Effects Of Stair-Step Nutrition Regimen On Growth Rate, Nutrien Utilization And Pubertal Development In Nili-Ravi
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Under this study, effect of stair-step nutritional regimen compared to the standard NRC recommended energy levels on growth rate, nutrient utilization, some selected blood metabolites, pubertal age, conception rate and economic analysis in ili- Ravi buffalo heifers were measured. Study lasted for 18 months during the years 2008- 20 I O. Twenty-two heifers, 6-8 month old, 98.57±5.07 kg average ody weight were divided into two equal groups and randomly assigned either control or stair-step nutritional regimen (SSNR) diets. The SSNR was designed in three phase program each having 6 months duration i.e., postweaning (7 to 13 month age), repubertal (13 to 19 month age) and pubertal/breeding (19 to 25 month age). In each phase, the treatment group during step 1, was fed on low energy diet (80% ME of NRC) for 4 months followed by high energy diet (120% ME ofNRC) for 2 months in step 2. The heifers in ontrol group were fed according to NRC (200 I) requirements of Holstein Friesian heifers continuously for 6 months. For both the groups individual feeding was carried out. Daily feed intake and fortnightly fasting weights were recorded. Nutrients digestibility and N balance trials were conducted during last week of each step during each phase. Blood samples were collected at the end of each low or high energy diets for blood metabolites analysis. Oestrus detection was done with the help of a teaser bull at age of 15-16 months. Transrectal ultrasonography was done to assess uterus and ovarian structures development. Measured blood serum progesterone concentration collected every 10 days interval at 09.00-10.00 hours during 18-20 months age by ELISA using commercial kit. The age and live weight at onset of puberty was recorded when heifer tood to be mounted by the bull first time in her life. The heifers detected in oestrus were bred by natural mating at approximately 12-15 hours of the onset of oestrus activity. Heifers not returning to oestrus were examined for pregnancy diagnosis through rectal alpation of uterus at 70-90 days post breeding. Data of feed onsumption during postweaning, prepubertal and pubertallbreeding phases were used to calculate the feed cost used per kg gain between the SSNR and control heifers.
During postweaning phase, heifers fed SSNR low energy diet (2.03 Meal/kg) ained significantly (P<O.OS) lower daily weights than those fed control diet (2.SS Meal/kg), When heifers fed high energy diet (3.01 Meal/kg), daily weight gain was significantly (P<O.O 1) higher in SSNR compared to control. Average dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (P>O.OS) between the heifers of two groups. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was poorer (P<O.OS) in SSNR heifers fed low energy diet compared to those fed control diet. But on high energy diet FCR was better (P<O.OS) in SSNR compared to control group.
During prepubertal phase, there was no difference (P>O.OS) in weight gain between the heifers fed SSNR low energy diet (1.89 Meal/kg) and control diet (2.3S Meal/kg). But on high energy diet (2.80 Meal/kg) weight gain was higher (P<O.OS) in SSNR compared to control group. Average dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (P>O.OS) between the heifers of two groups. On low energy diet there was no difference (P>O.OS) in FCR between the two groups. But on high energy diet FCR was significantly (P<O.OS) better in SSNR compared to control group. Average DMI in heifers of both groups was similar (P>O.OS). During pubertal/breeding phase, similar trend of weight gain, DMI and FCR was found in SSNR versus control group as reported in prepubertal phase.
Intake of DM, organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) as percent body weight were statistically non-significant (P>O.OS) differet between the SSNR versus ontrol groups during all phases. Metabolizable energy (ME) consumption was significantly P<O.OS) lower in SSNR group fed low energy diet than the heifers fed control diet. But ME consumption was significantly (P<O.O 1) increased in SSNR group fed high energy diet than control group. Similar, trend of ME consumption was observed in heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) and control diets during prepubertal and pubertal phases. Water to dry matter intake ratio in heifers during postweaning, prepubertal and pubertal phases were statistically similar (P>O.OS).
In all phases, apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ (P>0.05) between the heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) and control diets. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility was higher (P<0.05) when SSNR heifers fed low energy diet, but on high energy diet NDF digestibility was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to control, respectively, during all phases with the exception of step I in the prepubertal phase and step 2 in pubertal phase where the differences were non-significant (P>0.05) between the groups. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility with SSNR low energy diet was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the heifers fed control diets during three phases. But on high energy diet, ADF digestibility was not different (P>0.05) between the two groups. Also N intake was not different (P>0.05) between the heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) diets and control diets, respectively, with the exception of step 2 in the postweaning phase when the control group showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in intake of N compared to the SSNR group. Faecal N as well as Urinary N losses in heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) versus control diets did not differ significantly (P>0.05).
All heifers have shown haematological values which are almost similar in heifers of two groups. Except total cholesterol, concentration of urea N, glucose and macro minerals in serum did not differ between the two groups.
There was no significant (P>0.05) differences in age and weight at onset of puberty and number of services per conception between the two groups. Pregnancy rate in heifers fed on SSNR diet was 50% while on control diet was 57%. Fifty percent of heifer fed SSNR and 60% of heifers fed control diet as per NRC requirement had serum progesterone concentrations> 1.0 ng/ml in two samples collected 10 days apart before reaching puberty.
The overall feed costs incurred (42660.88 vs 44509.96 Rs./animal) on SSNR heifers was significantly (P<0.05) less than the control heifers fed according to NRC recommendations from weaning to breeding age.
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Effect Of Protein Supplements Of Varying Ruminal Degradability On Milk Production, Composition And Nutrients
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: The study on "Effect of protein supplements of varying ruminal degradability on milk production, composition and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes" was carried out in three phases at three different experimental locations. The in situ study of animal and vegetable protein sources was conducted at the Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animals Sciences, Lahore while the feeding trials with early lactating Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes were carried out Government Livestock Farm, Kalurkot, Bukkar and Livestock Experimental Station, Khushab, respectively.
Different animal (n = 6) and vegetable origin (n = 15) protein sources were subjected to ruminal protein degradability analyses using the in situ technique. All these test feeds collected from ten different locations were subjected to ruminal incubation (in triplicate) for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h to determine the quickly soluble fraction (a), potentially degradable fraction (b), degradation rate (c) and effective degradability at different (2, 5, 8 %) ruminal passage rates. The degradability characteristics in animal protein sources (part 1, phase 1) showed significant differences in degradation kinetics and effective degradability (ED). In crude protein (CP) degradability, the quickly soluble fraction (a) was higher (P<0.05) in fish meal, PBM and meat meal and lower (P<0.05) in blood meal, feather meal and bone and meat meal. Potentially degradable fraction (b) among test feeds was maximum (P<0.05) in bone and meat meal and PBM and minimum (P<0.05) in blood meal and feather meal. The degradation rate (c) did not differ among the test feeds. Of all the animal protein sources investigated, meat meal showed maximum CP degradability at 0.05 rumen passage rate whilst, minimum (P<0.05) ED of CP was exhibited by blood meal.
Ruminal degradability characteristics in vegetable protein sources (part-2 of phase-1) showed variation in degradation kinetics and ED of CP. The quickly soluble fraction (a) was highest (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, coconut meal and PKC. Potentially degradable fraction (b) was maximum (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, PKC, SBM and guar meal while minimum (P<0.05) in sesame cake and CGM 30%. Protein degradation rate (c) was highest (P<0.05) in CSC while lowest (P<0.05) in coconut meal, coconut cake and CGM 60%. Effective degradability of CP at 0.05 rumen passage rate was highest in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in coconut meal.
All vegetable protein sources were treated (part-3 of phase-1) with formaldehyde (1 g/100 g CP) and heat treatment (1 h at 15 lb/100 g CP) to determine their effectiveness in reducing ruminal protein degradability. Both of these treatments decreased (P<0.05) rumen degradability of the vegetable protein sources investigated. Of the formaldehyde treated test feeds, quickly soluble fraction (a) was higher (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lower (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, SBM, CGM 30%, guar meal, canola meal and coconut meal. The highest value of potentially degradable fraction (b) was recorded (P<0.05) in CSC and RSC while CGM 60% had the lowest value (P<0.05). Degradation rate (c) was highest (P<0.05) in RSM, RSC, CSC, CSM coconut cake, PKC, sesame cake, SFM and CGM 60% and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 30%, guar meal and canola meal. Effective degradability of CP was maximum in sesame cake at all the rumen passage rates. In contrast, CGM 60% had the lowest (P<0.05) ED at all of the rumen passage rates. Among the heat treated vegetable protein sources, quickly soluble fraction (a) was highest (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 60% and SBM. Potentially degradable fraction (b) had the highest (P<0.05) value in almond cake, RSM, RSC, CSC and SFM while CGM 60% had the lowest value (P<0.05). Effective CP degradability of the heat treated test feeds showed that almond cake and sesame cake had the highest (P<0.05) ED whilst CGM 60% had the lowest values (P<0.05). In comparing both treatments, similar influence (P>0.05) of increasing RUP level was recorded in CGM 30%, SFM, RSM, CSM, PKC and coconut meal. Formaldehyde treatment was found more effective (P<0.05) in increasing RUP level in guar meal, canola meal, RSC, CSC, coconut cake, almond cake and sesame cake whilst heat treatment increased (P<0.05) RUP level in SBM and CGM 60% at applied rates in this study.
In phase-2, a feeding trial with early lactating Sahiwal cows was conducted to investigate the effect of protein supplements of varying ruminal degradability on milk production, composition and nutrients utilization. Twenty four early lactating Sahiwal cows were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Four iso- caloric and iso- nitrogenous diets i.e., ration A (30% RUP), ration B (40% RUP), ration C (50% RUP) and ration D (60% RUP) were fed in a completely randomized design. Dry matter and CP intakes were significantly affected by ration composition (P<0.01), whereas NDF and ADF intakes did not vary among the four treatment groups (P>0.05). DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in cows receiving rations B and A than the cows fed rations C and D. There were significant differences in DM (P<0.05), CP (P<0.001) and NDF (P<0.05) digestibility due to the ration; however, ADF digestibility did not differ (P>0.05) between the rations. DM digestibility was higher (P<0.05) on ration B than rations C and D, but similar to that for ration A. Crude protein was higher (P<0.05) on rations B and A and lower (P<0.05) on rations C and D. Daily yields of uncorrected milk and protein were highest in early lactating Sahiwal cows fed ration B and lowest when fed ration D. Daily yields of 4% FCM and milk fat were higher (P<0.05) on rations B and A and lower (P<0.05) on ration D. In milk composition, fat, protein and total solids contents were the same across all diets. Nitrogen intake was highest (P<0.01) for rations B and A and lowest for ration D and C. Nitrogen balance (g/d) and as a percentage of N intake varied; with the cows consuming ration B retaining maximum (P<0.001) N. However, N balance did not vary between rations A, C and D. Nitrogen utilization was highest (P<0.001) in cows fed ration B, but there was no difference among cows fed rations A, C and D. Live weight and body condition score in cows were unaffected by the rations. Cost of milk production was least on ration B and highest on ration D.
In phase-3 a feeding trial using early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes was conducted. Twenty four buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into four groups. These groups were fed four experimental diets i.e., rations A, B, C and D having 30, 40, 50 and 60% RUP proportions, respectively in a completely randomized design. Results showed no differences (P>0.05) in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF and ADF intake between the rations. Likewise, DM, CP and ADF digestibility were the same (P>0.05) in buffaloes fed rations A, B, C and D; however, NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.01) on ration C and B while lowest on rations A and D. Milk yield was highest (P<0.001) on ration C while lowest (P<0.001) on rations D and A. Buffaloes given ration C produced more (P<0.05) FCM than those receiving rations A, B and D. Daily yield of milk fat was greater (P<0.001) on ration C compared to the other three rations. Milk protein yield was highest (P<0.001) on ration C and lowest (P<0.001) on rations A and C. Diet had no effect (P>0.05) on milk fat, SNF, lactose, salts and total solids percentages; whilst milk protein percentage varied among all four diets, viz ration C>ration B>ration D>ration A. Nitrogen, intake, nitrogen balance and nitrogen utilization were similar across all the diets. Live weight and body condition score in buffaloes were unaffected by the diet fed. The cost of milk production was highest (P<0.05) with rations D and B whilst lowest (P<0.05) on ration C.
It is concluded that among animal protein sources rumen CP degradability was least in blood meal and maximum in meat meal. In vegetable protein sources, coconut meal showed least ruminal CP degradability while sesame cake recorded with highest ruminal CP degradability. Both formaldehyde and heat treatments protected protein from ruminal degradability with varied levels of effectiveness in different feeds. Production performance improved with the use of RUP sources in early lactating cows and buffaloes. Sahiwal cows showed better yield performance in diets having 40% un-degradable protein in the diet, while Nili-Ravi buffaloes showed high yield performance in diets with 50% un-degradable protein sources.
The use of latest technology and methods needs to be applied for minimizing variations involved in evaluating CP degradability of feeds through in situ procedure. Influence of RDP and RUP based rations in mid and late lactation of Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes are also fertile areas of research. The studies on degradability of amino acids for compiling 'internal standards' of feed resources and production performance of lactating cows/buffaloes based on ruminal degradability of amino acids rather than protein degradability would be better approach for future studies.
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Rheological And Microstructural Study Of Commercial Cheddar And Mozzarella Cheeses By Using Farinograph
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: A series of five experiments were conducted using Brabender Farinograph-E to study rheological properties of different brands of cheeses. This is a computerized machine having data recording capacity. It was found that Farinograph was a use full machine for preparing cheese and studying its rheology. The data recorded in the form of Farinogram showed that torque (resistance against flow of farinograph paddles) depended on fat content, temperature employed and time given to cheese formation. Also, the texture of cheese was influenced by these factors.
Sensory tests are not capable of measuring results more accurately as compared to Instrumental tests. To study cheese properties and effects of many manufacturing factors the fundamental methods will help researchers to develop cheeses with required and persistent textural and rheological properties. The instrument most frequently used all over the world for determining water absorption and mixing characteristics of wheat and rye flour in baking industry is Brabender Farinograph®. The present study was conducted by using Farinograph-E as a major tool to measure rheology of cheeses. In this study cheeses of different ages, and kinds e.g., Mozzarella, medium Cheddar, mild Cheddar, old Cheddar, extra old Cheddar, Ricotta and Parmesan were included. The parameters for operating Farinograph-E were developed and initial trials were conducted in various directions to finalize the procedure. Farinograph-E (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) was used in this study by using its bowl W-50.
The tests were performed by cutting whole cheese bars into small pieces and shifted into air tight containers. The grated cheese was loaded with the help of spatula into Farinograph bowl. Water bath was adjusted at various temperatures like 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C. The temperature was continuously monitored through a temperature probe, inserted into the bowl contained cheese sample. The speed of paddles/ spindles was fixed in Newton meters (Nm) and was kept as constant for all the trials. The lid was closed after filling the bowl and clamped in order to avoid any disturbance. The test was allowed to run for specified time for 35 and 60 minutes. After completion of time durations the test was stopped automatically. The readings were recorded in the form of a graph (torque, time and temperature) of cheese dough resistance over mixing time.
Besides Farinographic studies, the results of Mozzarella and medium Cheddar Farinographic samples of (brand No name) were examined through Cryo-scanning electron microscopy and Fluorescence microscopy to study their microstructure at different stages and their relationship with quality of cheeses. The present study revealed that temperature, time and different fat percentages of different cheese brands shows significant effects on torque values. The results indicated that by increasing fat percentage the torques value decreases.
Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed finer details of cheeses. Shape, size and distribution of fat globules were observed through fluorescence microscopy. The changes in globule sizes and their interaction with casein matrix was also observed. Size of globule was estimated using image analysis technique. Aggregation of globules and their rupture was also observed. These changes in fat globules shape and sizes affected flowability, meltability and viscosity of cheeses and thus affected production of torques which were observed in graphs produced by Farinographs.
By studying microstructure it was obvious from micrographs that Stage 1 showed smaller fat globules in large numbers. In Stage 2 the globules became larger in size and lesser in number and like bubbles in shape, as shown in plates. At stage 3, there was no particular change from Stage 2 texture, except slight change in colour. The same changes are depicted in the shape of curve, that moved up and downwards and then upwards.
Full fats at stage 1, showed smaller fat globules those enlarged at stage 2. In stage 3, only enlarged globules were observed, and the resistance increased against paddles of farinograph and sharp increase was seen in the slope of graph. Globules retained their features at next stage and slope in graph became horizontal to x-axis after reaching maximum value.
These results suggest that size distribution of fat globules tended to impose influence on Farinographic results. Overall it is indicated that Farinograph is a suitable instrument for measuring rheology of cheeses.
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Mineral Profile In Ruminants Of Canal Lrrigated Districts Of Punjab And The Effect Of Dietary Cation Anion Diffference on Lactational Performance of Nili Ravi Buffaloes and Beetal Goats
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Productive And Physiological Performance Of Nili-Ravi Buffaloes Under Various Housing Management Practices During Summer
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Back ground: Among various factors that are affecting buffalo productivity, heat stress is challenge for the dairy farmers of Pakistan since the geographical location of Pakistan is sub-tropic as it is situated 23.6 degree above the line of equator between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn and summer season prevail for long duration with high ambient temperature and relative humidity. Information on production potential of mature Nili-Ravi buffalo against hot-dry and hot-humid season and its adaptability to the sub-tropical conditions of central Punjab has not been documented before. In this regard, study is designed to understand the relationships of environmental stress with physiological, behavioral and production responses in Nili-Ravi buffaloes under different housing and cooling conditions.
Hypothesis: Developing and implementing housing and cooling systems to mitigate heat stress may decrease this effect but must be cost effective. To test these hypotheses, the proposed study was carried out at Buffalo Research Institute (BRI).
Methodology: Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the physiological, productive, serum biochemical and behavioral profile of mature Nili Ravi buffaloes under subtropical conditions, at BRI (Buffalo Research Institute), Pattoki. Experiments were conducted during proposed duration of March-April; May-June; July-August and September-October on various physiological and productive parameters. Lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes (n=20) were divided in to four groups with five animals in each group. Group A buffaloes were kept under roof shades
only (control). Group B was supplemented with yeast powder under roof shade; C group buffaloes were raised under ceiling fans and group D was treated with ceiling fans and showers.
During all summer periods, fans with showers (D) showed highest milk production followed by fans only (C), then control A and B have been similar for most of times. However, in early summer (March-April), the additional cost of supplement feed and cooling strategies was higher than revenue generated from increased milk. Cost per liter of milk produced was higher and thus marginal revenue was lower than expected. Whereas, shaded group A showed comparatively less milk production which was offset by low production cost as there were no additional costs of supplementing feed or cooling strategies.
In all other periods of mid-summer (hot-dry: May-June and hot-humid: July-August) and late summer (July-August), higher milk production was noticed in group D followed by group C despite additional costs of cooling strategies. Lower cost/ liter of milk were noticed as well as high marginal revenue. During these periods, fans were noticed as more effective strategy to alleviate thermal load compare to supplemental feed as cost per liter was high and marginal revenue was less in group B. Looks like feed additive may only be applicable in early summer compare to fans group but shaded group A had best performance in terms of cost per liter and revenue. Group D was found best followed by C in terms of lower cost per liter and high marginal revenue in mid and late summer.
Statistical Analysis: The recorded data was subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) under completely randomized design (CRD). The difference of means among treatment groups were determined by using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT;
Steel et al., 1997) for the interpretation of results and portraying conclusions with the help of statistical software (Statistical packages for social sciences; SPSS).
Conclusion: However, it is noted that during March and April control group buffaloes performed better economically but they had lower production and higher physiological responses. Improved performance and health of animals under fans with or without showers did not produce enough marginal income to pay for the additional costs. Shaded group A showed comparatively less milk production which was offset by low production cost as there were no additional costs of supplementing feed or cooling strategies. Therefore, small scale farmers may use shade only for their buffaloes during early summer only but progressive farmers better go for shower and fans strategy since early summer as this approach works best throughout other periods of summer season. Since, the group D was found best followed by C in terms of lower cost per liter and high marginal revenue therefore, fans with showers would be a quite useful technique for progressive farmers and also necessary from animal’s health point of view. Also, small scale farmers may use fans to avoid drastic decrease in milk production and take maximum achievable measures according to their affordability during mid and later summer.
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Evaluation Of Different Strategies To Improve The Dietary Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows In Pakistan
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: The objectives of this study were to optimize the protein supplies and replacement of SBM with locally available ingredients in the rations of high producing Holstein Friesian cows at mid lactation. On the basis of these objectives, three experiments were conducted. Multiparous cows in mid-lactation received three treatments in a 3×3 Latin square design with a period length of 20 d. Number of animals used were nine in 1st and 3rd experiments and 12 in 2nd experiment (Table 6.1). The trials were conducted at a corporate dairy farm. When we compare the initial and final values of milk yield, milk fat and milk protein contents, there is not a big difference of our diets with that currently being practiced in Pakistan (Table 6.1). This also reveals that the experimental milk production was close to pre-experimental milk production indicating that a successful dietary transition was achieved. Table 6.1: Demonstration of parameters before and during the experiments Exp.
Initial Parameters During Experiment Parameters
1 9 113±25 32±4.1 3.65 3.25 29.7±3.1 3.70 3.27
2 12 153±44 23.3±2.1 3.99 3.34 24.7±1.8 3.98 3.31
3 9 109±19 34±3.7 3.71 3.19 30.7±2.5 3.64 3.21
Exp., experiment; DIM, days in milk In the 1st experiment, three dietary treatments were designed to provide similar energy and increasing supply of MP (g/d)—2371 (low), 2561 (medium), and 2711 (high). Increasing the MP supplies did not modify DMI; however, it increased milk protein, fat, and lactose yield linearly. Similarly, FCM increased (9.3%) linearly due to an increase in both milk yield (5.2%) and milk fat content (7.8%). Milk nitrogen efficiency decreased from 0.26 to 0.20, whereas, the
metabolic efficiency of MP decreased from 0.70 to 0.60 at low to high MP supplies and it average value across the treatments was 0.64 (Table 6.2). In conclusion, increasing the MP supplies resulted in increased milk protein yield; however, a higher BUN and low MNE indicated an efficient utilization of dietary protein in low MP supplies. Milk nitrogen efficiency ranges from 20 to 30% in dairy cows at mid stage of lactation. Milk nitrogen efficiency increases slightly but linearly with the increase of dietary protein up to a certain level of supply of protein. At high protein levels of dietary protein MNE is low and vice versa. In the 2nd experiment, the response of balancing metabolizable Lys to Met ratio (3:1) in low protein diets was investigated. Three experimental diets; 1) LP−: low protein diet (13.6% CP) with imbalanced Lys to Met ratio (3.33), 2) LP+: low protein diet (13.5% CP) with balanced Lys to Met ratio (2.94) through HMBi; and 3) HP−: high protein diet (14.7% CP) without balancing Lys to Met ratio (3.39) in a 3×3 Latin square design were designed. Milk yield of LP- was 0.85 kg/d less as compared with the average milk yield of LP+ and HP-. Dry matter intake decreased by 0.7 kg/d in LP+ compared to HP- treatment whereas milk yield tended to be higher by 0.7 kg/d and protein yield by 23 g/d. Balancing the Lys to Met ratio by supplementing HMBi through feed increased feed, N, and MP conversion efficiencies to milk by 4.4, 1.6, and 13.1% respectively compared to the HP- diet. Similarly, 4% FCM was increased by 4.4% in LP+ diet as compared to HP- diet. Moreover, plasma urea concentration was numerically less in LP+ compared to LP- and HP- treatments whereas no effect was observed on plasma glucose and TG concentrations. In the 3rd experiment, three diets 1) Control: with low protein with SMB as a protein source, 2) SBMD: high protein diet with SBM as a major protein source and 3) CGMD: high
protein diet with CGM as a major protein source. Increasing the protein supplies did not affect DMI, milk fat yield, and milk fat and lactose contents in SBMD and CGMD diets compared to the control diet. Similarly, MP balance and MP/NEL increased by 31.5 and 9.1%, respectively. Increasing the protein supplies tended to increase milk yield. Similarly, milk protein and lactose yield increased by 3.5 and 3.3%, respectively. Milk protein contents tended to increase by 1.5% in SBMD and CGMD treatments compared to the control. Increasing the dietary protein supplies increased FE in SBMD and CGMD treatments compared to control, whereas, MNE decreased by 10.9%. No effect was observed on DM, N and NEL intakes when SBM was partially replaced with CGM. Consequently, milk yield, milk components’ yield, milk composition and feed efficiency remained unaffected. Contrary to this, MNE decreased by 5% in CGM treatment compared to SBM. There were no dietary treatment effects on blood metabolites including BUN, glucose and TG concentrations, which means neither replacement of SBM nor concentration of protein in the diet affected the blood metabolites profile. There was no change in lactation performance of cows by the partial replacement of SBM with CGM. Therefore, SMB could be partially replaced with CGM with urea without affecting animal performance, and saving the feed cost. Table 6.2: Effects of experimental diets on different parameters Exp.
1 0.64 14.3 5.20 0.10 7.80 5.30
2 0.65 11.6 1.20 0.70 3.93 1.50
3 0.68 9.85 1.10 0.20 2.18 1.10
Exp., experiment; MP, metabolizable protein; MY, milk yield; DMI, dry matter intake
In conclusion, balancing Lys to Met ratio at low protein diets and partial replacement of SMB with CGM is a mean to improve the MNE and reduce feed costs. 6.1 Conclusion and Recommendations Diets with low MP supply result in high MNE and better utilization with low levels of BUN. Although there was less milk yield in low protein diets but utilizing efficiency was high. Low protein corn-soy-based diets supplemented with rumen protected Met (HMBi) result in increased utilization of protein and low levels of BUN. Partial replacement of SBM with CGM plus urea showed no change in DMI, milk yield. Milk nitrogen efficiency was slightly decreased in CGM diet as compared to SBM diet. Feed cost could be saved by replacing 35% SBM with CGM provided that RDP is balanced by using NPN sources. Diets should be given with possible lowest protein levels having balanced AA particularly Lys and Met, which should be 3:1. High levels of protein could result into increased emission of gases to the environment. Soybean meal replacement with CGM along with some NPN source results in similar outcomes. First strategy is the best out of three currently tested and it can save money. 6.2 Future Perspectives Studies must be conducted to investigate the effects of further lowering the dietary protein levels without affecting milk production in Holstein cows. It will help to improve the dietary N utilization for milk synthesis. The above-mentioned strategies can also be tried simultaneously for improved protein/N utilization in dairy cows. Lysine can also be tried along with Met to balance the low protein corn-soy-based diets. On the basis of RDP and RUP values, other ingredients can also be tried to partially replace SMB.
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Moringa Oleifera As Feed Additive In Poultry: Influence On Production Efficiency, Meat And Egg Profile
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Phytogenic feed additives gained considerable interest in the strategic replacement of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) after European regulations for animal feed production which imposed a complete ban on antibiotics in animal feed used as growth promoters. Natural phytogenic growth promoters modify animal metabolism and gut microbiota population and positively affect the production and growth performance. Research in the animal feed production has established the basis for better feed efficiency, desired carcass traits and manipulation of bioactive compounds in the poultry eggs and meat, which resulted in the idea of functional foods and phytogenic feeds additives. In response to the above challenges a lot of research on aromatic plants, herbs, and spices was conducted in comparison with conventional antibiotic growth promoters. The data were recorded and analysed regarding gut morphology, gut ecology, feed digestibility, nutrients availability and meat and eggs bioactive compounds index of meat and eggs. Moringa oleifera might be used as phytogenic feed additives on the basis of diverse volatile compounds present in its leaves, pods and roots. Moringa belongs to family Moringaceae and is commercially grown in many tropics and subtropics countries globally. Moringa oleifera leaves and pods are very nutritious and retain their nutrients even when dried and converted to leaf powder. They can be utilized in both fresh as well as dried forms. Moringa leaves contain bioactive compounds like β-carotene, Quercetin and selenium in addition to basic nutrients (crude protein, metabolizable energy, ether extract, and ash). Moringa leaf meal contains 29.7, 22.5, 14.7, 4.3, 2.7, 0.26, 10.6% and 7.86Mj/Kg of CP, CF, Ash, EE, Ca, P, NFE and ME respectively. On the basis of above nutritional and bioactive compounds Moringa oleifera leaves meet the needs of a growth promoter and phytogenic feed additive as lot of studies on antimicrobial, anti-coccidial, AGP replacer and feed ingredient attributes have been conducted. Even then, very limited data was available regarding its phytogenic feed additive attributes. On the basis of above addressed issues the below experiments were designed. For this purpose following experiments were planned and executed. In the first experiment, authors took 200 day old broiler chicks and assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design replicated five times having ten birds each. Four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated for both the starter as well as finisher phases of production and four levels (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Moringa leaf meal (MLM) were used over and above. Data regarding growth performance were collected and subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques under Completely Randomized Design and means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test. Growth was monitored by feed intake, body weight, total gain, FCR and liveability. Feed intake was linearly decreased whereas quadratic response was observed in FCR (P≤0.05). Body weight, total gain and liveability remained same among the treatment groups. Dressing percentage showed quadratic response and highest values was observed in the group offered 0.5% of supplementation, whereas all other parameters including live weight, carcass weight, digestive organs (liver, gizzard) and heart size showed no effect. Bioactive compounds β-carotene, Quercetin and selenium in breast meat samples were lineally increased resulting in higher DPPH values (P≤0.05). Cholesterol, SGPT, creatinine and glucose levels in serum and breast meat samples were linearly decreased resulting in improved animal as well as consumer health. Moisture level of breast meat samples was linearly decreased whereas all other nutrients including Crude protein (CP), Ash, Ether extract (EE) and all minerals were linearly increased with the supplementation level (P≤0.05). Newcastle dis□ease titers remained unchanged while linear increase in IBD titers was observed. In second trial Moringa oleifera pods meal was added in the diet (starter and finisher) with same levels 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%. Two hundred broiler birds were purchased from commercial market and assigned to four treatments with five replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed conversion ratio and feed intake was decreased (P≤0.05) with the increase in the supplementation level, whereas total gain was improved. Dressing percentage was negatively affected (P≤0.05), whereas organs weights (liver, hear & gizzard) were improved with the supplementation levels. β-carotene and Quercetin content of broiler breast meat were respectively 0.08μg/100g and 8μg/100g breast meat samples. Cholesterol level was decreased whereas selenium content was significantly increased (P≤0.05) in the treatment groups. Highest DPPH radicals scavenging activity was recorded in the treatment groups. When proximate analysis of meat was done, the moisture, ether extract, crude protein and ash contents were decreased (P≤0.05). Moreover biochemical indicators SGPT, Creatinine, Glucose and cholesterol were recorded significantly lowest (P≤0.05) in the treatment groups. In the third experiment Moringa oleifera leaf meal was used as feed additive in layers diet to its impact on performance, bioactive compounds and nutrient profile of eggs. For this purpose two hundred, fifty weeks (50) old, HyLine W36 layers were purchased from the commercial market and assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design with five replicates and ten birds per replicate. Four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated and Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MLM) was supplemented at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% over and above of basal diet. Results of this experiment significantly affected the production. Egg mass, production percentage and FCR were significantly affected whereas total feed intake and egg weight remained unchanged (P≤0.05). Egg shape and yolk index showed a quadratic response, whereas Haugh units and shell thickness was linearly decreased (P≤0.05). Bioactive compounds like β-carotene, Quercetin and Selenium content were enriched up to the levels 4906 and 241 and 56.82 μg/100g of egg yolk respectively (P≤0.05). Linear decrease in the serum biochemical compounds SGPT, Glucose, Creatinine and cholesterol
levels (serum and eggs) at 4th and 6th week of supplementation was recorded (P≤0.05). Antibody titers against Newcastle disease were also significantly improved
(P≤0.05). Nutrients and minerals profile of egg yolk was also significantly changed (P≤0.05). In experiment No 4, effect of Moringa oleifera pods meal was investigated on 200 HyLine W36 layer birds of 50 weeks age. Diets were formulated having same caloric and protein levels and Moringa oleifera pods meal was added at top with the dose levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of basal diet. The results of this study showed quadratic response on egg mass and FCR per dozen eggs whereas feed intake, egg weight and production percentage remained same. Haugh unit showed a quadratic response whereas shell thickness was decreased linearly in the treatment groups (P≤0.05). Antioxidants like, β-carotene, Quercetin and Selenium showed same trend as in the previous experiment. Serum biochemical profile (SGPT, Glucose, Creatinine and cholesterol) were improved along with lower cholesterol content in egg yolk (P≤0.05). Proximate analysis of egg yolk showed that moisture and ether extract was decreased whereas CP, Ash and minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) profile was improved with the supplementation (P≤0.05). Results of all these four experiments support our hypothesis that Moringa oleifera can be a good phytogenic functional feed additive and can even perform at these lower supplementation levels. Moreover it can also be stated that eggs and meat produced from Moringa oleifera leaf and pods supplemented birds may serve as a functional food.
On the basis of above experiments, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf and pods meal could be used to enhance the growth and production performance of broilers and layer bird along with bioactive compounds, like antioxidants, minerals and vitamins index of meat and eggs which could meet the advance concept of phytogenic feed additives.
Suggestions and recommendations
Outcomes of the present study including positive impact on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemical profile, immunity in broilers, and production percentage, egg geometry, and egg quality in layers in addition to enrichment of β-carotene, Quercetin and selenium in meat eggs suggest that Moringa oleifera can be considered as phytogenic feed additive.
Recommendations for the farmers
Keeping in view the above study following recommendation are given for the poultry producers
1. Moringa oleifera on the basis of its availability and nutrient profile can be a good phytogenic feed additive but there are multiple limitations most important are anti-nutritional compounds like saponins, phytosterols and high fibre and ash content in the leaves and pods meal inclusion in the feed.
2. Moringa pods are available once in a year and its availability is scarce so proper storage should be monitored.
3. Depending on the soil composition and climatic condition and varieties the nutrient especially ash content and bioactive compounds differ in its concentration so proper validation of nutrients is required before supplementation.
4. Supplementation is dependent on the nutrient profile so proper protocol and care must be considered while its use.
5. In present study it is suggested that Moringa oleifera could be an option to be used as phytogenic feed additives to meet the condition including ban on AGP, better growth, production performance and safe and healthy meat and eggs.
Suggestions for the researchers
1. In the present study four levels of supplementation were used but future researchers can explore different levels in their studies.
2. Comparative studies with synthetic antioxidants, carotenoids and organic selenium can be designed.
3. Effect on shelf life can be studied in the animal products can be investigated in future studies.
Subsequent effect on acceptability of consumers regarding effect on the health including cholesterol levels, hypertension and cancer diseases can be studied.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2940-T] (1).