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1. Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials On Cryptosporidium Parvum In Dairy Calves

by Amar Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian agent of diarrhoeal disease affecting many mammals, including dairy calves. Calves infected with this enteropathogen may either be asymptomatic or manifest mild to profuse diarrhoea and dehydration. Keeping in view the importance of Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy calves, the current study was conducted to find out the prevalence in dairy calves, in and around Lahore and also to find out the most effective therapeutic measure to control the infection. For this purpose, 500 faecal samples (n=250 cow calves, n=250 buffalo calves) from different dairy farms and home-bred dairy calves were collected and analyzed by using faecal floatation method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Overall, 25.6% Calves were shedding C. parvum with a slightly high infection rate in the cow calves 27.2% than buffalo calves 24%. The highest infection rate was recorded in 1-30 days age group of dairy calves as 50.81% and 42.02% in the cow calves and buffalo calves, respectively. The infection rate of C. parvunm in the dairy calves of cow breeds indicated relatively high infection rate in crossbred cow calves (28.18%) than the Sahiwal cow calves (20%) and Nih Ravi buffalo calves (24%). The pattern of oocyst shedding was negatively correlated with increase in age, highest in the 1-30 days age group and lowest in the age group ranging from 9 months to 1 year and above. Diarrhoeac calves were infected significantly higher than the nondiarrhoeac calves indicating a direct relationship of diarrhea with C. parvum infection. Diarrhoea was the highest contributing factor to infection in 1-30 days age group with 58.97% infection rate in both the cow calves and 48.88% in buffalo calves than the nondiarrhoeac calves of the same age group as 36.36% and 29.16%, respectively. The infection rate was not associated with the sex of the dairy calves and the infection rate was almost equal in both the sexes. The cumulative rate of infection was relatively high (30.28%) in the physically healthy calves than weak (21.5%) and emaciated (19%) calves. Milk suckling calves were infected almost two times more than the ones utilizing both milk and fodder and almost 7 times of the fodder eating calves. The calves kept on dirt yards were infected more (28%) than the ones on the paved floor (21 .11%). A significantly high infection rate was observed in the cow calves and buffalo calves having some sort of contact with birds, rodents, dogs and cats (31.3%) and (25.80%) respectively, than the calves having very little or no contact with birds, rodents, dogs and cats as 19.27% and 12.12% in cow calve and buffalo calves, respectively. The results of the comparative efficacy of a.zithromycin and cotrimoxazole and kalvangi showed that azithromycin was the most effective of the three in treatingcryptosporidial infection in dairy calves under field conditions. It resulted in significant reduction in the oocyst shedding and consequently, better weight gain compared with kalvangi and Cotrimoxazole. The efficacy of Kalvangi in weight gain compared with kalvangi and Cotrimoxazole. The efficacy of Kalvangi in weight gain may be due to its vitamins, enzymes and Nigellone and Thmoquinone acting as an immune system booster. The results of Azithromycin in the present study on the overall weight gain of calves was significantly higher than the other two drugs used in the study suggesting it as a drug of highest efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0985,T] (1).

2. Study Of Incidence Rate And Chemotherapy Of Balantidiasis In Donkeys

by Adnan Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Equines have been serving the mankind for many purposes since as early as the human history. In equines parasitic infection is a major problem. Factors such as continuous exposure to parasites, climatic conditions, and lack of knowledge on the part of livestock farmers regarding parasitic transmission play an important role in sustaining parasitic diseases. Balantidium coli causes a protozoal disease known as Balantidiasis. It is normally found in large intestine of pigs (wild and domestic) and also explained in camels, primates including human, rodents, and equines but distinctly found in dogs. Balantidiasis is manifested by diarrhea, dysentery, severe colic pain, tenesmus, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. Balantidium coli may act as opportunistic pathogen in other infectious diseases. There is considerable information on B. coli in cattle and buffalo raising communities in the world. Investigations on Balantidium coli have not been conducted actively in the study area where equine rearing is one of the major occupations. This study will therefore is expected to serve as base line data for further work on this parasite. The faecal samples of 400 donkeys irrespective of age and sex reared in and around Lahore were examined coprologically out of which 73 were found positive for Balantidium coli yielding the incidence rate of 18.25%. Chemotherapeutic trials of Secnidazole and Nigella sativa were performed on a group of 10 donkeys each (Group A & B) along with keeping 10 donkeys as positive & 10 donkeys as negative control (Group C & D). The animals of group A were treated with secnidazole (Dysen forte) at a dose rate of 10mg/kg orally for one day. The group A Showed the efficacy of 89.51% at day 14th (post treatment). The animals of group B were treated with Nigella sativa (Kalonji) at a dose rate of 200 mg/kg body weight orally for five days. This group showed the efficacy of 40.02% at day 14th after medication. Similarly the effect of B. coli on various blood parameters (Hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) was studied in these animals. At day zero (pre-medication), the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.61 + 0.076, 10.61 + 0.13, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.47 + 0.27, 31.48 + 0.22, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day 14th after medication the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.79 + 0.094, 10.69 + 0.126, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.79 + 0.16, 31.64 + 0.13, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day zero (pre-medication), the hemoglobin and pack cell volume values of groups A, B and C were below the normal (Hb = 11.0 - 11.6 g/dl, PCV (%) = 32 - 33) while of group D were approximately normal. On day 14th (post-medication), there was increase in Hb and PCV values of groups A and B. The Hb and PCV values of group C and D were not changed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1307,T] (1).

3. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Bovine Coccidiosis In River Region

by Muhammad Shoaib Jahanzaib | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Bovine coccidiosis-is an infectious-disease affecting cattle and buffaloes resulting in great economic losses to the beef and dairy sector all over the world. Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease and usually associated with poor growth, bloody diarrhea and sometimes death of young animals. As bovine coccidiosis is commonly found in cattle and buffaloes, therefore it severely affects the production of milk and beef in Pakistan. 500 fecal samples-were collected (250 from-cattle and 250 from buffaloes) randomly to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in River Ravi Region Lahore. Overall prevalence of coccidiosis was recorded 57.2 % and 58.8 % in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Slightly high prevalence was found in female animals. Highest prevalence (66.66% and 70.31%) was observed in animals below 6 months of age, while lowest (44.87% and 48.91%) prevalence was found in animals above 1 year of age in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. The study further revealed that highest prevalence occurs in August, followed by September and October while lowest prevalence was observed in July. The infection rate was a little high in crossbred (59.26 %) and Sahiwal cattle (57.89 %) as compare to imported breeds. Seven Eimeria species were identified from fecal-samples of cattle while Six species were identified from buffaloes, where E.bovis and E.zurnii were found most prevalent among them. Coccidiosis was prevalent significantly higher (P < 0.05)-in animals housed in confined-and dirt yard (72.13 % in cattle, 74.13 % in buffaloes) as compare to animals housed on paved (58.49 % in cattle, 61.22 % in buffaloes) and those having outdoor access. Coccidiosis was most prevalent in stall fed (71.64% and 73.68 %) as compare to grazing (28.58% and 31.91%) cattle and buffaloes. Highest (73.07 % and 72 %) prevalence was found in animals with Poor body condition (score-1), while animals with body condition score 3 (Good) were found with lowest prevalence (37.5% and 47.76%). Highest (82.35 % and 84.21 %) prevalence was found in diarrheic while lowest (36.19 % and 42.85%) prevalence was observed in animals with normal fecal score (1) both in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against coccidiosis in buffalo calves was also determined in current study. Non-significant difference-(P > 0.05)-was observed-in percentage efficacy of all three anticoccidial drugs at day 28 onward, i.e. 100 % for Amprolium (Amprovil), 99 % for Furazolidone (Furasym) and 99 % for Trimethoprim+Sulphadiazine (Trisym). All the three drugs showed satisfactory results against coccidiosis in buffalo calves and no toxic effects were found during and after treatment. The current study also determined the effects of coccidiosis on various blood parameters of buffalo calves. A significant reduction in Total Erythrocytic Count (TEC), Hemoglobin concentration, PCV, MCH, MCHC and statistically significant increase-(P < 0.05) in TLC, DLC (except Lymphocytes) and MCV was observed in infected animals. Also a statistically significant difference-(P<0.05)-was observed in mean hematological-values of infected not-treated and treated animals at day 28, where treated groups showed an improvement to the normal values. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1566,T] (1).

4. Prevalence And Molecular Diagnosis Of Staphylococcus Aureus Subclinical Mastitis Innili Ravi Buffaloes At Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara.

by Muhammad Altaf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1484,T] (1).

5. Prevalence And Molecular Genetic Characterization Of Different Isolates Of Hydatid Cyst In Ruminants In Okara

by Ali Abbas | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Cystic hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution. Echinococcusis cause great economic loses in Pakistan and lead to the loss of worth 276.20$ per 100 sheep and goats, as well as 165.72$ per 100 infected buffaloes, cattle and camels. It has zoonotic importance and also have well-recognized zoonosis in Pakistan and numerous cases have been reported in the medical literature. Cystic hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, (E. granulosus), tapeworms. Adult tapeworms of this specie are small in size. Their measurement revealed that they reach upto 2-11 mm in length and contain protoscolex, the cephalic end for attchment and 2-5 proglottids segments. Two rows of keratinized hooks and four number of suckers are present on scolex. The last gravid proglottids segments bear the large number of fertilized eggs, which are shed after every 7-14 days. Eggs are oval in shape, having clearly distinct oncophore and 30-36 micrometer in diameter. There are several different strains of E. granulosus, which are genetically distinct. These strains vary phenotypically and therefore, this feature can be used for the control of this parasite. 10 genotypes of E. granulosus are identified up till now. Therefore, in this study we used PCR technique for prevalence determination and molecular characterization of specific strain of E. granulosus. The primers specific for E. granulosus were used in this study. The E.g.ss1for (5¡Ç-GTA TTT TGT AAA GTT GTT CTA-3¡Ç) worked as forward primer, while E.g.ss1rev (5¡Ç-CTA AAT CAC ATC ATC TTA CAA T-3¡Ç) worked as reverse primer. For this purpose, total 200 numbers of cyst samples (100 from each district) were collected from liver and lungs of cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep slaughtered at different private and public abattoirs in Okara and Jhang. An antimortem examination was performed on each animal LIV and data regarding each animal entered in data capturing form before slaughter. Whole cyst sample was collected without rupturing and preserved in ice packs. Then these isolates were transferred to laboratory and stored at -20 ¢ªC for further processing. For the genetic analysis of E. granuous (Hydatid cyst) DNA was extracted from germinal layer and cystic fluid by using DNA extraction reagent (TRIREAGENT¢ç, Molecular Research Center, Ohio, USA) according to the manufacturer.s instructions. PCR was carried out by using primers specific for G1 strain of E. granulosus. The whole three steps (Denaturation, Anealing, Amplification) of PCR was carried out in PCR thermo cycler under conditions specific for E. granulosus. The final PCR product was electrophoresed in a 1% agarose gel containing 0.5 ug/ml of ethedium bromide. Electrophoresis was completed by applying 90 volts for 40 min. After required time, gel was placed in UV trans-illuminator to visualize the band shown by specific genotype of E. granulosus. Specific bands at 254 bp confirmed the G1 strain of E. granulosus. Results indicated the prevalence of 37% in Okara and 65% in Jhang district of Punjab. While in cattle (58.00%), buffalo (76.00%), sheep (36.00%) and goats (34.00%) prevalence was observed. As well as, (44.7%) prevalence of E. granulosus was calculated in liver and (54.8%) was observed in lungs in both districts. So, this study predicted the prevalence of hydatid cystic disease in ruminants in Okara and Jhang. PCR technique was used for the diagnosis of hydatid cyst in animals. This molecular characterization technique enables us to know the specific strain of E. granulous existing in these two districts. Finally the data gathered from this study help to understand the disease structure and to develop future plan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1681,T] (1).

6. Effects Of Chemoimmunotherapy On Recovery Of Brucellosis In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Hasisem -ur- Rehman | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2115,T] (1).

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