) containing antibiotic, 3) MOS supplemented (MOS) containing 800 and 400 g/ton of MOS in the starter and grower, respectively, 4) High Methionine supplemented treatment (HM) containing Methionine 1% of the diet in both starter and grower feeds, 5) Methionine and MOS supplemented (HM+MOS) treatment containing high methionine
(1% in starter and grower) along with 800 and 400 g/ton of MOS in the starter and grower, respectively. The temperature and humidity were recorded daily at 8:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h and means were calculated to determine the daily changes in temperature humidity index. Feed intake, body weight and FCR were recorded at the end of each week. At the end of experiment n=3 birds per replicate were selected, weighed and slaughtered. At the time of slaughtering blood samples were collected in evacuated tubes. Serum was harvested after centrifugation, dived into aliquots and stored at –20 oC until further analysis. Serum samples were used to determine antibody titer against ND. At the time of slaughtering organ weighed and jejunal sample were collected to determine the gut morphology. The data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results were declared statistically significant at P < 0.05 and compared using Tukey, s multiple comparison test. The statistical analysis were carried out using SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute, 2006). Live BW was higher (P<0.05) in HM+MOS compared to NC and HM. Feed intake was higher (P<0.05) in HM+MOS and PC than those in NC. However, FCR was lowest in HM+MOS compared to NC and PC birds. Relative organ weights were similar (P>0.05) among treatments; however, bursa of fabricius was heavier in MOS compared to the NC and HM+MOS. Villus height and villus to crypt ratio was highest (P<0.05) in HM, than the NC treatment birds CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, supplementation of methionine at 1% of diet and MOS improved the weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio in birds reared under conditions of high temperature and humidity. Gut morphology of the bird also improved by supplementation of Methionine and MOS in the broiler diet.
SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION
Further research is needed to re-determine the recommended levels of methionine in the diet when bird are reared under the conditions of high temperature and humidity.
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Protease Supplementation Influences Growth Performance, Gut Health And Ileal Digestibility Of Protein In Broilers Fed Low Protein Diets
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Proteases are protein-digesting enzymes that are used to break down the proteins of various plant materials and proteinaceous anti-nutrients in plant protein feedstuffs. The use of exogenous proteases can help in the reduction of the protein contents of a given feed by improving the digestibility and availability of the protein thereby reducing the cost of feed contributed by the protein feedstuff. It will also help to reduce the nitrogen excretion by the poultry and will contribute to mitigate the climate change.
In the present study the protease from a bacillus lachniformis spp was supplemented to evaluate the effect of enzyme on protein digestibility, gut health and birds performance. For this three experimental diets with 21, 19 and 17 % CP (HP, MP and LP) with six treatments with and without exogenous protease were used in this trial to evaluate the effect of protease. Each treatment was replicated to 6 pens and 10 birds were allocated to each pen. Parameters studied regarding birds performance were feed intake, weight gain and FCR. All the growth performance parameters were recorded on weekly basis while the Ileal digestibility and gut health parameters were recorded at the 35th day of the trial. Data was analysed through completely randomized design (CRD) under factorial arrangement using ANOVA technique (Steel et al. 1997). Means were separated through Duncan’s Multiple Range test (Duncon’s, 1955) with the help of SAS 9.1.
The results of feed intake, weight gain and feed intake: gain on weekly basis showed inconsistent results, however the overall performance of the birds fed low protein diets supplemented with protease showed significant results. The gut health parameters showed the significant increase in villus height. The apparent Ileal digestibility of protein was significantly increased in the MP supplemented with protease enzyme.
Based upon the findings of this study it can be concluded that;
Supplementation of protease improves growth performance of the broilers however the results on weekly basis were inconsistent but overall growth performance data shows significant results.
Protease supplementation enhances the CP digestibility in 19 % diets compared to 21 % and 17 % CP diets.
The supplementation of protease enzyme improves the villus height and crypt depth: villus height in broilers.
SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Future researchers can further evaluate the subsequent effects of the protease on growth performance and immune response in broilers.
In future the research can be conducted to determine the effect of protease on energy digestibility and immune response in broilers.
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Effect Of Feed Form And Particle Size Of Corn On Growth Performance, Protein Digestibility And Gut Health Of Broiler
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: The presented study was conducted at control house of Department of Poultry Production, C-block, UVAS Ravi Campus. In total 480, day-old Hubbard Classic broiler chicks were procured from local hatchery, weighed at 1st day and randomly distributed to eight treatment groups in such a way that there were six replicates in each group and each replicate had 10 chicks. Eight isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets were formulated. Half birds were offered crumble form of feed in whole life while half birds were offered crumble form in starter phase and pellet form in finisher phase. Four levels (<1, 1-1.5, 1.5-2 and 2-2.5mm) of corn particle size were used in each form of feed.Body weight and feed consumptionwere recorded weekly in order to calculate feed conversion ratio.Data collected were analyzed by ANOVA using factorial arrangement under CRD. Experimental means were compared using DMR test.
Birds fed diet having higher particle size (2-2.5mm) of corn had lower feed consumption, greater body weight gain and improved FCR compared to those fed smaller particle size during starter, finisher and overall phase. Further, birds fed pelleted feed had lower feed consumption, greater weight gain and improved FCR than those fed crumble form of feed.Further, different particle size of corn resulted in non-significant effect on villus height and crypt depth. Feed form also had non-significant influence on villus height and crypt depth of duodenum.Birds fed diet having higher particle size (2-2.5mm) of corn had higher apparent ileal digestibilityof protein than those fed smaller particle size. Feed form had non-significant effect on apparent ileal digestibilityof protein.
It can be concluded from the results that birds fed pelleted diet containing coarse particle size had improved growth performance and protein digestibility without adverse effect on gut health of broiler.
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