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1. Estimation And Correlation Of Protein, Differential Leukocyte Count (Dlc) And Total Leukocyte Count (Tlc) In The Blood And Milk Of Sub Clinically Mastitic Buffaloes

by Fakhar uz Zaman | Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: One hundred milk samples from mastitic buffaloes brought for treatment to outdoor Ward of the College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore and adjacent areas were examined for their total blood protein, total blood leukocytic count, blood differential leukocytic count, milk whey protein, milk total leukocytic count and milk differential leukocytic count. Total protein, total leukocyte count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils in blood gave their average as 6.84 gm/100ml, 4036 cells/mi, 48.17%, 48.32%, 2.34%, 0.69% and 0.48% respectively. Total whey protein, total leukocytic count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils in milk showed their average values as 1.02 gm/l00ml, 4665000 cells/mi 70.42%, 24.19%, 3.45%, 1.30% and 0.37% respectively. Correlation between blood and milk protein, total leukocytic count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were estimated as -0.929, 0.962, 0.952, 0.985, -0.203, 0.060 and 0.284 respectively, which gave an increase of total whey protein, neutrophils in blood, neutrophils in milk and milk total leukocyte count and decrease of total blood protein, total blood leukocytes and lymphocytes in milk and blood. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0406,T] (1).

2. Effect Of Hydatid Cyst On Different Blood Components In Camels Of Different Age Groups

by Hameed ur Rehman | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of hydatidosis in different age groups of camels and to see its effect on some blood parameters (TEC, Hb, PCV) and also to examined the same blood parameters of control groups. For this purpose study was carried out on 300 camels of various age groups (2-3 years, 3-5 years, and above 5 years) brought to Lahore abattoir for slaughtering purposes during the period from July 1994 to September 1994. The results showed that out of 300 camels, 189 (63%) were positive for hydatidosis. It revealed that infection rate was higher in Group-Ill (above 5 years) 70%, than in Group-I (58%) and Group-Il(61%). The study also revealed that the prevalence of hydatidosis was 67.68% in July, 54.9% in August and 66.67% in September The present investigation also showed that a mean of total erythrocyte count was 8.667 million/microliter with range of 6.00 million/microliterto 11.101 million/microliter, Haemoglobin concentration was 10.00 g/100ml with a range of 6.3 g/100 13.1 g/l00ml and mean of packed cell volume was 31.7 with a range of 20.00% to 39.00%. The control blood samples of 189 camels showed mean of total erythrocyte was 9.721 million/microliter ranging from 6.32 million/microliter to 12.92 million/microliter, mean of haemoglobin concentration was 11.5g/100ml with a range of 7.3 g/100ml to 14.4g/100ml and packed cell volume was 33.4% with a range of 22.00% to 40.7% Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0413,T] (1).

3. A Study Of Changes In Blood Electrolytes And Pcv In Equine Colic

by Mazhar Ayaz, M | Dr. Khalid Pervaz | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Besides mechanized transportation horses have still global importance not only for the communication but it is thought as symbol of superiority in many countries of the world. Horses are confronted with colic once in their life span that some times results in uncompareable loss to the owner. Only a timely and accurate diagnosis is the beacon of hope to save the life. To study the effects of colic on PCV and Blood Electrolytes, twenty horses suffering from colic were taken into investigation to asses the site and type of colic, while ten normal horses were kept as control. Diseased horses were divided into three groups A, B & C mild, moderate and severe respectively. Physical signs of group A were of mild nature comprising swishing of the tail, looking at the flank and lying down for the short periods, while group B showed moderate pain like lying down but not violently and increased bouts of pain. Animals in group C exhibited signs of severe pain by showing severe depression, restlessness, patchy sweating, struggling violently and kicking at the belly due to sharp continuous pain. The heart rate, respiration and rectal temperature in all groups was increased. Rectal palpation was performed in all groups to determine the site of the disease. Changes found in blood electrolytes like Na+, K+, C1- and HCO3 were measured by flame photometry. Group A, B and C showed decrease in Na+, and HCO3 concentration in serum while concentration of K and C1 in serum were normal in all groups. PCV was measured by Wintrobe micro-haematocrit method in all groups. Group A and C showed normal PCV but it was lower in group B. These all observations showed that the animals of group A were suffering from impaction of ileacaecal valve. Pain was not so severe nature that may cause death in colic cases while the animals in group B were showing signs of spasmodic colic. The abnormalities were not so severe to threat the life of the animal but were elevated than the normal. Group C was considerably serious that might lead to death if unattended because the variations and findings were similar with obstruction of small intestine. The serum electrolytes in this group were increased than the other two groups alongwith the elevated respiration, heart rate and rectal temperature that were helping in assessing the condition of the animal. PCV was the reliable tool to know the degree of dehydration in the severe cases. Rectal palpation helped in differentiating the various segments of the intestines involved and the severity of the disease in the diseased animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0472,T] (1).

4. Antimicrobial Efficacy Of Different Drugs Against Experimentally Induced Salmonella Pullorum Infection In Broilers

by Ashfaq Ahmad Mirza | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: A total of 120 broiler chicks were randomly selected and divided into six groups viz A, B, C, D, E and F, consisting of 20 birds each. At 4 week of age, A to E groups were experimentally infected with Salmonella pullorum inoculum. Group E (infected, non-medicated) and F (non-infected and non-medicated) were kept as control. The groups A, B, C and D were treated with Ampicillin 20%, Oxy-N-50, Chioricol10 and Trimodin forte, respectively, post infection. All the groups were kept under close observation to record signs and symptoms of disease, mortality, body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio. Gross lesions in visceral organs were also noted during this study. Some blood parameters (TEC, TLC and Hb content) were also estimated, pre and post infection. A mortality percentage in groups A, B, C and D were recorded as, 25%, 35%, 15% and 10%, respectively, while 70% mortality was recorded in control group F. According to this trial Trimodin forte (Trimethoprim Plus Sulphadiazine) . afforded maximum protection against infection and proved best in relation to weight gain and F.C.R. Chloricol-10 (Chioramphenicol) stood second in the list, while Ampicillin-20% (Ampicillin Trihydrate) was the third drug in furnishing protection against the infection. Whereas, Oxy-N-50 (Oxytetracycline plus neomycin sulphate) was the least effective drug in respect of protection against pullorum disease. The signs of ill health appeared 3 to 4 days post infection were listlessness, ruffled feathers, droopy wings, loss of appetite, poor growth, depression, increased thirst and severe diarrhoea of chalky white colour. The postmortem findings were enlarged and congested liver streaked with haemorrhages, 2-3 times enlarged spleen (spleenomegaly), enlarged heart and pericarditis, congested and distended kidneys, area of gray hepatization in lungs, thickened and inflammed intestinal walls and presence of necrotic foci in cardiac muscles, liver, spleen, lungs, caeca, large intestine and muscles of gizzard. The Total Erythrocytic count and Haemoglobin contents were decreased and Total Leukocytic Count, were increased 3 days post infection. The findings of the present study will further elucidate the disease and help in diagnosis and treatment of this malady on large scale. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0482,T] (1).

5. Comparative Evaluation Of Different Suture Materials With And Without The Usage Of Thomas Splint For The Repair Of Transversely Cut Tendo Achilles In The Dog

by Hassan Saqlain | Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad Younas | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Tendons are an important link In the locomotive system, the main physiological function of which is to transmit forces that produce characteristic mechanical responses. The tendon function is extremely important in movement. Injuries and disturbances in tendon are common, thus creating extreme difficulties in locomotion. The repair of tendons had always been an enigma in the past. However with the advancement of surgery, the repair of tendon has become possible and the patient return to a normal functioning life. The present study was launched on twelve mongrel dogs. The achilles tendon was cut surgically and then repaired with two different suture materials i.e. stainless steel and Nylon (No.1). Three groups were made i.e. group A, B and C. Group A for repair of the achilles tendon with stainless steel wire (gauge 24) alongwith a comparison of repair with and without a thomas splint. The group 'B' was repmred with Nylon suture material (No.1) as well as with the comparison of thomas splint application The group C served as a control group in which no suture material was used, however the effect of thomas splint was compared with and without its application. Of the twelve animals, four were put into each group. In every group, first the achilles tendon of the right hindlimb was repaired with and without thomas splint. After eight weeks healing, the tendo-achilles of the left hind limb was repaired with the same suture material with and without thomas splint. The wounds were smeared with furacin ointment. Antibiotics were administered 24 hours prior to surgery and continued for 5 days post-surgically. All the dogs were kept under observation for eight weeks postsurgically. however, the total project took 16 weeks. The tendons were tested for repair (healing) by examination, lameness tests, posteuthanasia finding and histopathological studies. The success rate of the tendons repaired with stainless steel sutures (guage 24) was 50% and with Nylon suture material (No. 1) 100%. The results clearly Indicated that the application of Nylon. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0516,T] (1).

6. Comparison Of Perfused And Non Perfused Jejunal Auto Transplants For Reconstruction Of Massive Abdominal

by Ghalia Qayyum | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. muhammad Younas | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Surgeons occasionally see patients who have malignant soft tissue tumors, loss of a part due to trauma or excessive debridement of the abdominal wall. Regardless of the etiology they represent challenging anatomical problems, both with respect to resection and especially to reconstruction. Many defects are unsightly and difficult to appose by the surrounding tissue. SuIeons in medical field as well as veterinarians have tried and reported many surgical corrections to these conditions. Twenty clinically healthy mongrel dogs of either sex were used for the experimental translocation of jejurial auto-grafts for the resurfacing of massive abdominal wall defects. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups of 10 animals each. Laparotomy was carried out by a vertical incision in right lateral recumbency. A portion of jejunum 12 cm long was selected and isolated from rest of the intestinal tract with its mesenteric blood supply intact. The continuity of the small bowel was restored by end-to-end anastomosis. The isolated segment of jejunum was then processed and cut open longitudinally along the antimesenteric border. After wards the open patch was cut into two equal pieces, perpendicular to the long axis and then sutured together parallel, so as to have even bigger surface area of the graft to cover a defect which was wider in width and could be repaired by single width of the intestine. In group I, both the parts of intestine sutured together retained their blood supply intact. In group II, one half of the transplant was rendered avascular. Using the previous incision site, a full thickness 6x6 cm, square shape defect was created in the abdominal wall. The jejunal patch was placed over the defect in the abdominal wall, with its mucosal surface apposing the external fascia. Simple interrupted sutures using chrornic cat gut No.2 were used to tailor the patch in such a way that normal contours of abdominal wall were reconstituted. A drain was placed at the site of operation and the subcutaneous tissue and skin were closed in a routine manner. In group-I there was no mortality and no herniation of the bowel occurred through the operative site. The graft was well tolerated by the animals as it was homologous. In group-TI the nonvascularised portion of the graft did not develop its new blood supply leading to its death and sloughing. Eventration took place on 6th day and the animals died, except one dog. It was concluded on the basis of this study that: 1. In group-I perfused pedicle grafts provided 100% resurfacing to the abdominal wall defects. 2. The mucosa of the bowel transplant under went degeneration. 3. The junctional histology of the graft revealed a thick layer of fibrous tissue indicating perfect union between the two portions of the graft. 4. A marked inflammatory reaction was also evident. 5. There was clear cut histological evidence of failure with loss of cellular integrity and no production of collagen fibers in the non perfused group. In a nut shell the chosen method of reconstruction was consistent with the hierarchy of treatment priorities, which makes survival paramount, followed by function, freedom from pain and acceptable appearances. Thus when there is no other way of saving the animals life other than surgical intervention, the satisfaction derived from such a successful, last resort operation is indeed a valuable encouragement to a young veterinary surgeon. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0527,T] (1).

7. Surveillance Of Disease Problems And Economic Losses In Commercial Broiler Farms In And Around Lahore

by Mudasser Jamil, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. M. Athar Khan | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The main objective of present work was to investigate the prevalence of various diseases and economic losses, resulting due to various factors among the commercial broiler farms in and around Lahore. For this purpose, oniy those farms were included, for the purpose of collection of data which had a capacity from 5000 to 2000 birds. A questionnaire was designed to collect the data from each farm that related to morbidity rates, mortality rates, vaccination, susceptible age, managemental fault, economic losses and cost analysis for various diseases. This study project was divided into two portions. During one year retrospective study (October 1996 to September, 1997) data was collected from 28 broiler farms. They had a total capacity of 118,000 birds and overall diseases mortality rate was 9.09%. Important diseases observed in this study were IBD (2.5%), 1-IPS (2.09%), earJ' chick mortality (1.85%) followed by colibacillosis (0.6%). Respire tory disease complex (0.5%), Ascites (0.47%), Coccidiosis (0.4%), Aspergillosis (0.314%) and N.D. (0.05%). Economic losses due to these diseases were calculated to be about 4.7% ed on 10 farms randomly selected out of 28 farms. Influence of season on disease was observed by Jividing a calender year into winter season (October 1996 to March 1997) and summer season (April 1997 to September 1997). Comparison of winter and summer season revealed that the incidence of IBD, Ascites, Respiratory disease complex and early chick mortality were higher in winter than summer, while incidence of hydropericardium coccidiosis and colihacillosis were higher in summer than winter. In second phase of this project, a prospective study was arraiied from January, 1998 to March, 1998 in 22 farms. During this study, 21700 birds were examined and overall 9.91% mortality rate was recorded. Important diseases observed in this prospective study were IBD (2.9%), ECM (2.25%), Respiratory disease complex (1.08%) and lIPS (1.11%) followed by colibacillosis (0.67%), ascites (0.51%), foul typhoid (0.14%), coccidiosis (0.37%), aspergillosis (0.29%), fowl cholera (0.16%) and N.D. (0.13%) n descending order. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0552,T] (1).

8. Comparative Efficacy Of Bone Plate And Plaster Cast For The Repair Of Mid Shaft Metacarpal Fracture In Equine

by Iftikhar Safdar Wahla, M | Dr. M. Arif Khan | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The fractures of long bone specially the metacarpal and metatarsal are quite common in race, polo as well as tonga horses. Mostly they appear as simple fracture as they do not involve the skin. These fractured cases are mostly euthanised due to lack of facilities and skills to handle such type of orthopedic problems. Different types of external fixation devices are used to immobilize such types of orthopedic ailments. But these methods cannot fulfill the requirements of an ideal union. In this project the internal method of fixation has been compared with the external method. The project was carried out 16 healthy donkeys divided into four groups of 4 animals each. In group A single plate, in group B double plates at right angle to each other and in group C plaster of paris were tried. Where as group D was considered as sham operated (control). The experiment animals kept over a period of 8 weeks postoperatively at Surgery Section of College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore and different parameters were studied to pick-up the best procedure for the repair of mid-shaft metacarpal fracture in equine. The analysis of the results clearly indicated that the use of double broad (dynamic compression plate) plates at right angle to each other has an edge over the single plate and plaster cast. However, the single plate can also provide successful results in certain cases, where the movement of the animals is restricted and kept under closed observations. The gypsona cast applied alone can not immobilize the fracture site as required for the ideal healing. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0591,T] (1).

9. Descriptive Epidemiology Of Bovine Subclinical Mastitis And Non-Functional Teats

by Zaheer Hussain | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The study was conducted to understand the prevalence of subclinical mastitis prevalence of non-functional teats and various factors associated with it, viz lactation age, lactation number, housing and hygiene. The economical losses due to subclinical mastitis and non-functional teats were also estimated. Four village Munianwala, Kot Lehnadas, Rossy and Damiranwala and two private farms located in Jattan Tha Warda and Wazirpur were selected on the basis of availability and non-availability of veterinary medical services. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was found to be 39.46% (58 affected cattle out of 147 lactating cattle) in cattle and 29.13% (162 affected buffaloes out of 556 lactating buffaloes) in buffaloes on animal basis and 12.79% (37 affected quarters out of 2791 quarters at risk) on quarter basis collectively in both species. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis was higher in hindquarters 60% than 40% in fore quarters. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was recorded, 32.21%, 27.73%, 21.84% and 18.20% in right hind, left hind, left front and right front quarters respectively from 220 affected animals. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was highest in 5th and 6th lactation animals, 36.23% in buffaloes and 42.85% in cattle followed by 3rd and 4th lactation animals 32.57% in buffaloes and 39.39% in cattle and 1st and 2nd lactation animals 24.50% in buffaloes and 39.34% in cattle. The lowest prevalence of subclinical mastitis was in group of animals which were in > 6th lactation. The highest prevalence of subclinical mastitis was observed in late stage of lactation in both buffaloes and cattle i.e. 33.65% and 56.09% respectively. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was found 27.71% in buffaloes and 31.57% in cattle in mid stage of lactation and 26.11% in buffaloes and 34.66% in cattle in early stage of lactation. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in animals with poor, fair and good hygienic status was found to be 50%, 30.58% and 19.62% respectively. The prevalence of non-functional teats was found to be 0.75% (21 non-functional teats out of 2812 quarters at risk) on quarter basis and 2.84% animals (n=20/703) had non-functional teats. The economical losses due to non-functional were estimated to be Rs.340 per lactating animal and Rs.929 per farmer per annum. Losses due to subclinical mastitis were estimated to be Rs.536 per lactating animal and Rs.1467 per farmer per annum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1175,T] (1).

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