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1. Sero-Prevalence Of Brucellosis In Buffaloes And Cattle Of Swat Valley And Government Livestock Farms,Nwfp

by Azhar Khan | Prof.Dr.Masood Rabbani | Prof.Dr.Azhar | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Brucellosis is an infectious zoonotic disease that is associated with chronic debilitating infections in humans and reproductive failure in domestic animals (Corbell, 1997). The sero-prevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes and cattle were undertaken by collecting samples from animals brought to various slaughterhouses and Private and Govt. farms in Swat valley and Peshawar division by screening through i-LLISA, MRT and RBPT. Out of 850 samples, 600 sera, 200 milk samples were collected along with 50 samples of slaughterhouse worker, butcher and veterinarian for this study. All the serum samples tested through RBPT and I-ELISA showed the overall prevalence 3.67% and 4.33% in the cattle and buffaloes population respectively while the combined prevalence in the cattle, buffaloes and human population through RBPT was 3.38 % and through i-ELISA was 4%. The high rate of brucellosis was recorded through RBPT and i-ELISA in buffaloes ( 4.75%,5.5%) while 0.0% prevalence in male buffaloes through RBPT and iELISA, where as in female buffaloes it was 4.85% through RBPT and through i-ELISA was 5.626%. The comparatively low rate (1.5%) of brucellosis was noted in cattle through the RBPT and 2% through i-ELISA while in female cattle it was 1.587% through the RBPT and through i-ELISA 2.12% with 0.0% in males. Among the serum samples (30) of buffalo and cattle having reproductive disorder were tested through the same tests which showed overall prevalence 16.6%. The prevalence at Cattle Breeding and Dairy farm 1-larichand and Livestock Research and Development Farm (Surrezai was 0.0% through Milk Ring Test and i-ELISA. Also cattle milk samples (110) from private farms in swat valley showed prevalence through Milk Ring Test 0.9% and through i-ELISA prevalence was noted to be 1 .82%. As 50 human serum samples were tested through RBPT and i-ELISA but none of these samples were positive showed that the prevalence of brucellosis in human being is very low, The comparison of RBPT, MRT and i-ELISA (milk and serum) was also analyzed statistically by z-test, the data revealed insignificant results. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1012,T] (1).

2. Antigenic Characterisation Of H9 Subtype Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated Desi And Zoo Birds

by Farrukh Saleem | Dr.Muhammad Mahmood Mukhtar | Prof.Dr.Azhar | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Avian influenza is a viral infection which affects mainly the respiratory system of birds. The H7N3 subtype influenza viruses were isolated for the first time in 1994 from breeder flock in northern areas of Pakistan. A second wave of avian influenza outbreak was detected in 1999. The causative agent of this outbreak was H9N2. The H9N2 considered as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus and continuously circulating in poultry flocks causing enormous economic losses to poultry industry of Pakistan. This showed that avian influenza viruses are present in commercial poultry. Most of the efforts to isolate avian influenza A viruses are from commercial poultry and these isolations are outbreak based. That is why we have mad’ an effon to isolate and identify H9 subtype avian influenza viruses from apparently healthy live desi and zoo birds (Lahore, Pakistan). We have successfully isolate H9 subtype influenza viruses from these birds during our study. As these viruses have RNA genome and their RNA polymerase enzyme lacks proof reading activity which resulted in spontaneous mutation in surface glycoproteins (HA and NA) and reassortment of their genomic segments results in escape from host immune response produced by the vaccine. This is the reason that every year we require a new candidate virus for vaccine preparation. We have made an effort to isolate and identify avian influenza viruses from live desi and zoo birds of Lahore and performed antigenic characterization. In this way, we have been able to know the exact status of avian influenza virus strains present in the desi and zoo birds. We also have seen that the imported vaccine have less interaction with the local strains and gives less protective titer although it gives best titers when we raise antisera against imported vaccine. The local vaccines although gives a little bit less titer when we raise the antisera against these vaccines but their antisera have more interaction with the local H9 subtype antigen so it gives better protective immune response. By this study we have seen that antisera obtained from infected chicken give more antibody titer as compare to antibody raised in the rabbits. Infected chicken antisera are more reactive as compare to rabbit antisera. This shows that our isolates have highest similarity with the currently circulating viruses. All above results helped us to devise a new control strategy against avian influenza viral infections present in these local birds. The antigenic characterization of these avian influenza isolates helped us to see the antigenic differences between the isolates of this study and H9 subtype avian influenza viruses used in vaccines. Therefore, this study clearly suggests that a new local H9 subtype avian influenza virus should be used as vaccinal candidate every year for the effective control of influenza viral infections of poultry. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1082,T] (1).

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