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1. Selection Indices and Prediction of Genetic Merit in Animal Breeding

by Cameron, N. D.

Edition: First ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK : CABI, 1997Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0824 Cameron 15401 1st 1997 Genetics] (1).

2. Text Book on Animal Genetics and Breeding

by H.K.B. Parekh P.N. Srivastava B.C. Sarkhel.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book Publisher: Delhi: Kalyani Publishers; 2005Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0821 Parekh 20341 1st 2005 Genetics] (1).

3. Animal Breeding and Infertility

by Meredith, Michael J | Pidduck, Heather, G | Wilmut, Ian | Powell, Don | Long, Susan, E | Dobson, Hilary | Hartigan, Patrick, J | Bretzlaff, Katherine | Stoneham, Sarah, J | Williams, Huw, Ll.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Wiley-Blackwell; 1995Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.082 Meredith 14302 1st 1995 Theriogenorology] (2).

4. Economic Aspects of Animal Breeding

by Weller, Joel Ira.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book Publisher: UK: Springer; 1994Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 338.176 Weller 16327 1st 1994 Livestock] (1). In transit (1).

5. Identification Of Variations In The Coding Region Of Myostatin Gene In Thalli And Pakkarakul Sheep Breeds Of The Punjab

by Armughan Ahmed Wadood (2006-VA-38) | Dr. Afzal Ali | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Mr. Muhammad Saadullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: In a developing country like Pakistan, livestock sector has a significant importance. Meat is an important food component in human diet and its source varies from different organisms like cattle, buffalo, camel, deer, sheep, goat, rabbit and chicken etc. Small ruminants especially sheep, has a unique role in meat production, due to its feeding and adaptive behavior. The myostatin (MSTN) gene is known as a candidate gene for development and growth of livestock because it plays its major role in muscle growth. Selection is an important tool to improve the meat production and thus enhance the economic conditions of livestock farmers. For this purpose genetically characterization of meat type animals, especially the indigenous sheep breeds is not common. The variations in the myostatin gene have been extensively studied and reviewed in small and large ruminants in the world but it has been scanty studied in sheep breeds of Pakistan. Thalli and Pak-Karakul are well known sheep breeds present in Punjab, Pakistan. This study aims to characterize the genetic variation in the myostatin gene in Thalli and Pak-Karakul sheep breeds. In this research study, twenty adult animals of two different sheep breeds (Thalli and Pak-Karakul) were selected from Small Ruminants Research and development Centre, Rakh Khairewala, District Layyah, Pakistan. Five mL blood sample was collected from each animal in a 15mL falcon tube containing anticoagulant. Primers were designed by using Primerfox online software. Primers were optimized using specific protocol and PCR was performed. DNA was extracted using modified inorganic method of Sambrook et al. (1989). PCR was carried out using all primers and later sent for sequencing to 1stBase Laboratories, Singapore. Molecular analysis was done using CodonCode Aligner and MEGA6 softwares. Ten samples of each breed were sequenced to detect polymorphism in both Thalli and Pak-Karakul sheep populations. Sequencing revealed G↓T transition at 3995 position in Summary 44 genome (accession number, DQ530260.1) in Thalli and similar transition in Pak-Karakul at the same position. In Thalli sheep 50 % of experimental animals were heterozygous, higher level of heterozygosity makes it a potential candidate for higher growth rates. On the other hand the Pak-Karakul sheep is medium weight breed and frequency of mutant allele was 0.2 or 20%. The observed heterozygous individuals were also with higher live body weights. The gene frequency shows that this breed has medium potential for its body growth. The information‟s so generated and further association studies in both breeds will be helpful in devising breeding plans for increasing mutton production at national level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2288-T] (1).

6. Textbook of Animal Breeding

by Dr. S. S. Tomar.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Kalyani Publishers; 2004Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.082 Tomar 20318 1st 2004 L.Production] (1), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.082 Tomar 20317 1st 2004 L.Production] (1).

7. Morphological Structure Of Thalli Sheep Through Principal Component Analysis Of Body Measurements Muhammad

by Muhammad Arslan Akbar (2014-VA-07) | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Afzal Ali | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Mutton is also very extensively used food and sources of mutton are only sheep and goat. Sheep have a great genetic potential to fulfill the increasing demand of mutton in our country. Body conformation and features are very important traits in milch, meat and wool animals. In developing countries, record keeping is at initial level and the records about pedigree and progeny of individuals are insufficient and do not provide the estimation about genetic parameters. Therefore, phenotypic information are necessary for the explanation of relationship among linear type traits and selection is based on these traits. Principal component analysis technique has been used to identify the body size, body shape, head size and over all body conformation in Zulu Sheep. Animal conformation and genetic parameters can be measured by using the technique of phenotypic characterization. Data on morphometric traits of Thalli sheep were collected from “Small Ruminant Research and Development Centre, Rakh Khairewala, District Layyah, Punjab, Pakistan” and Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Ghulaman, District Bhakkar, Punjab, Pakistan. Different phenotypic parameters and twenty one (21) morphometric traits were measured on animals of Thalli sheep. The traits measured were birth weight, body weight, heart girth, body length, withers height, head length, head width, ear length, ear width, neck length, neck width, barrel depth, sacral pelvic width, rump length, rump width, tail length, testes length, testes width, scrotal diameter, teat length and teat diameter. Different phenotypic characters was recorded as body color, body shape, eye color, head color, fore head color, face color, face structure, chin color, ear color, ear nature, appendages color, nostril structure, muzzle structure, neck structure, tail color and tail switch. Summary 174 Weighing balance (digital) was used for determination of body weight and a flexible measuring tape (tailor tape) was used to record the different body measurements. To avoid variations among individuals, measurements were taken by the same person. Animals of different age groups were reared at these research stations. Animals were divided into different groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I) according to their age as 0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-15, 16-18, 19-21, 22- 24 and above 24 months. Each group was further divided into two sub-groups of males and females animals. Normality of data were checked against all animals (overall group and separate groups) and all animals were fallen in ±3SD but two outliers had been removed. Data on morphometric traits were analyzed statistically for mean, range, coefficient of variation and standard error. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation among different biometric traits was estimated and data were generated for principal component analysis (PCA) from the correlation matrix. Regression equations were developed for the estimation of body weight. Descriptive statistics (mean, range, standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of body measurements of overall female were showed coefficient of variations of overall female animals of Thalli sheep for mostly variables were ranged from 10-20% and coefficient of variations of birth weight and body weight were 22.38% and 25.75% respectively. Coefficient of variations of male animals of Thalli sheep for linear body measurements were ranged 08-25% and tail length had high coefficient of variations as 26.89%. Male animals of all age groups are heavier than females. Correlation coefficients of morphometric traits of overall females and males of Thalli sheep were highly positive and significant (P≤0.01) among withers height, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, ear length, neck length, neck width, rump length, rump width, barrel depth, sacral pelvic width and body weight. Withers height, heart girth and body length were observed to be significantly correlated with each other as well as with live body weight of all age groups. Summary 175 For overall female animals, two principal components were extracted with eigenvalues 9.005 and 1.558 and 56.279% and 9.740% variances for PC1 and PC2 respectively and their cumulative variance was 66.020%. For overall male animals, three principal components were extracted with eigenvalues greater than 1 and PC1 showed high variance 57.516% and PC2 and PC3 had variances as 12.184% and 7.022% respectively and their cumulative was components 76.721%. In all age groups which has been studied, withers height, body length and heart girth have high values in commonalities as well as in component matrix. PC1, PC2 and PC3 showed maximum variations in almost all age group studied. Regression equations developed to estimate of live weight of all age groups were indicated that almost all equations had variables withers height, body length and heart girth. Conclusion: From findings of present study, it was concluded that body measurements (Withers height, body length and heart girth) had high correlations with each other and with body weight in almost all age groups. Principal component analysis of morphometric traits was showed that most of variation explained by PC1 and in some groups, PC2 and PC3 had also more effects. Commonalities were higher which showed that all the variables were important but PC1 had high values for withers height, body length and heart girth and maximum variance. This indicated that morphometric traits are very important for selection of genetically elite animals. Morphometric traits can be used to estimate the body weight in the field conditions, where weighing balance is not usually available. However, further research is needed to investigate the relationship among different morphometric traits in other breeds of goats, sheep and other livestock breeds like cattle, buffalo, camel and horse of the country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2471-T] (1).

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