Epidemiology And Economic Losses Of Trichostrongylid Parasites In Sheep
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: The meteorological data recorded during the study period from 1.1.96 to 31.12.96 showed the maximum temperature in June as
36.5°C and minimum temperature in December as 6.8°C. Maximum and minimum Humidity was recorded in the month of September and April as 85% and 55% respectively. The maximum rainfall during the year was recorded in the month of August as 660 mm.
The faecal egg counts of sheep grazing on permanent pasture showed the minimum EPG during first week of January while maximum EPG on nid of September and first week of October.
Pasture larval counts were performed on permanent pasture and experimental plot for the recovery of trichostrongylid larvae. The maximum number of larvae was recovered on 16th September, 1996, while minimum number was recovered in January and February from permanent pasture and experimental plot respectively. Two species of trichostrongylids were identified i.e. Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongvlus colubriformis.
The faecal and larval counts were very low in the months of January and February, the counts started rising in March. Peak counts were seen in the month of September. Decline in counts started in late October and reached to minimum in December.
Mature and immature worm counts of slaughtered sheep were performed at 15 days interval. The, overall prevalence oftrichostrongylid parasites was 34%. The maximum number of mature parasites were seen during first week of October which was886 whereas maximum number of immature parasites including hypobiotic was 326 on 1st of December. During this study the average fecundity/female of contortus and L colubriformis parasites were calculated as 721 and 209 respectively. A spring rise in worm egg counts was experienced in mid of March. A pen parturient rise in the worm egg counts of pregnant and lactating ewes indicated the maximum counts during lambing week.
An experimental group of sheep with mixed infection of trichostrongylid parasites showed the similar pattern of EPG counts as of naturally infected sheep.
A study was performed to evaluate any protection provided by a particular Flaemoglobin type to trichostrongylid infection hut not difference could be observed. The Asparate Aminotransferase (AST) and total protein levels of infected sheep were decreased as a result of increase in the intensity of infection.
A decrease in R.B.C. counts, Haemoglobin, Packed cell volume and lymphocyte counts was observed both in experimentally and naturally infected slaughtered sheep. However, an increase in total leukocytic count (TLC) alongwith an increase in the ratio of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils was observed.
At the end of experiment infected sheep gained 5.71 Kg/head less body weight and produced 4 3 grn less wool as compared with non-infected group. Based on epidemiological information the suggestions for control of the, trichostrongylid infection are submitted alongwi th recommendations for further studies.
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The Impact Of Community Based Animal Helth Services Delivery System On Epidemiological Parameters And Farmer'S
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Publisher: 2006 Dissertation note: A study was conducted to understand the impact of community based animal health services delivery systems on epidemiological parameters and farmer's economic sustainability in Central Punjab. In Pakistan three systems for the animal health services delivery are being practiced without any data base and conclusive findings for the comparison purposes and in terms of the replication if needed in future, therefore, a study was planned to quantify and compare the three systems. These systems are; community based, public based and conventional based animal health services delivery systems. As the community based system was launched as Halla scheme, in Central Punjab through the German Technical Cooperation program / funding. Therefore, the other two systems i.e. public and conventional based were selected in the areas adjacent to the community based system (Halla Cluster). The project area was selected because of the similar geographical, environmental, socio cultural and political similarities. One cluster of five villages was selected randomly for each system. The data was obtained from each cluster through active disease surveillance and was recorded on a questionnaire. Each questionnaire was used for one farmer. The cluster of five villages was 'considered as one herd. In the 1st project, the clusters were quantified and compared on different parameters, like provision of animal health services, provided from the system to the member farmers. Epidemiological parameters like morbidity and mortality rate were recorded and analyzed statistically. In the 2IId project, the community trials were also conducted to compare the efficacy of prophylactic interventions, for the economically important diseases of buffaloes and cattle i.e. the haemorrhagic septicaemia and foot and mouth disease. The effect of deworming was also recorded with reference to morbidity and mortality. In the third project the sustainability of the farmers residing in the systems were compared in terms of cost benefit ratio. Animal health services were arranged like vaccination, treatment, deworming, artificial insemination and nutrition support. Poor, good and better services were provided in conventional based, community based and public based animal health services delivery systems, respectively. The impact of services on morbidity and mortality was recorded, the minimum morbidity and mortality rate was recorded in the community based system and moderate and maximum morbidity rate, mortality rate, number of outbreaks and fertility rate due to various diseases were recorded in the conventional based animal health service delivery system. The results were statistically analyzed and significant difference at a level 5% was estimated. The efficacy of the vaccination was estimated and it was statistically found that the morbidity and mortality rates were significantly low in the intervention herds of buffaloes and cattle, as compared to non intervention herds. The overall sustainability of the farmer in term of cost benefit ratio was higher in community based as compared to public based and conventional based animal health services delivery system. In conclusion the better the animal health services delivery system, the more prosperous was the farmer. So, it is recommended that the community based animal health service system be promoted and replicated on priority basis. The animal health services are provided by public based service deliverers but they are not of the same quality as were provided by the community based system in Halla Cluster. This is the reason that in spite of all the services provided by the public based system, the morbidity rate and mortality rate due to various infectious and non infectious diseases were higher in buffaloes and cattle as compared to the community based system. In conventional based system neither the community based services nor the public based services were available for the farmers because those areas were remote and far from the public veterinary hospitals. Therefore, the morbidity rate and mortality rate at the highest spectrum of ranking and disease burden/disease load. The magnitude of disease problems was highest in the conventional based, lowest in the community based system and intermediate in the public based system. Better the quality of services are provided the minimal are the losses due to the diseases in the animal populations and in turn better the cost benefit ratio and ultimately the more prosperous is the farmer. The only way of poverty alleviation in the rural communities is to replicate the community based animal health services delivery system (Halla) with certain modifications in the Provinces of Punjab and Sindh in particular and in North West Frontier Province and Balochistan in general
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