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1. Genetic Variability Of Sahiwal And Cholistani Cattle Breeds Of Pakistan Usin Mitochondrial D-Loop Sequences

by Sania Saeed | Mr. Tanveer Hussain | Dr. Abu Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Wasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pakistan is rich in cattle genetic resources. The phenotypic and genetic diversity of animal breeds in Pakistan is very vast. Efforts to manage and utilize these genetic resources efficiently are lacking due to lack of both awareness and weakness of Government institutions. The genetic data of dairy cattle breeds (Sahiwal and Cholistani) is not yet been studied for their genetic identification, conservation and to find the genetic diversity among them and it needs to be established. For this study the blood samples( 25 samples from each breed) were collected from their home tracts and livestock farms. Unrelated animals with typical phenotypic features known for Sahiwal and Cholistani cattle breeds were selected from their breeding areas and Government livestock farms. Blood samples from true representative individuals of Sahiwal breed were collected from Research Centre for the Conservation of Sahiwal Cattle (RCCSC), Jahangirabad, Khanewal, Semen Production Unit (SPU) Qadirabad and Barani Livestock Production & Research Institute (BLPRI), Kherimurat District Attock. Cholistani cattle samples were collected from Govt. Livestock Farm, Jugaitpeer, Bahawalpur. Sampling from siblings was avoided to minimize inbreed samples as it results in depleting of gene pool along with causing inbreeding depression.DNA was extracted and quantified with the standard protocol in Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory of Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Specific primers were designed by using special software i.e. Primer Fox for mitochondrial D-loop region from NCBI accession no. NC_006853.1.Primers optimization was done after primer designing and afterwards, PCR amplification was performed. Then sequencing of target fragments was carried out using Prism ABI 3130L sequencer and Analyser.Sequences were alligned with the help of software blast2sequence and SNPs were detected. It was found that ratio of transition mutation was higher than transversions i.e. 41 transition and 10 transversions. Sequences were analyzed and compared with already reported sequence of Mitochondrial DNA of Bosindicuss, Bostaurus, Bubalusbubalis, Canis lupus familiaris, Caprahircus, Equuscaballusisolate, Ovisaries and Cameliusdromedaries sequencesavailable at NCBI. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were then detected. A phylogenetic tree constructed using MEGA 5.1 software revealed that Pakistani, European and Asian cattle are genetically same but different from Buffalo.This work is very helpful about breed characterization of two cattle breeds (Sahiwal and Cholistani) and developing understanding about genetic architecture of cattle breeds as present study conclude that 52 SNPs were present in Sahiwal and Cholistani breed of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1498,T] (1).

2. Assessment Of Genetic Diversity In Balochi And Rakhshani Sheep Breeds Of Balochistan Using Microsatellite Dna

by Abdul Wajid | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Dr. Abu Saeed | Mr. Tanveer Hussain.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pakistan being agriculture based country has a great potential in livestock sector, it plays an important role in the economy of the country. Pakistan is rich in Animal Genetics Resource (AnGR) and has various breeds of sheep but lacking genetic data of these breeds which need to established data for their genetic identification. Customarily, classification of breed was based on phenotypic traits. In some cases, recent genetic studies have found differences in the structure proposed. Molecular characterization is a prevailing tool to consider the genetic variation existed within and among breeds. Characterization and evaluation of genetic differences among these breeds is necessary for their effective and meaningful improvement and conservation. The advent of molecular techniques has led to an increase in the studies that focus on the genetic characterization of domestic breeds using genetic markers. Due to their reliability and availability, the microsatellites have become preferred method for the genome mapping. Microsatellites or STRs are the 2-6 nucleotide tandem repeats present in both coding and non coding regions of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Microsatellites are powerful tools in genome mapping, forensic DNA studies, paternity testing, population genetics and conservation/ management of biological resources. The present study was conducted on the molecular diversity analysis of two sheep breeds Balochi and Rakhshani of Balochistan using 11 FAO recommended microsatellites markers. Blood samples of unrelated true representative animals of sheep breeds were selected from their breeding tracts and from different Government Livestock Farms in Balochistan province. DNA was extracted with the standard protocol and amplification of DNA done with selected markers in Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory in the Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. PCR products were examined on non denaturing Polyacralamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). Genotyping results vanalyzed through the software POPGENE VERSION 1.31 and "POWER STATE" for calculating the observed and expected number of alleles, expected and observed heterozygosity, homozygosity, F-statistics (FST, FIT, FIS), Polymorphic Information Content (PIC), matching probability power of discrimination and power of exclusion. This work provided the genetic data which is useful in breed identification and making effective breeding policies and conservational activities in future according to FAO global Farm Animal Genetic resource data. Average observed heterozygosity, average observed homozygosity, observed number of allels (na) and expected number of alleles for all loci and population in this study were 0.6055, 0.3945, 6.3636 and 4.2805 respectively. Almost all of the microsatellite markers showed significant variations in both breeds of sheep. This work provided the genetic data which will be helpful in breed identification and making effective breeding policies and conservational activities in future according to FAO global Farm Animal Genetic resource data. Moreover this study can become the basis for further research investigations in sheep breeds in Balochistan and Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1516,T] (1).

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