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1. Sero-Prevalence Of Brucellosis In Buffaloes And Cattle Of Swat Valley And Government Livestock Farms,Nwfp

by Azhar Khan | Prof.Dr.Masood Rabbani | Prof.Dr.Azhar | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Brucellosis is an infectious zoonotic disease that is associated with chronic debilitating infections in humans and reproductive failure in domestic animals (Corbell, 1997). The sero-prevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes and cattle were undertaken by collecting samples from animals brought to various slaughterhouses and Private and Govt. farms in Swat valley and Peshawar division by screening through i-LLISA, MRT and RBPT. Out of 850 samples, 600 sera, 200 milk samples were collected along with 50 samples of slaughterhouse worker, butcher and veterinarian for this study. All the serum samples tested through RBPT and I-ELISA showed the overall prevalence 3.67% and 4.33% in the cattle and buffaloes population respectively while the combined prevalence in the cattle, buffaloes and human population through RBPT was 3.38 % and through i-ELISA was 4%. The high rate of brucellosis was recorded through RBPT and i-ELISA in buffaloes ( 4.75%,5.5%) while 0.0% prevalence in male buffaloes through RBPT and iELISA, where as in female buffaloes it was 4.85% through RBPT and through i-ELISA was 5.626%. The comparatively low rate (1.5%) of brucellosis was noted in cattle through the RBPT and 2% through i-ELISA while in female cattle it was 1.587% through the RBPT and through i-ELISA 2.12% with 0.0% in males. Among the serum samples (30) of buffalo and cattle having reproductive disorder were tested through the same tests which showed overall prevalence 16.6%. The prevalence at Cattle Breeding and Dairy farm 1-larichand and Livestock Research and Development Farm (Surrezai was 0.0% through Milk Ring Test and i-ELISA. Also cattle milk samples (110) from private farms in swat valley showed prevalence through Milk Ring Test 0.9% and through i-ELISA prevalence was noted to be 1 .82%. As 50 human serum samples were tested through RBPT and i-ELISA but none of these samples were positive showed that the prevalence of brucellosis in human being is very low, The comparison of RBPT, MRT and i-ELISA (milk and serum) was also analyzed statistically by z-test, the data revealed insignificant results. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1012,T] (1).

2. Effects Of Infectious Bursal Desease Vaccine And Vaccination Schedule In Imunity Induceds By Newcastle Disease

by Kashif-ur-Rehman | Prof.Dr.Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr.Imran Najeeb | Prof.Dr.Azhar Maqbool | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The study was carried out for verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease vaccines conmonly used in Pakistan on the immunity to Newcastle disease vaccines. Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a viral disease producing suppression in humoral immune response causing degeneration of bursa of Fabricius. Different vaccines are available in the market for mass scale immunization of chickens. The study was carried out to compare the immunosuppressive effects of intermediate strain, hot strain and complex IBDV vaccines on immunity induced by NDV vaccine. Vaccine efficacy was studied by measuring the induced humoral antibody level using HI (Haemagglutination inhibition) test for NDV and indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) (Kirkegaard' & Perry Laboratories - KPL) to detect antibodies against IBDV. The parameters used to evaluate the effects of IBDV vaccine on broiler chicks were immune response to NDV vaccination, weight of lymphoid organs such as bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen, post virulent NDV challenge and FCR. The results showed that IBDV vaccinated groups A, B, C, D and E had lower HI antibody profile, higher bursa, spleen and thymus body weight ratio, poor FCR and higher post challenge mortality than NDV vaccinated group F. The HI serum antibody profile revealed that the groups vaccinated with IBDV hot strain had significantly lower antibody titer as compared to the intermediate strain of IBDV vaccinated birds. In addition to that hot strain vaccine found to be more damaging to the bursa, spleen and thymus than the intermediate strain vaccine. The hot strain had adverse effects on the feed conversion ratio of birds as well. The challenge with virulent NDV revealed that IBDV vaccine treated groups were overall higher mortality than the only NDV vaccinated chickens. The study suggested the use of intermediate strain as vaccine since it had least interference with the antibody production against ND. However, hot strain used in this study had adversely affected the NDV HI. titer and caused more damage to the lymphoid organs and reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1017,T] (1).

3. Comparative Efficicy Of Peste Des Petits Ruminant (Ppr) Vaccine S Available In Pakistan In Sheep And Goats

by Muhammad Intizar | Prof.Dr.Manur-Din-Ahmad | Dr.Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof.Dr.Azhar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was designed to evaluate the physical factors affecting the PPR 'vaccine and also to compare the efficacy of the locally available PPR vaccines in Pakistan in sheep and goats. The current study was conducted on 120 different small ruminants ((60 sheep and goats). The humoral immune response was monitored by measuring the antibodies titre through Hl and AGID test. HI and AGID test are reliable and effective methods of diagnosing viral diseases and to evaluate the humoral immune response. It was concluded that the vaccine should he stored either at -20°C or at 4 C.The vaccine stored at 27 C had a drop in HA titre and no HA activity was found at 40 C To evaluate the HA activity of PPR virus it is better to use chicken or human group'O' R.B.Cs in a concentration of 1%. The diluent should have the pH 6.8- 7.0. By evaluating the vaccine efficacy in sheep it was found that after 14th day of vaccination there was a gradual increase in the antibodies titer till the 56th day of vaccination. The locally manufactured vaccine was having a geometric mean titre (GMT)207.9 while the (GMT) of Pestivec was 73.3. 63d day post vaccination. In goats the locally manufactured vaccine was having a geometric mean titer (GMT) 147. while the (GMT) of Pestivec was 48.5.63rd day post vaccination. No antibodies production was there in any control group. It was concluded form the study that locally produced vaccine is equally good and could be used confidently. It will save also helpful in saving the foreign reserves oh the country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1051,T] (1).

4. Role Of Herbal Polysaccharides As Immunomodulator

by Muhammed Zafar | Dr.Aftab Anjum | Dr.Muhammed Imran Najeeb | Prof.Dr.Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Compared to the birds in vaccinated groups that were kept without feeding Livol, the sera of the NDV vaccinated birds kept on Livol had higher antibody titers on day 42.amongst various treatment groups the highest Haemagluttination-Inhibtion titers was recorded in group C feed with Livol treated birds as compared to the other groups. The hematological parameters observed i.e. Packed Cell Volume, Hemoglobin and Total Leukocyte Count were higher in group C2 and C3 than in Group Cl, which shows that increasing Livol concentration have increased the above said parameters. The higher concentrations of Livol (Herbal Polysaccharides) have increased body weight gain than the birds fed with low concentrations of Livol (Herbal Polysaccharides). Treatment related changes in body weight, organ body weight ratio of thymus; spleen and Bursa of fabricius were also observed amongst the various groups. The addition of Livol (Herbal Polysaccharides feed to diminished the adverse/immunosuppressive effects of different vaccine on antibody titers against Newcastle and most relative organ weights. These findings suggested that Livol (Herbal Polysaccharide) can effectively stimulate/enhance the body weight gain, immunity in broiler chicks and Livol (Herbal Polysaccharides) can be potential ameliorator against various vaccines and its adverse/suppressive effects in broiler chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1065,T] (1).

5. Antigenic Characterisation Of H9 Subtype Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated Desi And Zoo Birds

by Farrukh Saleem | Dr.Muhammad Mahmood Mukhtar | Prof.Dr.Azhar | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Avian influenza is a viral infection which affects mainly the respiratory system of birds. The H7N3 subtype influenza viruses were isolated for the first time in 1994 from breeder flock in northern areas of Pakistan. A second wave of avian influenza outbreak was detected in 1999. The causative agent of this outbreak was H9N2. The H9N2 considered as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus and continuously circulating in poultry flocks causing enormous economic losses to poultry industry of Pakistan. This showed that avian influenza viruses are present in commercial poultry. Most of the efforts to isolate avian influenza A viruses are from commercial poultry and these isolations are outbreak based. That is why we have mad’ an effon to isolate and identify H9 subtype avian influenza viruses from apparently healthy live desi and zoo birds (Lahore, Pakistan). We have successfully isolate H9 subtype influenza viruses from these birds during our study. As these viruses have RNA genome and their RNA polymerase enzyme lacks proof reading activity which resulted in spontaneous mutation in surface glycoproteins (HA and NA) and reassortment of their genomic segments results in escape from host immune response produced by the vaccine. This is the reason that every year we require a new candidate virus for vaccine preparation. We have made an effort to isolate and identify avian influenza viruses from live desi and zoo birds of Lahore and performed antigenic characterization. In this way, we have been able to know the exact status of avian influenza virus strains present in the desi and zoo birds. We also have seen that the imported vaccine have less interaction with the local strains and gives less protective titer although it gives best titers when we raise antisera against imported vaccine. The local vaccines although gives a little bit less titer when we raise the antisera against these vaccines but their antisera have more interaction with the local H9 subtype antigen so it gives better protective immune response. By this study we have seen that antisera obtained from infected chicken give more antibody titer as compare to antibody raised in the rabbits. Infected chicken antisera are more reactive as compare to rabbit antisera. This shows that our isolates have highest similarity with the currently circulating viruses. All above results helped us to devise a new control strategy against avian influenza viral infections present in these local birds. The antigenic characterization of these avian influenza isolates helped us to see the antigenic differences between the isolates of this study and H9 subtype avian influenza viruses used in vaccines. Therefore, this study clearly suggests that a new local H9 subtype avian influenza virus should be used as vaccinal candidate every year for the effective control of influenza viral infections of poultry. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1082,T] (1).

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